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Full text of "Zoologist: a monthly journal of natural history"






THE ZOOLOGIST: ' y 

u 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL 



NATURAL HISTORY, 



FOURTH SERIES.— VOL. XII. 



EDITED BY 



W. L. DISTANT. 



LONDON : 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & CO., Ltd. 

19 08. 



2,o4-*4l 



-<■ 






PREFACE. 



The present volume of ' The Zoologist ' forms the sixty- 
sixth since its foundation in 1843. This denotes a remarkable 
longevity, and its pages still exhibit no sign of senility ; much 
ealthy competition has taken place during these long years — 
^Irnals on similar lines have appeared and disappeared, but 
for sixty-six years ' The Zoologist ' has never failed in the 
regularity of its monthly publication. By the death of John 
William Douglas in 1905 the last of the contributors to its first 
volume passed away, but in the long series of volumes scarcely 
the name of an English zoologist is missing among its con- 
tributors. Unfortunately no obituary notice has appeared of 
very many who have written in its pages ; were it otherwise, 
we should possess a very valuable material in the biographical 
coil-call of British naturalists. This melancholy information 
is frequently unknown to the Editor till long after the event, 
and he would earnestly ask the contributors to apprise him 
af such occurrences and to supply, if possible, the necessary 
facts. It affords material of considerable literary value, and 
on many grounds is to be greatly desiderated. 

The most cursory perusal of these, or any of these, sixty- 
six volumes gives no uncertain indication of the prevalent 
3tudies of British naturalists. Ornithology undoubtedly holds 
the first place, and the love of birds is only equalled by that of 
•nsects, though the former naturally is, and always will be, the 
prominent feature of ' The Zoologist,' entomology having so 



IV PREFACE. 



many of its own special publications. Mammals and Fishes in 
the order named come next in popularity ; after these Eeptiles 
and Crustacea ; the other Orders are treated in a more sporadic 
manner. If this is the evidence of ' The Zoologist ' to the 
present date we may well speculate on the conclusions that may 
be drawn when another sixty-six volumes are completed. The 
trend in zoological study over a given period is an important 
factor in the estimation of biological speculation, and the 
breath of philosophical theories as regards animal life during 
different generations or individual life epochs. We must often 
considerably value a theory cr conclusion by the personal 
equation, by the knowledge and personal and mental attitude 
of its promoter, as well as by the zoological standpoint of his 
day. ' The Zoologist ' reflects the latter over a considerable 
number of years. 




CONTENTS 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Adams, Lionel E., B.A. 

Swarms of insects, &c, in the 
Crimea, 9 ; Notes on the Hairy 
Armadillo, 342 

Alexander, H. G. 

Note on the Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker, 228 

Aplin, 0. V., F.L.S., M.B.O.U. 
American Wood-Duck in Oxford- 
shire, 38 ; Hoopoe in North- 
amptonshire, 312; Notes on 
the Ornithology of Oxfordshire 
(1907), 326 ; Early flocks of Star- 
lings, 350 ; Notes on the Tuco- 
Tuco and the Hairy Armadillo, 
392 ; September movement of 
Shearwaters, 396 ; Late breed- 
ing of, and retention of summer 
dress by, the Great Crested 
Grebe, 407 • 

Aenold, E. C. 

Barred Warbler in Norfolk, 393 ; 
Aquatic Warbler near East- 
bourne, 467 

Arnold, Frank A. 
An early flock of Starlings, 312 ; 
Sandwich Tern on Breydon, 
Yarmouth, 351 ; Sabine's Gull 
on Breydon, 352 ; Bird-notes 
from Yarmouth, 352 

Arundel, Walter B. 

Gregarian occurrence of the Water- 
Shrew in Yorkshire, 189 

Atlee, H. G. 

Ornithological notes, 313 ; Notes 
on the ornithology of Richmond 
Park, Surrey, 432 

Bagnall, Richard S., F.E.S. 

On Armadillidium album, Doll- 
fus, a rare AVoodlouse new to 
the Fauna of Great Britain, 
152 

Bedford, Mary Duchess of 

American Wood -Duck in Oxford- 
shire, 73 



Benson, Rev. Charles W., LL.D. 
The Great Black Woodpecker 
190 
Bentham, C. H. 

Prolific breeding of the Dabchick, 
and late nesting of the Great 
Crested Grebe, 351 
Bergroth, E., C.M.Z.S. 

Additions and corrections to the 
' Index Zoologicus ' of C. O. 
Waterhouse, 252 
Blathwayt, Rev. F. L. 

Wild Ducks near Lincoln City, 
33; Wildfowl in Somerset, 73, 
114 ; Honey-Buzzards in Lin- 
colnshire, 428 ; Notes on Heron- 
ries, 450 ; Rough-legged Buzzard 
in Lincolnshire, 469 
Booth, H. B. 

September movements of Shear- 
waters, 429 ; Old local bird- 
names, 430, 470 
Briggs, T. H. 

Alpine Swift at Lynmouth, North 
Devon, 269 
Bunting, R. H. 

Notes on the mammals of the 
Channel Islands, 461 
Bunyard, Percy F. 

Eggs of Red-backed Shrike, 30 
Butterfield, E. P. 

Tits feeding on maize, 155 ; Notes 
on the Pied Flycatcher, 222 ; 
Cuckoo's eggs, 270 ; Birds which 
do not usually perch, 272 ; Fe- 
cundity of the Chaffinch, 428 
Buxton, P. A. 

Common Shrew in Skye, 189 
Care, J. W. 

The Smooth Snake in Devonshire, 

34 

Clark, James, M.A., D.Sc. A.R.C.S. 

An annotated list of Cornish fishes, 

13 ; Notes on Cornish mammals, 

409 

6 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Clark, J. A. 

Peregrine Falcon in Norfolk, 191 ; 
Ortolan Bunting at Plaistow, 
Essex, 269 
Cleave, H. P. 0. 
Peregrine Falcons and Buzzards in 
Cornwall, 270 
Cocks, Alfred Heneage, M.A., 
F.S.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Ptarmigan reported from Trondh- 
jem, Norway, 113 ; Cornish 
mammals, 466 
Collier, W. Payne 

Notes on the Otter, 92 
Corbin, G. B. 

Bough-legged Buzzard in Hants, 
155 ; Notes from South-west 
Hants, 156 
Cummings, Bruce F. 
Captures and field report for North 
Devon for 1907, 97 ; Speculations 
on the origin and development 
of the parental instinct in birds, 
241 
Cummings, S. G. 

Bean-Geese on the Dee marshes, 
72 
Dalgliesh, Gordon 

Variety of Wigeon, 156 ; The mam- 
mals of Surrey, 178; Notes on 
the Epherneriche, 456 ; Golden- 
eye in Somersetshire, 469 ; Re- 
tention of summer dress by Great 
Crested Grebe, 469 
Dewar, J. M. 

Notes on the Oystercatcher, with 
reference to its habit of feeding 
upon the Mussel, 201 
Distant, W. L. 

Curious habit of a Chelifer, 77; 
Obituary notice of John Thomas 
Carrington, 160 ; Rhynchota and 
their parasites in South Africa, 
194 
Donisthorpe, Horace St. John K., 
F.Z.S. 
A few notes on Myrmecophilous 
Spiders, 419 
Dunlop, G. A. 

Occurrence of the Grey Seal in the 
Mersey, 268 
Dye, B. 

Little Auk captured alive near 
Yarmouth, 114 ; Spotted Crake 
at Yarmouth, 429 ; Honey-Buz- 
zard in Suffolk and Norfolk, 
468 



Elliott, J. Steele 
Nesting of the Wryneck, 393 ; 
Nesting of the Kingfisher, 394 
Evans, William 

The "drumming" of the Snipe, 271 
Fenwick, N. P., Jun. 

Glossy Ibis in North Devon, 393 
Flower, Capt. Stanley S. 

Prices of animals (1896-1908), 281 
Forrest, H. E. 

The Marten in England and Wales, 
1 ; A correction (' Vertebrate 
Fauna of North Wales'), 77; 
Common Newt in Carnarvon- 
shire, 159 ; Vertebrates of Wales 
and Ireland, 321, — Corrigenda 
et Addenda, 454 
Fowler, W. Warde, M.A. 

Notes at Avignon (April 2nd-llth, 
1908), 174; The Songs of Chiff- 
chaff and Willow-Wren, 226 
Gill, E. Leonard 

Glossy Ibis on the Northumber- 
land coast, 394 
Green, E. Ernest 

Curious habits of Chelifers, 159 
Gurney, J. H., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Ornithological Report for Norfolk 
(1907), 121; Erratum, 314 
Gyngell, Walter 

Fecundity of the Chaffinch, 467 
Head, Charles D. 

Honey-Buzzard in North Wales, 
156 
Hearder, William 

Sea-Mouse near Plymouth, 470 
Heatherley, Francis, F.R.C.S. 
A visit to the Ternery at Wells-by- 
the-Sea, 361 
Hepburn, Thomas 

The birds of North Kent — autumn 
passengers, 106 
Herman, Otto 

Ringed birds, 352 
Hope, Linkeus E. 

" Notes from Lakeland (Cumber- 
land and Westmorland)," 192 
Huxley, J. S. 

Mimicking song of Chiffchaff, 268 
Ingram, Collingwood 
Variety of Great Titmouse, 113 ; 
Some rare Kentish birds, 272 ; 
Montagu's Harrier in Surrey, 
308 
Kelsall, J. E. 
Mimicking song of the Chiffchaff, 
227 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



Kerr, Graham W. 

The birds of the district of Staines, 
• 137 
Kirby, W. P., F.L.S., &c. 

Introduced Orthoptera, 116, 195 ; 
On the longevity of British ento- 
mologists, 216 ; Obituary notice 
of Charles William Bingham, 
465 
Leiper, Bobert T., M.B., F.Z.S., &c. 
Some generic names that have been 
omitted from recent zoological 
indices, 390 
Lloyd, J. P. 

The Jumping Bean, 353 
Lodge, B. B. 

Experiences with Eagles and Vul- 
tures in the Carpathians, 401 
Mackeith, T. Thornton 
Distinct types in eggs, 74 ; Notes 
on the birds of West Benfrew- 
shire (Caldwell District), 1907, 
230 
Malloch, W. & T. 

Fulmar Petrel in the Firth of 
Forth, 396 
Marley, H. W. Bell 

Bhynchota and their parasites in 
South Africa, 193 
McClymont, J. B. 
The Penguins and the Seals of the 
Angra de Sam Bras, 213 
McIntosh, Professor, M.D., LL.D., 
F.B.SS. L.&E. 
On the perforations of marine ani- 
mals, 41 
Meade-Waldo, Geoffrey, B.A., 
F.E.S. 
Notes and observations made dur- 
ing a cruise to the East on board 
the 'Valhalla' B.Y.S. (1907- 
1908), 261 
Meyrick, Lieut.-Col. H. 

Mimicking song of Chiffchaff, 190 ; 
Lesser Bedpoll nesting in Mid- 
dlesex, 227 
Morris, Bobert 

Nesting of the Lesser Bedpoll in 
Sussex, 350 
Nelson, T. H. 
Pallas's Sand- Grouse in Yorkshire, 
312 
Newstead, Alfred 

Ornithological records from Ches- 
ter and North Wales, 73 
Oldham, Charles, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Field-notes on the birds of the 



Bavenglass Gullery, 161 ; Bar- 
bastelle Bat in Hertfordshire. 
391 
Parker, T. C. 

"Notes from Lakeland (Cumber- 
land and Westmorland, 1905)," 
144, 185 
Parkin, W. H. 

Notes from Shipley District, 234 
Patterson, Arthur H., A.M.B.A. 
Black Sea-Bream at Yarmouth, 
115 ; Lesser Forkbeard at Yar- 
mouth, 115 ; Double Flounder at 
Yarmouth, 353 ; Incursion of 
Godwits at Yarmouth, 395 ; The 
Badger in Norfolk, 426 ; Abun- 
dance of Crane-flies at Yar- 
mouth, 434 ; Some fish-notes 
from Yarmouth for 1908, 441 
Perlmann, S. M. 

Is the Okapi identical with the 
" Thahash " of the Jews ?, 256 
Bamsbotham, B. H. 

Otters destroying Moorhens, 226 ; 
Irregular appearance of Black- 
bird, 312 
Benshaw, Graham, M.B., F.Z.S. 

The prices of animals, 370 
Bobinson, H. W. 

Great Northern Diver and Eared 
Grebe, 228 ; Wrynecks in North 
Lancashire, 428 
Eope, G. T. 
White Water Vole in Suffolk, 
190 

BUMBELOW, B. E. 

Note on the proboscis or tongue of 
Sphinx ligustri, 435 
Selous, Edmund 

Some notes on a habit of the Great 
Spotted Woodpecker in relation 
to a similar but more developed 
habit in the Californian Wood- 
pecker, 81 ; Sexual selection in 
birds, 191 ; Some observations 
on butterflies and hornets (made 
in France), 333 
Serle, Bev. William, M.B.O.U. 
Birds of the Graakallen Mountain, 
Norwaj', 64 
Sim, George 

Glossy Ibis in Aberdeenshire, 113 
Sinel, J. 
A list of Channel Islands mam- 
mals, 463 
Smith, Sydney H. 
Great Grey Shrike near York, 32 

62 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Southwell, Thomas, F.Z.S. 

Notes on the Arctic Whaling Voy- 
age of 1907, 61 ; Newfoundland 
Sealing (1907). 151 
Swinton, A. H. 

The vocal and instrumental music 
of insects, 376 
Thorpe, D. Losh 

" Notes from Lakeland (Cumber- 
land and Westmorland)," 192 
Tuck, Eev. Julian G., M.A. 

Domestication of the Jackdaw, 
72 ; Effect of recent late snow 
on bird-life, 192 ; Notes on nest- 
boxes, S13 ; Red-footed Falcon 
in Norfolk, 394 
Turner, E. E. 

Curious habits of Chelifers, 193 
Walton, J. S. S. 

The Smew in Northumberland, 
73 
Warren, Egbert 

Some ornithological notes from 
Mayo and Sligo, 75, 229; Pied 



Flycatcher in Ireland, 269 ; Un- 
usual site for a Great Black- 
backed Gull's nest, 396, 432 ; 
"Vertebrates of Wales and Ire- 
land" — correction, 397; Migra- 
tion of small birds in Co. Sligo, 
431 
Wasmann, Eric, S.J. 

On the evolution of Dinarda, a 
genus of Coleoptera, 68 
Whistler, Hugh 

Rough notes in East Sussex (1908), 
345 
Whitaker, J. 

Short-eared Owls nesting at Rain- 
worth, 467 ; Interesting Ducks 
in Notts, 469 
Williams, W. J. 

Richard's Pipit in Ireland, 32 ; 
Ospreys in Co. Sligo, 33 ; Night- 
Heron in Ireland, 33 
Witherby, H. F. 

Wood-Pigeon diphtheria, 76 



Species New to the British Fauna described in this Volume : — 
Armadillidium album, Dollfus .... page 152. 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUBJECTS. 



Acanthias vulgaris, 25 
Acanthiza chrysorrhcea, 37 
Accentor modularis, 66 
Acherontia lachesis, 264 
Acipenser sturio, 28 
Acridium segyptium, 116 
Acrocephalus aquaticus, 467 ; palus- 

tris, 137 
iEgialitis cantiaca, 111 ; hiaticola, 

107, 141, 164, 352 
Ms. galericulata, 73 ; sponsa, 33, 73, 

158 
Africa — Rhynchota and their para- 
sites, 193 ; Penguins and Seals, 

213 ; Chelifer, 77, 159, 193 
Agrianome gemella, 193 
Alario alario, 197 
Alauda arvensis, 164 
Alcedo ispida, 894 
Alcippe larnpas, 45 
Alopecias vulpes, 24, 104 
Alytes obstetricans, 247 
Arnmodytes lanceolatus, 14; to.bi- 

anus, 14 
Arninopbila sabulosa, 385 
Anarrhichas lupus, 443 
Anas albifrans, 157 ; boscas, 67, 156, 

246 ; brachyrhynclius, 157 
Anguilla vulgaris, 22 
Animals, prices of, 281, 370 ; marine, 

perforations of, 41 
Anomia ephippium, 42 
Anoplocnemis curvipes (fig.), 194 
Anser brachyrhynclius, 72 ; segetum, 

72 
Anthus pratensis, 66, 164 ; richardi, 

32; trivialis, 31, 66 
Ants from a social and theosophical 

standpoint, Mr. W. F. Kirby on, 38 
Aphrodite aculeata, 470 
Apodemus sylvaticus, 462, 463 
Aquila chrysaetus, 405; imperialis, 

402; maculata, 131 
Arctic Whaling Voyage of 1907, notes 

on, 61 
Ardea alba, 471 ; cinerea, 108, 352 
Ardetta rninuta, 157 
Armadillidium album, 152 ; nasatum, 

154 
Armadillo, Hairy, notes on, 342, 392 
Arvicola amphibius, 190 



Asio accipitrinus, 467 

Athene noctua, 113 

Atherina presbyter, 14 

Auk, Little, captured alive near Yar- 
mouth, 114; taken near Yarmouth 
in 1902, 131,— fig., 133 

Avignon, notes at, 174 

Bacillus diptheriae columbarum, 76 

Badger in Norfolk, 426 

Balsenoptera musculus, 98 

Barbastella barbastellus,391, 411,464 

Bat, Barbastelle, in Hertfordshire, 
391, — at Jersey, 464 ; Great Horse- 
shoe, 464 

Batrachians of Wales and Ireland, 
323, 454 

Bean, Jumping, 353 

Beberia, 58 

Belenois taprobana, 262 

Belone vulgaris, 14 

Bernicla nigricans, 124 

Bird-names, some old local, 431, 470 

Birds of Graakallen Mountain, Nor- 
way, 64,— North Kent, 106,— 
Staines district, 137, — Ravenglass 
Gullery, 161— Ternery at Wells- 
by-the-Sea, 361 ; migration of, 
106, 122, 129, 130, 429, 431,— still 
a mystery, 106 ; sharing same 

, nest, 143 ; sexual selection in, 191 ; 
parental instinct in, 241 ; some 
rare Kentish, 272 ; which do not 
usually perch, 272 ; seen during a 
cruise to the East, 262 ; ringed, 
352; British, feeding habits of, 
356 ; Shore, migratory movements 
of, 360 

Blackbird at Avignon, 174 ; irregular 
appearance of, 312 

Blackcap at Avignon, 174, 176 

Blattidse, 116 

Blennius pholis, 104 

Bornbus terrestris, 386 

Bonellia, 44 

Books Noticed : — 

Final Natural History Essays, by 

Graham Renshaw, 35 
How to Sex Cage-Birds, British 
and Foreign, by A. G. Butler, 
86 



CONTENTS. 



The Useful Birds of Southern 
Australia, with Notes on other 
Birds, by Robert Hall, 37 

The Vertebrate Fauna of North 
Wales, by H. E. Forrest, 78 

Birds of Britain, by J. Lewis 
Bouhote, 79 

Guide to the Specimens of the 
Horse Family (Equidse) ex- 
hibited in the Department of 
Zoology, British Museum (Natu- 
ral History), 80 

Records of the Indian Museum (a 
Journal of Indian Zoology), 80 

A Monograph of the British Anne- 
lids— Polychajta (Vol. II., pt. 1), 
Nephthydidas to Syllidae, by 
William Carmichael Mcintosh, 
117 

The Work of John Samuel Bud- 
gett, Balfour Student of the 
University of Cambridge, edited 
by J. Graham Kerr, 118 

A Guide to the Study of Australian 
Butterflies, by W. J. Rainbow, 
119 

Three Voyages of a Naturalist, by 
M. J. Nicoll, 195 

The Moths of the British Isles, by 
Richard South, 196 

Sketches of South African Bird- 
Life, by Alwin Haagner, 197 

Ornamental Waterfowl, a Practical 
Manual on the Acclimatization 
of the Swimming Birds, by Hon. 
Rose Hubbard, 198 

African Natui-e Notes and Reminis- 
cences, by Frederick Courtney 
Selous, 235 

A Guide to the Elephants (Recent 
and Fossil) exhibited in the De- 
partment of Geology and Palae- 
ontology in the British Museum 
(Natural History), 236 

A Guide to the Gallery of Fishes 
in the Department of Zoology 
in the British Museum (Natural 
History), 237 

The Senses of Insects, by Auguste 
Forel, 273 

Animal Life, by F. W. Gamble, 
274 

From Ruwenzori to the Congo, 
a Naturalist's Journey across 
Africa, by A. F. R. Wollaston, 
398 

How to Attract and Protect Wild 
Birds, by Martin Hiesemann, 



translated by Emma S. Buch- 
heim, 399 
Conditions of Life in the Sea — a 
Short Account of Quantitative 
Marine Biological Research, by 
James Johnstone, 436 
Through Southern Mexico, being 
an Account of the Travels of 
a Naturalist, by Hans Gadow, 
437 
The Origin of Vertebrates, by 

Walter Holbrook Gaskell, 439 
Bird-Hunting through Wild Eu- 
rope, by R. B. Lodge, 470 
Experimental Zoology, Part I. 
Embryogeny, by Hans Przi- 
bram, 472 
Botaurus stellaris, 73 
Brambling in Norway, 66 
Branchiostomma lanceolata, 29 
Breeding of Teal in North Devon, 
100, — Marsh-Warbler in Surrey, 
137, — Pochard in Berkshire, 139 ; 
prolific, of Dabchick, 351 ; habits 
of Black-headed Gull, 164, — Sand- 
wich Tern, 166, 230,— Common 
Tern, 169, 361, 368, — Lesser 
Tern, 172, 363, 367, — Night- 
ingale, 328, — Ringed Plover, 365, 
369,— Redshank, 366, 368 ; late, of 
Great Crested Grebe, 407 
British Association in Dublin (1908), 

120, 354 
Buceros bicornis, 191 
Bufo viridis, 11 

Bullfinch, Northern, in Norway, 66 
Bunting, Ortolan, at Plaistow, 269 ; 
Reed, at Avignon, 174 ; Yellow- 
breasted, near Wells, Norfolk, 129 
Bustard, Little, 272 
Buteo lagopus, 155, 469 ; vulgaris, 67 
Butterflies, swarms of, in the Crimea 

and at sea, 11 ; at Avignon, 177 
Butterflies and Hornets, some ob- 
servations on (made in France), 
333 
Buzzard, 146 ; in Norway, 67, — 
Cornwall, 270 ; Honey, in North 
Wales, 156, — Lincolnshire, 428, — 
Suffolk and Norfolk, 468; Rough- 
legged, in Hants, 155, — Lincoln- 
shire, 469 

Caddis larvae and water-lilies, 319 
Calidris arenaria, 102 
Canis vulpes, 181, 464 
Cantharus lineatus, 115, 442 
Capercaillie in Norway, 67 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



Caraux trachurus, 104 
Carcharias glaucus, 23 
Carpathians, experiences with Eagles 

and Vultures in, 401 
Carpoeapsa saltitans, 354 
Cathemus lanatus, 384 
Cellepora, 43 
Centrina salviani, 26 
Cerianthus, 43 
Chaerocarnpa celerio, 265 ; theylia, 

262 
Chaffinch in Norway, 66 ; fecundity 

of, 428, 467 
Channel Islands, mammals of, 461 
Charles Darwin and Alfred Eussel 

Wallace, fiftieth anniversary of the 

famous joint communication by, 

275 
Chelifer, curious habits of, 77, 159, 

193,— figs., 77, 160; equester, 78 
Chelura pontica, 46 ; terebrans, 46 
Chiffchaff, mimicking song of, 190, 

226, 227, 230, 268, 313 ; at Avignon, 

176 
Chrysomitris spinus, 66, 73 
Chrysops ccecutiens, 388 
Chrysotoxum arcuatum, 388 
Chub, voracity of, 40 
Cicada orni, 377, 379 ; plebeja, 378, 

379 
Cicadatra atra, 382 
Cicadetta montana, 376 (hsematodes), 

377 
Cicadidae, 382 
Ciorrhina oxycathae, 388 
Circus cineraceus, 308 ; cyaneus, 272, 

308 
Cirolana borealis, 444 
Clangula glaucion, 139, 469 
Cliona, 41 

Clceon dipterum, 457 
Clupea alosa, 22; finta, 22; haren- 

gus, 19, 243 ; pilchardus, 21 ; 

sprattus, 20 
Cod-fish, Bull-dog (fig.), 446; de- 
formed, 443, 444 (fig.) 
Collembola, some Arctic and Ant- 
arctic, Prof. George H. Carpenter 

on, 359 
Columba cenas, 164 
Colymbus arcticus, 228 ; glacialis, 

142, 228 ; septentrionalis, 73 
Conger vulgaris, 22 
Copiophora brevicornis, 117 
Coronella austriaca, 34 
Corvus cornix, 67, 138; frugilegus, 

164 ; monedula, 164 ; splendens, 

263 



County Records : — 

Berkshire — Pochard, 139 

Cheshire — Bean-Goose, 72 ; Orni- 
thological notes, 73 

Comivall — Cornish fishes, 13 ; 
Peregrine Falcon, 270; Buzzard, 
270; Cornish mammals, 409, 466 

Cumberland — Notes, 144, 185, 192 ; 
Ravenglass Gullery, 161 

Devonshire — Smooth Snake, 34 ; 
Mammals, 97 ; Birds, 99 ; Fishes, 
103 ; Armadillidium album, a 
rare Woodlouse, 152 ; Alpine 
Swift, 269; Glossy Ibis, 395; 
Sea-Mouse, 470 

Essex — Ortolan Bunting, 269 

Gloucestershire — Great Titmouse, 
113 ; Manx Shearwater, 397 

Hampshire — Bough-legged Buz- 
zard, 155 ; Ornithological notes, 
156 ; Chiffchaff, 227 

Hertfordshire — Barbastelle Bat, 
391 

Kent — North, birds of, 106 ; some 
rare Kentish birds, 272 

Lancashire — Grey Seal in Mersey, 
268; Cuckoo, 270; Blackbird, 
312 ; Wryneck, 428 

Lincolnshire — Wild Ducks, 33 ; 
Honey-Buzzard, 428 ; Heronries, 
450 ; Rough-legged Buzzard, 469 

Middlesex — Birds of Staines, 137, 
228 ; Chiffchaff, 190 ; Lesser Red- 
poll, 227 ; Marsh-Warbler, 137 

Norfolk— Little Auk, 114; Black 
Sea-Bream, 115 ; Lesser Fork- 
beard, 115 ; Ornithological Re- 
port (1907), 121, 314 ; Bird 
varieties (plumage), 135; Pere- 
grine Falcon, 191 ; Sandwich 
Tern, 351 ; Sabine's Gull, 352 ; 
Ornithological notes, 352 ; Double 
Flounder, 353 ; Barred Warbler, 
393; Red-footed Falcon, 394; 
Godwit, 395 ; Visit to Ternery at 
Wells-by-the-Sea, 361 ; Badger, 
426 ; Spotted Crake, 429 ; Crane- 
fly, 434 ; Fish-notes from Yar- 
mouth, 441 ; Bull-dog Cod-fish, 
444, 446; Smelt, 446; Honey- 
Buzzard, 468 

Northamptonshire — Hoopoe, 312 ; 
Great Crested Grebe, 407 

Northumberland — Smew, 73 ; 
Glossy Ibis, 394 

Nottinghamshire — Manx Shear- 
water, 397 ; Short-eared Owl, 
467 ; Interesting Ducks, 469 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 



Oxfordshire — American Wood- 
Duck, 33, 73 ; Chiffchaff and 
Willow-Wren, 226; Ornithology 
of, 326; Starling, 350; Manx 
Shearwater, 396 
Shropshire — Wryneck, 393 ; King- 
fisher, 394 
Somersetshire — Wildfowl, 73, 114 ; 
Heronries, 452 ; Golden-eye, 
469 
Suffolk — Jackdaw, 72 ; Water- 
Vole, 190 ; Effect of snow on 
bird-life, 192 ; Nest-boxes, 313 ; 
Honey-Buzzard, 468 
Surrey — Mammals of, 178 ; Mon- 
tagu's Harrier, 308 ; Starling, 
312; Ornithological Notes, 313, 
432 ; Dabchick, 351 ; Great 
Crested Grebe, 351 
Sussex — Wigeon, 156 ; Notes, 234, 
345 ; Lesser Eedpoll, 350 ; Aqua- 
tic Warbler, 467 
Westmorland — Notes., 144, 185, 
192 ; Otters destroying Moor- 
hens, 226 
Yorkshire — Great Grey Shrike, 32; 
Tit, 155; Water-Shrew, 189; 
Pallas's Sand-Grouse, 312 ; Chaf- 
finch, 428 
Crabro cephalodes, 383 ; cribrarius, 

383 
Crake, Spotted, at Yarmouth, 429 
Crane-flies, abundance, at Yarmouth, 

434 
Crangon vulgaris, 442 
Creeper, Tree, at Avignon, 174 
Crimea, swarms of insects, &c, in, 9 
Crocidura russula, 463 
Crow, Hooded, in Norway, 67 
Crows in Colombo Harbour, 263 
Cruise to the East on board the ' Val- 
halla' (1907-8), notes and obser- 
vations made during a, 261 
Cryphceca diversa, 423 
Cryptophialus, 45 
Ctenomjs brasiliensis, 392 ; magel- 

lanicus, 392 
Cuckoo in Norway, 67; origin of 
parasitic habits of, 245 ; egg-de- 
positing by, 129, 138, 140, 141, 143, 
245, 270, 329 
Cuculus canorus, 32, 67, 129, 138, 

140, 141, 143, 245, 270, 329 
Cm-lew, 106, 365 ; in Norway, 67 
Cygnus musicus, 99 
Cyprinus carassius, 17, 445, — var. 

auratus, 17; carpio, 17 
Cypselus melba, 175, 269 



Dabchick, 432; prolific breeding of, 
351 

Damaliscus pygargus, 35 

Darnmara australis, 58 

Danais chrysippus, 265 

Dasypoda hirtipes, 385 

Dasypua sexcinctus, 392 ; villosus, 
342, 392 

Deilephila euphorbias, 11 

Delphinus delphis, 418 

Dendrocopus major, 81, 228 

Devon, North, captures and field re- 
port for 1907, 97 ; mammals, 97 ; 
birds, 99 ; fishes, 103 

Diblemma donisthorpei, 424 

Dichromia orosia, curious habits of, 
263 

Diestrammena marmorata, 116, 195 

Diuarda, a genus of Coleoptera, evo- 
lution of, 68 

Dipper, 99 

Diver, Great Northern (Black- 
throated?), at Staines, 142, 228 

Doleschallia basaltide, 264 

Dolichopus nobilitatis, 389 

Donacia gyrinus, 386 

Dorylsea rhombifolia, 116 

Dotterel, 110 

Drornseus irroratus, 248 

Duck, American Wood, in Oxford- 
shire, 33, 73, — in Hants, 158; 
Golden-eye, in Somersetshire, 469 ; 
Mandarin, in Hants, 158 

Ducks, Wild, near Lincoln city, 33 ; 
interesting, in Notts, 469 

Eagle, Golden, in the Carpathians, 

(Plate IV.), 405; Imperial, in the 

Carpathians, 402 ; Spotted, at sea, 

131 
Echinorhinus spinosus, 26 
Echinus lividus, 43 
Edwardsia, 43 
Eel attacking Salmon, 319 
Eggs of Red-backed Shrike, 30, 74; of 

Guillemot, 30 ; of Tree-Pipit, 31 ; 

of Cuckoo, 32, 270; distinct types 

of, 74 
Elasmobranchii, 243 
Emberiza citrinella, 66 ; hortulana, 

269 
Engraulis enchrasicholus, 18 
Entomologists, British, longevity of, 

216 
Ephemera danica, 457 ; vespertina, 

457 ; vulgata, 458 
Ephemeridge, notes on, 456, — fig., 459 
Erinaceus europaeus, 179, 412, 463 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



Eristalis tenax, 388 

Esox lucius, 14 

Eucalyptus rnarginatus, 58 

Eudromias morinelJus, 110 

Eunomos alniaria, 384 

Euploea sp., 265 

Evansia merens, 422 

Evotornys caesarius, 462 ; glareolus, 

417 ; skomerensis, 462 
Exocoetus volitans, 15 

Faleo aesalon, 469 ; peregrinus, 191 ; 

vespertinus, 394 
Falcon, Peregrine, in Norfolk, 191. — 

in Cornwall, 270; Red-footed, in 

Norfolk, 394 
Fieldfare in Norway, 65 
Fish-notes from Great Yarmouth for 

190S, 441 
Fishery Congress, Fourth Inter- 
national, 318 
Fishes, Cornish, annotated list of, 13 ; 

of Wales and Ireland, 322, 454; 

large, caught in 1907, 39, 199 
Flycatcher, Pied, notes on, 222 ; in 

Ireland, 269 
Flounder, double, 353 
Forkbeard, Lesser, at Yarmouth, 

115 
Formica, 68 
Fratincola rubetra, 65 
Fringilla ccelebs, 66 ; montifringilla, 

66, 138 
Fuligula ferina, 139 
Fulmarus glacialis, 272, 396 

Gadus seglefinus, 105 ; pollachius, 

443 ; virens, 444 
Galeus vulgaris, 24 
Gallinae, 243 
Gallinula chloropus, 226 
Gasterosteus aculeatus, 15, — vars. 

trachurus, spinulosus, and gym- 

nurus, 15 ; spinachia, 15, 105 
Gastrocheena, 44, 56 
Gastrophilus equi, 388 
Globicephalus melas, 417 
Gobio fluviatilis, 17 
Gobius minutus, 105 ; parnelli, 105 
Godwits, incursion of, at Yarmouth, 

395 
Goosander seen flying over Vauxhall 

Bridge, 313 
Goose, Bean, on Dee marshes, 72 ; 

Canada, in Hants, 158 ; Pacific 

Brent (Black Brent) (Plate I.), 124 
Graakallen Mountain, Norway, birds 

of, 64 



Grampus griseus, 417 

Grapholitha sebastianise, 354 

Grebe, Eared (Sclavonian ?) at 
Staines, 142, 228 ; Great Crested, 
late breeding of, 351, 407, — re- 
tention of summer dress by, 407, 
469 

Greenfinch in Norway, 66 

Grouse, Black, 101 ; Pallas's Sand, in 
Yorkshire, 312 

Gryllotalpa, 457 

Gull, Black-headed, 109, — breeding 
habits of, 165 ; Great Black-backed, 
109, — unusual site for nest of, 396 ; 
Sabine's, on Breydon, Yarmouth, 
352 

Gullery, Ravenglass, field-notes on 
birds ff, 161 

Gypaetus barbatus, 401, 471 

Gyps fulvus, 403 

Hsematopus ostralegus, 111, 164, 201 
Hahnia helvola, 423 
Halichcerus gryphus, 268, 415 
Hants, South-western, notes from, 

156 
Harpacteshombergi, 423 
Harpalus calceatus, 10 
Harrier, Montagu's, in Surrey, 308 ; 

nest and eggs of (fig.), 309 
Heliophilus pendulus, 387 
Helix, 56 ; pomatia, 176 
Heron, Night, in Ireland, 33; Purple, 

at Kirkley, Norfolk, 130 
Heronries, notes on, 450 ; Arlington, 

E. Devon, 101; Lincolnshire, 450 ; 

Muncaster, 173 ; Somerset, 452 
Hippocampus antiquorum, 17 
Hippolyte spinus, 445 
Hoopoe in Northamptonshire, 312 
Hydrochelidon nigra, 112, 141 

Ibis falcinellus, 395 

Ibis, Glossy, in Aberdeenshire, 113; 
on Northumberland coast, 394 ; in 
North Devon, 395 

' Index Generum et Specierum Ani- 
inalium,' Report of British Associ- 
ation Committee on, 359 

1 Index Zoologicus ' of C. O. Water- 
house, additions and corrections to, 
252 

Indices, recent Zoological, some ge- 
neric names omitted from, 390 

Inheritance, experiments in, 358; of 
yellow coat colour in mice, 358 

Insects, swarms cf, in the Crimea 
and at sea, 9 ; taken or seen during 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



a cruise to the East, 262 ; vocal 
and instrumental music of, 376 

Ireland — Richard's Pipit, 32 ; Os- 
prey, 33 ; Night-Heron, 33 ; Orni- 
thological notes, 75, 229 ; Pied 
Flycatcher, 269 ; Vertebrates of, 
321, 397,454; Great Black-backed 
Gull, 396 ; Migration of small 
birds, 421 

lynx torquilla, 393, 428 

Jackdaw, domestication of, 72 

Kent (North), birds of, 107 ; Kentish, 

some rare, 272 
Kestrel at Avignon, 174 
Kingfisher, 187 ; nesting of, 394 
Kite, Brahmini, in Colombo Harbour, 

263 

Laslia ccenosa, 472 

Laertias romulus, 264 

Lagis koreni, 51 

Lagopus albus, 114 ; mutus, 67, 

114 
Lakeland (Cumberland and West- 
morland), notes from (1905), 144, 

185, 192 
Lamna cornubica, 24, 104 
Lampris luna, 103 
Lanius collurio, 30 ; excubitor, 32 ; 

pomeranus, 269 
Lark, Crested, at Avignon, 174 
Larus argentatus, 173 ; canus, 73 ; 

fuscus, 173 ; marinus, 109, 173 ; 

ridibundus, 73, 74, 109, 161 
Leptyphantes patens, 423 
Lepus cuniculus, 184, 417, 464 ; 

europseus, 184, 417, 464 
Lernasa branchialis, 442 
Leuciscus dobula, 17 ; phoxinus, 17 ; 

rutilus, 105 
Ligurinus chloris, 66 
Limnoria lignorum, 46, 47 
Limosa lapponica, 395 
Linnet in Norway, 66 
Linota cannabina, 66 ; rufescens, 227, 

350 
Lithodomus, 49 ; dactylus, 57 
Lithotrya, 45 
Lutra vulgaris (lutra), 92, 182, 226, 

414 

Macroglossa sp., 262 

Macrotoma natala, 77 

Magpie in Norway, 67 

Mallard in Norway, 67 

Mammals of Surrey, 178, — Wales 



and Ireland, 323, 454, — Channel 

Islands, 461 ; Cornish, notes on, 

409, 466 
Mareca americana, 156 ; penelope ? 

156 
Marine animals, on the perforations 

of, 41 
Marten in England and Wales, 1 
Martin, House, at Avignon, 175 ; 

Sand, at Avignon, 175 
Mayo and Sligo, ornithological notes 

from, 229 
Melanerpes formicivorus, 81 
Meleagris gallipavo, 245 
Meles taxus (meles), 182, 414, 426 
Menelaides hector, 264 
Mergulus alle, 114, 133 
Mergus albellus, 73, 99 
Merlucius vulgaris, 443 
Merodon, 389 

Metoponorthus cingendus, 154 
Micaria pulicaria, 424 ; scintillus, 

424 
Micarisoma festiva, 423 
Microneta innotabilis, 423 ; viaria, 

423 
Microtus agrestis, 183, 417, 464,— 

sp. aff., 463 ; amphibius, 184, 417, 

464 ; glareolus, 183, 464 
Migration of birds, 106, 122, 129, 

130, 429, 431 ; still a mystery, 

106 
Migratory movements of certain 

Shore-Birds as observed on Dublin 

coast, Mr. C. J. Patten on, 360 
Molge vulgaris, 159 
Molothrus bonariensis, 245 ; vulgaris, 

242 
Monkey, Proboscis, feeding habits of, 

266 
Motacilla alba, 66, 75 ; cinereicapilla, 

178 ; flava, 178 
Moth, Humming-bird, at Avignon 

and Orange, 177 
Mouse, Wood (fig.), 183; Yellow- 
necked, 183 
Mugil capito, 14 ; chelo, 13 
Mursena helena, 23 
Mus alexandrinus, 416, 464; decu- 

manus, 183, 416, 462, 463, 464; 

flavicollis, 182 ; minutus, 182, 416 ; 

museums, 182, 416, 462, 463, 464 ; 

rattus, 182, 416, 464 ; sylvaticus, 

182, 416, 464 
Muscardinus avellanarius, 182, 416 
Muscicapa atricapilla, 222, 269 
Museums — Australian (Sydney), 817; 

Sarawak, 317 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



Music, vocal and instrumental, of 

insects, 376 
Mustek martes, 1, 98, 181, 413 
Mustelus vulgaris, 24 
Myliobatis aquila, 28 
Myotisdaubentoni, 178, 411 ; mysta- 

cinus, 179, 412 ; nattereri, 179, 

411 
Mytilus edulis, 201 
Myxine glutinosa, 28 

Natica, 57; josephina, 57 

Nectandra rhodiasi, 58 

Nemachilus barbatulus, 17 

Neomys (Sores) fodiens, 181, 189, 
412 

Nephrops norvegicus, 448 

Nereilepas fucata, 52 

Nereis pelagica, 48 

Neropbis sequoreus, 16 ; lumbrici- 
formis, 16 ; opbidion, 16 

Nest and eggs of Oystercatcber (fig.), 
127 ; of Sbort-eared Owl (fig.), 
468 

Nest of Great Black-backed Gull, un- 
usual site for, 396 

Nesting of Lesser Eedpoll in Middle- 
sex, 227, — in Sussex, 350 ; of Wry- 
neck, 393 ; of Kingfisber, 394 ; of 
Short-eared Owl at Rainworth, 
467 ; late, of Great Crested Grebe, 
351 

Newfoundland Sealing (1907), 151 

Newt, Common, in Carnarvonshire. 
159 

Nightingale at Avignon, 176 ; breed- 
ing habits of, 328 

Nomenclature, Zoological, Mr. G. A. 
Boulenger on, 355 

Norfolk, ornithological report for 
1907, 121, 314 

Norway — Birds of the Graakallen 
Mountain, 64; Cuckoo. 67; Ptar- 
migan, 67, 113 

Notidanus griseus, 25 

Numenius arquatus, 67, 108, 173 ; 
phseopus, 111 

Nycticorax griseus, 33 

Obituary : — 

Bingham, Charles Thomas, 465 
Carrington, John Thomas, 160 
Giard, Professor Alfred, 320 
Oceanodroma leucorrboa, 73 
(Ecophylla smaragdina, 160 
Okapi, is it identical with the "Tha- 

hash" of the Jews'?, 256 
Opah in North Devon, 108 



Orca gladiator, 417 

Ornithological Notes — Chester and 
North Wales, 73 ; Mayo and Sligo, 
75, 229 ; Lakeland, 144, 185, 192 ; 
South-western Hants, 156 ; West 
Renfrewshire, 230 ; Shipley dis- 
trict, 234 ; East Sussex, 345 ; Yar- 
mouth, 345, 352 ; Richmond Park, 
Surrey, 432 

Ornithoptera darsius, 263, 265 

Orthagoriscus rnola, 104 

Orthoptera, introduced, 116, 195 

Osprey in Co. Sligo, 33 

Otaria pusilla (Arctocephalus ant- 
arcticus, A. delalandii), 214 

Otis tetrax, 272 

Otter, notes on, 92, 158; breeding 
of, 93 ; parental care, 93 ; food, 
95 ; destroying Moorhens, 226 

Ouzel, Ring, in Norway, 65 

Owl, Barn, 121, 346,— utility of, 127, 
— theories as to luminosity of, 122 ; 
Short-eared nesting at Rainworth, 
467 

Oxfordshire, ornithology of (1907), 
326 

Oystercatcher, notes on, with refer- 
ence to its habit of feeding upon 
Mussel, 201 ; nest with four eggs 
at Blakeney, 126 

Pandalus annulicornis, 441 

Pandion haliaetus, 33 

Pancblora fraterna, 195 

Paralepis coregonoides, 22 

" Parasitology," 315 

Parental instinct in birds, specula- 
tions on the origin and development 
of, 241 

Partridge, 867 

Parus cseruleus, 246; major, 66, 113, 
246 ; palustris borealis, 66 

Passer domesticus, 66 

Peachia, 43 

Pecten, 49 

Peewit, 365 

Pelecanus crispus, 471 ; onocrotalus, 
471 

Penguin, Emperor, 249 

Penguins of the Angra de Sam Bras, 
213 

Perca fluviatilis, 105 

Perch, 105 

Perdix montana, 135 

Perforations of marine animals, 41 

Pernis apivorus, 156, 428, 468 

Petrel, Fulmar, off Kingfgate, Kent, 
272 ; in Firth of Forth, 396 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Petromyzon branehialis, 28; fluvia- 

tilis, 28 ; marinus, 28 
Phalarope, Grey. Ill 
Phalaropus fulicarius, 111 
Philoscia couchii, 154 
Phoca vitulina, 415 
Phocaena communis, 417 
Pholades, 49 
Pholas, 49 ; Candida, 49 ; crispata, 

49 ; dactylus, 49 
Phoronis, 44 
Pbylloscopus rufus, 137 ; trochilus, 

G6 ; sibilatrix, 137 
Pica rustica, 67 
Picus martius, 190 
Pigeon, Wood, diphtheria in, 76 
Pipa americana, 247 
Pipistrellus pipistrellus, 411 
Pipit, Meadow, in Norway, 66 ; 

Eichard's, in Ireland, 32, — in 

Norfolk, 180 ; Tree, in Norway, 

66 
Placuna placenta, 42 
Platephemera antiqua, 456 
Platylomia saturata, 380 
Platypleura octoguttata, 382 
Plecotus auritus, 178, 411, 463 
Plegadis falcinellus, 113, 394, 395 
Pleuronectes flesus, 447 
Plover, Golden, 365 ; Kentish, 111 ; 

Pinged, 107, 109, 111,— breeding 

habits of, 365, 369, — male and fe- 
male at nest (Plate III.) 
Pochard breeding in Berkshire, 

139 
Podicipes auritus, 228 ; capensis, 469 ; 

cristatus, 351, 469 ; fluviatilis, 351 ; 

nigncollis, 142, 228 
Polecat in North Devon, 97 
Polydora, 44 
Polyneura ducalis, 880 
Polypterus senegalus, 118 
Polyzoa, Dr. Sidney P. Harmer on, 

354 
Pomponia surya, 380 
Porbeagle at Ilfracombe, 104 
Porthesia auriflua, 11 
Porzana maruetta, 429 
Pristiurus melanostomus, 24 
Prototrypid, gen. ? sp. ? (fig.), 194 
Ptarmigan reported near Trondhjem, 

Norway, 67, 113 
Pterygistes noctula, 178 
Puffmus anglorum, 396, 429 
Putorius ermineus, 181, 414 ; fcstidus 

(putorius), 97, 181, 413; nivalis, 

414; vulgaris, 182; sp., 462, 463 
Pycna repanda, 380 



Pyrameis cardui, 11 
Pyrrhnla europsea major, 66 

Eabbits, malady amongst, 97 

Raia alba, 27 ; batis, 27 ; blanda, 27 ; 
circularis, 28 ; clavata, 27 ; fullo- 
nica, 27 ; macrorhynchus, 27 ; 
maculata, 22 ; microcellata, 28 ; 
oxyrhynchus, 27 ; radiata, 28 

Raniceps trifurcatus, 116 

Ratitas, 247 

Ravens in the Carpathians, 401 

Redpoll, Lesser, nesting in Middle- 
sex, 227,— in Sussex, 350 

Redshank, breeding habits of, 366, 
368 

Redstart in Norway, 65 

Redwing in Norway, 65 

Reeve, 128 

Regulus cristatus, 65 

Renfrewshire, West (Caldwell Dis- 
trict), birds of, 230 

Reptiles of Wales and Ireland, 323 

Rhina squatina, 26 

Rhinoderma darwini, 247 

Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, 409, 
464 ; hipposiderus, 410 

Rhombus lsevis, 443 ; megastoma, 
443 

Rhynchota and their parasites in 
South Africa, 193 

Ruticilla phcenicurus, 65 

Salmo fario, 18, — var. cornubiensis, 
18 ; salar, 17 ; trutta, 18, — var. 
cambrensis, 18 

Salticus formicarius, 424 

Sandpiper, 109 ; in Norway, 67 

Saxicara, 49 

Saxicola cenanthe, 65, 164 

Sceliphron spirifex, 384 

Sciurus vulgaris (leucurus), 182, 416, 
464 

Scolopax rusticola, 67 

Scombresox saurus, 15 

Scotland — Distinct types in eggs, 
74; Glossy Ibis, 113; Common 
Shrew, 189 ; Birds of West Ren- 
frewshire, 230; Snipe, 271; Ful- 
mar Petrel, 396 

Scyllium canicula, 24 ; catulus, 24 

Sea-Bream, Black, at Yarmouth, 115, 
442 

Sea-Mouse near Plymouth, 470 

Seal, Grey, in Mersey, 268 

Seals of the Angra de Sam Bras, 213 

Sealing, Newfoundland, 151 

Selache maxima, 25 



CONTENTS. 



XV11 



Sericoniya borealis, 887 ; lapponum 
(lappona), 387 

Sex, Mr. L. Doncaster on recent work 
on determination of, 357 

Sexual selection in birds, 191 

Shearwater, Manx, in Oxfordshire 
and Gloucestershire, 396; Septem- 
ber movements of, 429 

Shipley district, ornithological notes 
from, 234 

Shore-birds, migratory movements of 
certain, 360 

Shrew, Common (fig.), 180, — in Skye, 
189; Lesser (fig.), 180; Water (fig.), 
180, 181, 189, — gregarian occur- 
rence in Yorkshire, 189 

Shrike, Great Grey, near York, 32 ; 
Eed-backed, eggs of, 30, 74 

Sipheniscus demersus, 214 

Siphonostoma typhle, 15 

Sipunculus, 44 

Siskin in Norway, 66 

Smelt, deformed (fig.), 446 

Smew in Northumberland, 73 

Snake, Rat, 263; Smooth, in Devon- 
shire, 34 

Snipe, " drumming " of, 271 

Snow, effect of, on bird-life, 192 

Solea variegata, 103 

Songs of Chiffchaff and Willow-Wren, 
190, 226, 227, 230, 268, 313 

Sorex araneus, 180, 189, 412, 461, 
463 ; fodiens, 189 ; minutus, 180, 
412 

Spawn, Alytes, 472; Hyla, 472 

Sparrow, Hedge, in Norway, 66 ; 
House, in Norway, 66 

Sphseromidae, 47 

Spheniscus demersus, 214 

Sphex arenaria, 385 

Sphinx ligustri, proboscis or tongue 
of (fig.), 435 

Spiders, Myrmecophilous, a few notes 
on, 419 

Staines district, birds of, 137 

Starling in Norway, 67 ; early flocks 
of, 312, 350 

Sterna cantiaca, 161, 351 ; fiuviatilis, 
110, 141, 161, 352 ; fuliginosa, 212 ; 
minuta, 110, 164 

Stoat, note on, 462 

Stonechat, 143 

Strepsilas interpres, 109 

Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis, 43 

Struthio camelus, 243, 245 

Sturnus vulgaris, 67, 164, 242, 312, 
350 

Sunfish at Ilfracombe, 105 



Sussex, East, rough notes in, 345 

Swallows at Avignon, 175 

Swan, Whooper, 145 

Swift, Alpine, at Avignon, 176, — at 

Lynmouth, North Devon, 269 ; 

Common, at Avignon, 175 
Sylvia cinerea, 193; nisoria, 393 
Sympetrum fons-colombii, 10 
Syngnathus acus, 16 ; rostellatuSi 16 
Synotus barbastellus, 178 
Syrphus baleatus, 387 ; bifasciatus, 

387 ; ribesii, 387 
Syritta pipiens, 385, 389 
Syrrhaptes paradoxus, 312 

Tabanus bovinus, 388 

Tadorna cornuta, 139, 163 

Taenia coenurus, 97 

Talegallus, 245 

Talicada nyseus, 264 

Talpa europaea, 98, 179, 412, 461, 463 

Tatusia septemcincta, 393 

Teal breeding in North Devon, 100 

Teredines, 50 

Teredo, 44 ; arenaria, 52 ; cornifor- 
mis, 52 ; navalis, 52 

Tern, Arctic, 230, 264; Black, 112; 
Common, breeding habits of, 169, 
361, 368, — with chick and egg 
(Plate II.) ; Lesser, breeding 
habits of, 172, 363, 367; Sand- 
wich, breeding habits of, 166, 280, 
351 

Ternery at Wells-by-the-Sea, a visit 
to the, 361 . 

Terns at Avignon, 175 

Tetrao urogallus, 67 

Tetrilus aretinus, 422 

Tettigia orni, 379, 880, 382 

Thahash, 256 

Thalassema, 44 

Theridium riparium, 423 

Thracia convexa, 49 

Thrush, Mistle, in Norway, 64; Song, 
in Norway, 64 

Thyreosthenius biovatus, 419, 421 

Tibicina haematodes, 379, 883 

Tinea vulgaris, 17 

Tipula oleracea, 434 

Tit, Great, in Norway, 66, 113 (var.), 
— at Avignon, 174 ; Marsh, at 
Avignon, 174 ; Northern Marsh, in 
Norway, 66 

Tits feeding on maize, 155 

Toad, Sumatran, interesting feeding 
habits of, 265 

Toads, swarms of, in the Crimea, 11 

Torpedo nobiliana, 26 



xvm 



CONTENTS. 



Totanus calidris, 108, 141, 164; hy- 
poleucus, 67, 109, 173 ; ochropus, 
108 

Tracliurus trachurus, 447 

Trigla hirundo, 444 

Tringa alpina, 110, 173 ; canutus, 
352 

Troglodytes parvulus, 66 

Trygon pastinaca, 28 

Tuco-Tuco, notes on, 392 

Turdus iliacus, 65 ; merula, 312 ; 
musicus, 64 ; pilaris, 65 ; torqua- 
tus, 65, 137 ; viscivorus, 64 

Turnstone, 109, 110 

Upupa epops, 272 
Uria troile, 30 

Vanellus vulgaris, 108, 164 

Variety of Blackbird, 135; Bull-dog 
Cod-fish, 446 ; Dabchick, 136 ; 
Fieldfare, 135; Flounder, 353; 
Lapwing, 102; Linnet, 100; Mole, 
98 ; Partridge, 135 ; Plover, Ringed, 
136 ; Bail, Water, 135 ; Redwing, 
135 ; Smelt, 446 ; Tern, Lesser, 
136 ; Titmouse, Great, 113 ; Vole, 
Bank, 149; Vole, Water, 190; 
Wigeon, 156 

Vermin, Society for the destruction 
of, 238 

Verruca, 57 

1 Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales,' 
a correction in, 77 

Vertebrates of Wales and Ireland, 
321, 397, 454; Corrigenda et Ad- 
denda, 454 

Vespa germanica, 386 

Vespertilio serotinus, 411,463 

Vesperugo pipistrellus, 78, 463 ; sero- 
tinus, 463 

Vole, Field, note on, 463 ; Jersey, 
note on, 462 

Vulpes vulpes, 412, 464 

Vultur monachus, 403 

Vultures in the Carpathians, 401, 403 

Wagtail, White, in Norway, 66 ; 
Yellow, at Avignon, 176 



Wales — Ornithological notes, 73 ; 
Correction of error in ' Vertebrate 
Fauna of North Wales,' 77 ; Honey- 
Buzzard, 156 ; Common Newt, 159 ; 
Chiffchaff, 268; Vertebrates of, 321, 
397, 454 

Warbler, Aquatic, near Eastbourne 
(Plate V.), 467 ; Barred, in Nor- 
folk, 393 ; Garden, at Avignon, 
176; Marsh, at Thorpe, Surrey, 
137 ; Willow, in Norway, 66 

Warblers on ship at sea, feeding on 
moths, 9 

Whale, dead, stranded at Hartland 
Point, N. Devon, 98 

Whaling Voyage, Arctic, 61 

Wheatear in Norway, 65; Desert, in 
Norfolk (Plate I.), 121, 132 

Whimbrel, 111 

Whinchat in Norway, 65 

Wildfowl on Blagdon Reservoir, 
Somerset, 73, 114 

Woodcock in Norway, 67 

Woodlouse, a rare, new to the fauna 
of Great Britain, 152 

Woodpecker, Great Black, 190 ; 
Great Spotted, some notes on a 
habit of, in relation to a similar 
but more developed habit in 
the Californian Woodpecker, 81, 
228 

Wren in Norway, 66 ; Golden-crested, 
in Norway, 65 ; Willow, at Avig- 
non, 176 

Wryneck, nesting of, 393 ; in North 
Lancashire, 428 

Xema sabinii, 352 
Xylophaga, 48 ; dorsalis, 50 

Yellowhammer in Norway, 66 

Zeugopterus punctatus, 442 
Zoology, Indian, in 1907, Dr. Annan- 
dale on, 316 
Zygaena malleus, 24 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



PLATES. 

Plate I. American Black Brent (Bernicla nigricans) . 
,, II. Common Tern with Chick and Egg 
,, III. Male and female Binged Plover at Nest 
,, IV. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetus) on a carcase 
,, V. Aquatic Warbler (Acrocepthalus aquaticus) . 





PAGE 


to face 


121 


!) 


361 


• • )) 


365 


• )) 


401 


• )) 


467 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 

Clielifer found attached to Longicorn Beetle (Macrotoma natala) . 77 

Oystercatcher's Nest and Eggs 127 

Little Auk (Mergulus alle) 133 

Chelifer with Eggs at base of abdomen . . . ... . 160 

Water, Common, and Lesser Shrews, to show relative sizes . . 180 

Yellow-necked Mouse and Wood Mouse, to show relative sizes . 183 

Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr., and parasite, Proctotrypid, gen. ? sp. ? 194 

Nest and Eggs of Montagu's Harrier 309 

Proboscis or tongue of Sphinx ligustri : — Upper figure, outline of 
head and thorax of pupa ; lower figure, the same, with horny 

case dissected away 435 

Deformed Bull-dog Cod-fish . . 444 

Deformed Smelt 446 

Bull-dog Cod-fish . 446 

Illustration to Notes on Epherneridse : — I. Portion of wing of Ephe- 
mera vulgata. n. Tail-filament of Cloeon larva, in. Portion 
of tail-filament of fly of Ephemera vulgata. iv. Gill of 

Clceon larva. (See also " Explanation," p. 460) . . . 459 

Nest of Short-eared Owl 468 



rth Series. 
XII.. No. 133. 



January 15th, 1908. 



No. 799. 









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CONTENTS. 



The Marten in England and Wales, H. li. Forrest. 1. 

Swarms of Insects, &c, in the Crimea, Lionel E. Adams, B.A., 9. 

An Annotated List of Cornish Fishes, James Clark, M.A., D.Sc., A.E.C.S., 13. 

NOTES AND QdEUIKS : — 

Aves. — Eggs of Red-backed Shrike {Lanius collurio), Percy F. Bunyard, 30. 
Great Grey Shrike near York. Sydney H. Smith, 32. Richard's Pipit 
(Anthus richardi) in Ireland, 32; Ospreys in Co. Sligo, 33 ; Night-Heron in 
Ireland, 33; W. J. Williams. American Wood Duck in Oxfordshire, 0. V. 
Aplin, 33. Wild Ducks near Lincoln City. F. L. Blathiuayt, 33. 
Reptilia. — The Smooth Suake (Coronella austriaca) in Devonshire, J. W. Carr,34. 
Notices of New Books, 35-37. 
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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 799.— January. 1908. 



THE MARTEN IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 
By H. E. Forrest. 

In ' The Zoologist,' 1891-3, Mr. J. E. Harting gave a detailed 
account of the Pine Marten (Mustela martes) and its distribution 
throughout Great Britain and Ireland. 

The object of the present paper is to supplement the above, 
and to bring it up to date as regards England and Wales. To 
avoid repetition, the records in Mr. Harting's papers are merely 
indicated below by the letter H, followed by the year of occur- 
rence. Their inclusion renders this paper more complete, with- 
out materially increasing its length. 

The Marten still lingers in the Lake District and in the 
north-west of Wales. It has therefore seemed most convenient 
to deal first with those districts, taking next the counties adjoin- 
ing, and finally the isolated occurrences in the eastern and 
southern counties of England. 

Anglesey. — Not recorded. 

Carnarvon & Merioneth. — Still found in the wilder parts of 
these counties, though in reduced and rapidly diminishing num- 
bers. The late Mr. E. 0. Partridge, of Farchynys, Dolgelley, 
records sixteen killed in that district in 1893. Stuffed specimens 
are to be seen in many houses and hotels in these counties. 

Cardiganshire. — No record except an example reported to me 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII , January, 1908. B 



2 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

by Mr. W. Yelland, who saw it at Hafod, near Devil's Bridge, 
about 1878. 

Radnorshire. — The late Mr. J. W. Lloyd had a specimen 
killed at Stanage about 1840, and records one obtained at 
Harpton Court about 1862. Another taken about the same date 
is preserved at Clyro Court, whilst Mr. 0. E. Owen reports two 
killed near Ehayader in the late nineties. Mr. J. W. Vaughan 
states that in the winter of 1906-7 several Hares were found 
dead by a shepherd near Erwood. In each case the animal had 
been killed by a bite just over the heart ; this is said to be the 
way a Marten always kills its prey. There is other evidence 
that the Marten still exists in Radnorshire and in the neighbour- 
ing county of Brecon. 

Brecon. — H. Several between 1857 and 1886. In the last- 
mentioned year Mr. E. Cambridge Phillips records one seen hear 
Brecon. Several observers report the Marten as still existing in 
the county, though in very small numbers. 

Pembroke. — No certain record. 

Carmarthen. — H. About 1868. Mr. W. M. Congreve informs 
me that Jeffreys, of Carmarthen, had two to preserve, shot by 
Mr. Thompson, of Glyn Abbey, Kidwelly, about 1880. 

Glamorgan. — H. 1849. Mr. T.W. Proger remembers a pair 
being trapped at Courtyralla, near Cardiff, in 1872. The female 
is now in the local museum. Sir John Llewelyn informs me that 
he had one brought to him for preservation at least thirty-five 
years ago ; it was obtained near Swansea. 

Monmouth. — Mr. T. W. Proger reports two or three trapped 
in the neighbourhood of Pontypool about 1866. H. : one at 
Grosmont, 1873. 

Herefordshire— H. Three about 1860 ; others 1861, 1866, 
1873, 1878, 1884. Mr. J. B. Pilley informs me that two were 
obtained at Haywood and Wellington (both places within a few 
miles of Hereford city) in the eighties. 

Gloucestershire. — H. Formerly; 1881. 

Worcestershire. — Hastings described it as rare in 1834, and 
as formerly inhabiting Malvern Chase. 

Warwickshire. — Not recorded. 

Staffordshire. — Recorded by Garner as taken near Cheadle, 
and at Needwood ; no dates are given, but must have been prior 



THE MARTEN IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 3 

to 1844. Mr. J. R. B. Masefield writes that one was obtained on 
the Staffordshire side of Dovedale many years ago. From in- 
dependent sources the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain gathers that the 
date was about 1835. 

Derbyshire. — Mr. Jourdain also informs me that a Marten was 
exhibited in a cage in the market-place, Manchester, about 1830, 
that was said to have been taken in the High Peak. 

Cheshire. — Byerley records two obtained in Wirral in the 
forties. Mr. R. Newstead mentions one killed at Sandbach in 
1876, and a male, now in the Chester Museum, killed at Eaton 
(the Duke of Westminster's seat), July 8th, 1891. 

Denbigh dt Flint. — A few days after the Eaton example was 
obtained another was killed at Hope, whilst in April, 1892, 
another was taken at Connah's Quay. The Marten still lingers 
precariously in the far west of Denbighshire, and possibly in 
Glyn Ceiriog (cf. Forrest, 'Fauna of North Wales,' p. 31). 

Montgomery. — None recorded for many years till about 1865, 
when one was killed at Maesmawr, near Welshpool. Another, in 
the collection of the late Mr. G. Dumville Lees, was obtained at 
Abermule in November, 1895, and reported by Mr. Lees at the 
time in the ' Field.' 

Shropshire. — Eyton wrote of the Marten as getting scarce in 
the thirties, but I know of six or seven examples obtained in the 
Ludlow district during the forties. One was obtained in Stokes 
Wood, Craven Arms, in 1862. No others till 1907, when two 
were taken, both females ; the first near Chirbury about April 
20th, the second at Millichope a fortnight later. This last has 
been presented by Capt. Beckwith to the Shrewsbury Museum. 

Lancashire. — H. Still found in Furness district, 1877. In 
' The Zoologist,' 1896, p. 376, Mr. J. R. Denwood records one at 
Coniston in June, 1896. In ' The Zoologist,' 1904, p. 455, is a 
record of an old female obtained in the same district, May 13th, 
1902. 

Yorkshire.— H. 1854, 1877, 1880, 1881, 1884. Mr. H. B. 
Booth tells me that a Marten was obtained at Buckden, on the 
north-west border of the county, about 1880 ; whilst Mr. T. H. 
Nelson recorded in ' The Zoologist,' 1900, p. 517, an old male 
taken at Swainby, in Cleveland, Feb. 9th, 1900. Messrs. Clarke 
and Roebuck, in their ' Fauna,' record Martens near Whitby in 

b 2 



4 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the sixties, and in 1877 ; Barnsley, 1878 ; near Ripon ; and 
above Masham in 1870. 

Durham.— H. 1835, 1849, 186-, 1882. Mr. T. H. Nelson 
informs me that one was killed in Weardale about 1880. Sir 
Alfred Pease heard of one being taken near Bishop Auckland 
about 1896. 

Westmorland. — H. 1877. One recorded above Elterwater, 
Sept. 10th, 1896, by Mr. J. R. Den wood (Zool. 1896, p. 376). 

Cumberland. — H. Still plentiful, 1877. Obtained 1886, 
1887, 1892. The late Rev. H. A. Macpherson, in his ' Fauna of 
Lakeland,' gives a very full account of the Marten in the Lake 
District, with many interesting details regarding its habits and 
the local methods of hunting and trapping the " Sweet Mart." 
The animal still lingers in the Lake Country, though, unless 
steps be taken to preserve it, it will soon be exterminated. » 

Northumberland. — H. 1871, and two in May, 1883. 

Lincolnshire.— H. 1843, 1854, 1858, 1866, 1871, 1879, 1882. 
In ' The Zoologist,' 1893, p. 354, one is recorded near Sleaford 
about 1889. 

Leicester.— H. Two or three many years ago. Mr. F. T. 
Mott informs me that a Marten was killed at Bradgate about 
1868 ; then none reported till December, 1903, when Mr. H. S. 
Davenport saw one in Tugby Wood. He recorded it at the time 
in the 'Field.' 

Notts. — Mr. J. Whitaker thinks that the Marten must have 
formerly been found in Sherwood Forest. A specimen in 
Mr. Becker's collection was killed at Winkburn in 1850, while 
two captured on the Worksop Manor estate in 1872 are men- 
tioned in the ' Victoria History.' A Marten taken in a cellar at 
Nottingham in 1901 was doubtless an escape. 

Norfolk.— H. 1843, 1864, 1878. 

Suffolk. — H. Three in 1811; male shot and another seen, 
1889 (Zool. 1892, p. 134). 

Cambridge. — H. 1844. 

Northants.—R. 1840. 

Bedfordshire. — H. Prior to 1859. Mr. J. Steele Elliott 
has notes of several in the forties, and evidence that the animal 
was not uncommon early in the nineteenth century. 

Oxfordshire. — H. One or two many years ago. 



THE MABTEN IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 5 

Bucks. — H. Formerly existed. 
Berks. — H. One ; no date. 
Herts.— H. 1872. 
Essex.— H. 1845, 1853. 
Kent.—H.. About 1880. 

Surrey. -tH. 1834, 1847 ; one seen by Mr. G. E. Lodge near 
Dorking, May 12th, 1879. 

Sussex.— H. Three about 1841 ; 1866. 
Hants.— H. About 1845, 185-. 
Wilts. — H. Seventeenth century. 
Dorset— H. 1851. 

Devon. — H. 1871 ; nearly extinct, 1877. 
Cormvall.— H. 1843, 1878. 

Digest. 

From the above records several interesting conclusions may 
be drawn : — 

1. The Marten became rare throughout the midland and 
south-eastern counties during the first half of the nineteenth 
century. 

2. In most of these counties it became extinct before 1860, 
but since that date there have been isolated occurrences in Herts, 
Surrey, and Sussex. 

3. In the group of eastern counties— Lincoln, Norfolk, and 
Suffolk — it survived into the eighties, whilst there have been 
recent occurrences in Leicestershire. 

4. In Devon and Cornwall it lingered into the seventies. 

5. At the present time there are but two tribes of Martens 
remaining in England and Wales, their respective headquarters 
being the Lake District and the west of North and Central 
Wales. 

6. From time to time Martens still occur in the counties con- 
tiguous to these two districts. 

7. Recent records are most numerous in the counties nearest 
to these districts. (Lincolnshire is an exception.) 

8. In Wales the Marten has occurred in all the twelve counties 
except Anglesey and Pembroke, but appears never to have been 
common in the southernmost counties. 



6 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Roving Disposition of the Marten. 

Leaving out of the calculation those counties where the 
Marten is believed still to exist, it will be observed that isolated 
examples have occurred within the last thirty years in the 
counties of Cheshire, Hereford, Montgomery, Flint, Shropshire, 
Lancashire, and Yorkshire ; as well as further off in the eastern 
counties of Lincoln, Leicester, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Surrey. 

In nearly every county mentioned the Marten had been 
regarded as long extinct. In some instances intervals of twenty, 
thirty, and even forty years had elapsed since the last previous 
record ; when without the slightest indication of the animal's 
existence in the neighbourhood a Marten has been seen, trapped, 
or shot. 

Take Shropshire, for example. The last prior record was in 
1862. During the ensuing forty-five years there was not even a 
rumour of the existence of the Marten within the limits of the 
county, and the species was regarded as locally extinct. Yet in 
the spring of 1907 two Martens — both females — were taken within 
a fortnight at places only a few miles apart, and in the same 
part of the county as the 1862 example. 

Somewhat similar are the records for the counties to the 
north — Montgomery, Flint, and Cheshire. In the first of these 
a period of thirty years elapsed between the two examples being 
obtained. But in the other cases the events are rendered still 
more remarkable by the nature of the localities. Two Martens 
were obtained in 1891, within a few days of one another, at 
Hope (Flintshire) and Eaton (Cheshire), whilst in 1892 another 
was taken at Connah's Quay (Flintshire). All these three places 
are within ten miles of one another, but they are of a character 
quite unsuited to such an animal as the Marten. Eaton Park 
is the seat of the Duke of Westminster ; it is flat country, laid 
out artificially in plantations and ornamental grounds. Con- 
nah's Quay is a dreary flat alongside of the Dee estuary, chiefly 
used as a place for shipping slates. Hope is not quite so un- 
suitable, but lies low in a fairly populous and cultivated district. 

I cannot believe that any of these five Martens, nor the two 
recent Shropshire examples, belonged to the districts where 
they were taken ; neither do I believe they had been there any 
length of time. How, then, can their presence be accounted 



THE MARTEN IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 7 

for ? In my opinion the answer to this question is to be found 
in the Marten's innate love of roving. This trait would not be 
noticeable as long as the animal was common, because any 
examples met with would be regarded as denizens of the districts 
where they occurred. It would only become obvious when a 
Marten turned up in a district where it had been long regarded 
as extinct. 

Independently of such incidents, however, several writers 
have noted the Marten's propensity for roaming. Thus Mr. 
George Bolam, of Berwick-on-Tweed, writes (Zool. 1893, p. 132) : 
" The travelling capabilities of the Marten are too well known 
to require further comment." Again, Mr. Dumville Lees, 
reporting the Abermule specimen in the ' Field,' Nov. 23rd, 1895, 
remarks : — " I know that Martens travel long distances at all 
times, but particularly in the early spring." (Parenthetically, 
I may state that the isolated occurrences of the Marten recorded 
above were mostly in the early part of May.) In a later issue 
Mr. E. 0. Partridge, of Farchynys, near Dolgelley (who had a 
more intimate acquaintance with the Welsh Marten than anyone 
else in recent times), adds : — " I quite endorse the opinion of 
Mr. Lees that Martens travel long distances, but I think that, 
as a rule, after their night's ramble, they return and remain 
pretty much in any favourite locality where they have taken up 
their quarters. It has more than once happened to us, when 
the snow has been lying deep on the Grouse-moor, to hit on the 
track of a Marten, and, after following it for miles, to find, 
just as evening was coming on, that the ring of many miles had 
brought us round pretty nearly to the point of starting." It 
has been found, by tracking in the snow, that frequently the 
Marten will cover a circuit of fifteen miles in a day, and that not 
when it was flying from pursuit but merely seeking food. 

To an animal that will travel such distances of its own accord 
the journey from (say) Dolgelley to Abermule would be a trifle, 
so it is conceivable that, if the quest for food had brought a 
Marten over the intervening high land, it might take up its 
quarters in this new district. 

It is to such circumstances as these, I believe, that the recent 
occurrences in Shropshire, and those recorded at Eaton, Hope, 
and Connah's Quay are due. 



8 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Similarly, the examples met with during recent years in 
Yorkshire and other northern counties were probably wanderers 
from the Lake District. Possibly, also, those recorded in North 
Lincolnshire. 

Without wishing to dogmatize, I would further suggest that, 
if a Marten had wandered very far from its native haunts, it 
would perhaps be less inclined to settle down ; it would go on 
wandering until it at length met its fate in some country too 
civilized for this beautiful creature of the wilds. 

Of our native mammals, none excel the Marten in grace of 
movement and beauty of form. Can nothing be done to prevent 
its extermination ? If any action be taken, it should be speedily. 
To preserve it throughout the country would be impracticable, 
but I suggest that some large landowner in Wales or the Lake 
District should make his estate a sanctuary for the animal, and 
let his keepers strictly preserve it. This plan was adopted in 
Scotland for the Golden Eagle, and with entire success. There 
would be no risk of undue multiplication of the species, as the 
Marten is so easily trapped that, if eventually the numbers on 
the estate became too great, the owner could give orders to 
reduce them. In such cases individual control is far more 
effective than legislation. 



SWAEMS OF INSECTS, &c, IN THE CRIMEA. 
By Lionel E. Adams, B.A. 

. On three separate occasions when I have visited the Crimea 
I have encountered one or more instances of various insect 
forms swarming in enormous quantities and being dispersed to 
considerable distances, and it has occurred to me that a brief 
account of these may be of interest to students of the ways and 
means of the distribution of various species across the sea. 

Moths* — On August 27th, 1901, we left the Bosphorus at 
sunset for Eupatoria, a distance of roughly three hundred and 
seventy English land miles. On coming on deck the next 
morning at eight o'clock I found the whole ship covered with a 
small moth, which also filled the air like flakes in a snow- 
storm. All day long we had a pair of Warblers on board, 
which had apparently been blown off the land with the moths or 
had followed them of their own accord. I caught one in my 
hand and released it unharmed. They were very tame, picking 
up the moths greedily from the deck close to my feet. 

We experienced a strong head wind all the way across to 
Eupatoria, and the flight of moths met us all the way across 
the swarm being plentiful there on our arrival. Four days 
later we anchored in Karkinit Bay in the Gulf of Perikop. I 
quote from my field note-book : — " Sept. 6th, 1901. I found the 
shore at Bakal lined twenty to fifty yards in width with small 
bushes and brambles. These were thickly crowded with the 
same small moth that we have had in crowds all across the 
Black Sea. At every step among the bushes a swarm of dis- 
turbed moths would fly up." 

The next year I was in the Black Sea rather later when the 
annual (?) swarm of this small moth was presumably almost 
over, for I find the following entry in my field note-book : — 
" Aug. 2l8t, 1902. The same species of Warbler that came on 
board last voyage came on board at Kavak, and accompanied us 
to Theodosia. It was after the same species of moth as before." 

* I much regret that the specimens brought back for identification have 
always miscarried. 



10 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Again, quoting from my field note-book : — "July 26th, 1907. 
All across the Black Sea from the Crimea to the Bosphorus we 
were accompanied by a mighty swarm of moths — the same, I 
think, that I noticed in 1901. A vast swarm of beetles and butter- 
flies (Painted Ladies) accompanied them, and also a few other 
moths. A strong and continuous north wind brought them." 

Dragonflies. — In August, 1902, we were lying off Ghenitshesk 
in the Azov, and were troubled with flies and gnats &c. that 
were blown out to us from the shore ; they came in great 
quantities quite suddenly with a change of wind. My note- 
book records our deliverance from the plague thus : — " August 
26th, 1902. A swarm of small dragonflies (blue, red, and 
yellow) invaded the ship and fed on the gnats &c." Our 
authority, Mr. W. J. Lucas, identified them as Sympetrum fons- 
colombii, which he informed me were migrating nt this time. 
Most of them departed in a day or so, though occasional stow- 
aways emerged from odd corners during the rest of the voyage. 

Beetles.* — Lying off the southern end of the Tonka of Arabat 
in the Azov we experienced a plague of beetles, which I recorded 
as follows : — " July 10th, 1907. To-day there was an epidemic of 
black beetles about an inch long, which flew on board in crowds, 
and were swept up in heaps dead — some killed by paraffin, and 
some roasted to death on the hot steam pipes &c. The swarm has 
evidently been immense, as it lasted for three or four hours, and 
came with the north wind which must have blown the beetles 
from the north coast some fifty miles away, and therefore 
quantities must have been drowned on the way. When I went 
ashore at four p.m. (a distance of two miles) drowned beetles 
were to be seen in thousands all the way to the shore." This 
species came again in batches every two or three days and, as 
previously mentioned, accompanied us across the Black Sea. I 
have the following note written when the Bosphorus was again 
reached :— " Black Sea July 24th, 1907. At Kertch (July 22nd) 
I saw hundreds of the same beetles in the sea, and all across the 
Black Sea we had another plague of them, especially on July 24th. 
There was a north-west wind all the time, which brought them 
from the Crimea." 

* I am indebted to Mr. W. F. Kirby for identifying tbese as Harpalus 
calceatus, Duftschm. 



SWARMS OF INSECTS, dc, IN THE CRIMEA. 11 

Butterflies (Pyrameis cardui). — Perhaps the most remarkable 
swarm was that of Painted Ladies. I quote from an entry in 
my field note-book, written just before leaving Arabat Bay for 
Kertch on July 20th : — "Ever since July 10th Painted Ladies 
have been very numerous, but on the 15th and 16th the ship was 
swarming with them, and as far as the glass could reach the 
air was full of them, all coming down with a north wind. Only 
comparatively few stopped on board the ship. The swarm con- 
tinued for two days. On the third day when I was ashore, as I 
walked along the Tonka among the low scrub, hundreds rose as 
I disturbed the bushes. Swallows and Hoopoes were about 
hawking for insects, but I did not see them go for the Painted 
Ladies. At night at the merchant's house* they roosted in 
thousands among the small trees and the creeper covering the 
verandah and were easily picked off asleep. On one occasion 
when we were dining under the creeper by candle-light someone 
gave the creeper a smart jerk above our heads, whereupon a 
cloud of the sleepy creatures fluttered down, and we counted 
over a hundred on the cloth. With this swarm there were a 
few other species, among which the most prominent were the 
Gold-tail (Porthesia auriflua) and the Spurge-hawk (Deilephila 
euphorbia)." 

"July 26th, 1907. We left Kertch July 22nd, and were 
followed almost to the Bosphorus by a north-west wind. On 
the 24th we came into a swarm of P. cardui, which had 
evidently been blown from the Crimea. Ever since the first 
swarm at Arabat I have noticed these butterflies in vast numbers 
wherever I have been ashore (i. e. at Akmanai, Theodosia, and 
Kertch). A very noteworthy characteristic and one that I have 
not observed before in any butterfly is the habit of soaring 
through the air like a bird without flapping the wings. It was a 
curious and beautiful sight." 

Toads (Bufo viridis). — " July 13th, 1907. Leaving Theodosia 
by train for Akmanai (a distance of thirty miles) we passed 
over flat arable land which had been deluged with rain during 
the previous night. During the whole of the journey the railway 

* A small farm used by our charterer temporarily while we were loading, 
and where I often spent the night instead of returning on board after a 
ramble ashore. 



12 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

track was literally black with small Toads which tried to hop 
away at our approach. The fields and ditches by the line were 
also swarming with Toads as far as could be seen." 

Unless one has witnessed a flight of Locusts, or the immense 
shoals of migrating fish, it is difficult to imagine the magnitude 
of these swarms. It might help one to realize the conditions of 
such invasions if a swarm on a like scale were to invade the 
British Isles, the length and breadth of which roughly corre- 
spond with the area which my observations show to have been 
actually covered by some of the swarms in the Black Sea and 
Azov — though how much further they travelled south, or from 
how much further north they came, or how wide a space the 
flights covered, I cannot say. My impression is that most of 
these particular flights would be checked by the hills on the 
south of the Black Sea where the wind dies down, for as soon 
as this happens insects, especially beetles, have a tendency to 
drop and settle — a fatal proceeding if they happen to be over 
the sea at the time. At any rate the north-west wind which 
carried the Painted Ladies and the beetles died down as we 
reached the Bosphorus, and I only noticed a few of the former 
at Constantinople, and none after that except one or two on 
board the ship that had most likely been passengers from the 
Black Sea. 

Suppose, then, such a flight of butterflies or beetles covering 
the whole of our islands for the best part of a week — or suppose 
that after a thunder-shower the whole of Middlesex were to 
become black with hopping Toads — I think the papers would 
universally chronicle such events ; whereas only a few ocean- 
going tramps pass through these Bussian swarms, and the only 
notice taken is evinced by a little extra "language" when the 
beetles or what not mingle with the "Harriet Lane" or "White- 
chapel Mysteries " in the mess-kids. Of course the moujiks 
ashore never seem to notice anything. 

As I have watched these myriads of wind-borne creatures 
lightly hurrying past for days together the thought often 
occurred to me that, given a continuance of favourable winds, a 
tremendous distance might be traversed before the crowd would 
become too thin to make sure of some settling on ocean islands, 
however small and scattered. 



( 13 ) 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 
By James Clark, M.A., D.Sc, A.R.C.S. 

(Concluded from vol. xi. p. 459.) 

The Thick-lipped Grey Mullet (Mugil chelo, Cuv.) occurs 
commonly all the year round along the south coast in small 
shoals or schools, and is of frequent occurrence at St. Ives. 
During the summer months it is plentiful in harbours and 
estuaries, and has been reported in the Fowey some distance 
beyond the reach of tidal water. In July, 1904, several were 
taken one afternoon with an artificial fly at Truro Quay ; and 
Cunningham mentions that it is common in Swanpool, near 
Falmouth, an almost freshwater ley, into which the Mullet can 
only enter through a narrow grating when they are young and 
quite small. By far the most important catches in the county 
are made at Sennen, near Land's End, where there is a regular 
Grey Mullet fishery throughout the winter. Enormous schools 
congregate there almost every year, and by means of a special 
draw-seine, the ownership of which is divided into ninety-five 
shares, as many as ten to twelve thousand have been captured 
at a time. The first school is expected about the middle of 
November, and in some seasons the fish are taken all through 
the winter, especially on moonlight nights. They are often seen 
lying for days in an awkward place under the cliffs or on a rocky 
ground, and are carefully watched till the school moves into 
shallower water on a sandy bottom, where the seine can be shot. 
They also appear frequently in various coves between Whitsand 
Bay and St. Ives, and are common in Lelant estuary during 
summer and autumn (Vallentin) . They have been taken at New- 
quay, and at least once, about seven years ago, at Port Isaac. 
When a seine is shot the fish, as a rule, become very lively and 
excitable, and at times a large number may spring high out of 
the water over the edge of the net. A little straw on the surface 
of the water, however, will prevent their jumping. The Sennen 



14 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

fishermen often go into the water up to their waists and hold 
the edge of the net overhead to hinder their escape. Elsewhere 
along the south and about St. Ives the schools are relatively 
small. The largest specimen handled by the writer weighed 
twelve pounds fourteen ounces, and was taken at Coverack. 
Great schools of young Grey Mullet an inch or less in length are 
occasionally seen in Falmouth Harbour from the middle of July 
to the middle of August. On the 14th of July, 1906, there was 
a great swarm on Gyllyngvase beach, where the long stretch of 
sand abuts against the low weed-covered rocky ground opposite 
Swanpool. Last year (1907) they Were plentiful in Fowey 
Harbour during the third week in August, and at Mevagissey 
a few days later. The Thin-lipped Grey Mullet (Mugil capito, 
Cuv.) is not distinguished by the fishermen from the preceding 
species, but Day implies it was common along the south. In 
December, 1906, two were sent in from Sennen, and in February 
of the present year (1907) a school appeared in Falmouth Bay 
and Harbour, but these seem to be the only recent records. The 
Sand Smelt or Atherine (Atherina presbyter, Jenyns) is a common 
visitor in large shoals in autumn, and colonies remain here and 
there in shallow water along the south coast, as at Mevagissey, 
St. Mawes, Coverack and Porthleven, throughout the winter. In 
January, 1907, several were picked up dead on the sand at the 
Bothwick Kocks, Newquay. The Larger Launce {Ammodytes 
lanceolatus, Lesauvage) is locally common on sandy bottoms in 
shallow water along the south coast, and on the north especially 
at St. Ives, where this and the next species are often taken in 
large numbers in a drag-seine shot with that intention. Vallen- 
tin has seen the Gannets there so gorged with this fish as to be 
unable to fly. In other localities it is generally dragged out of 
the sand by sickle-shaped hooks specially made for the purpose. 
The Lesser Launce {Ammodytes tobianus, L.) is very common on 
sandy shores all round the coast. The Pike {Esox lucius, L.) 
was introduced by the Bev. John Daubuz into one of his ponds 
at Killiow, near Truro, but it died out or was exterminated many 
years ago (J. D. Enys). The Garfish or Gerrick {Belone vulgaris, 
Flem.) occasionally appears in shoals in March, as off the Wolf 
Bock in 1900, and about seventy miles N.N.W. of the Longships 
in 1907 ; and sometimes in autumn, as, for example, eight miles 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 15 

south of the Lizard in September, 1902 ; but it is usually found 
accompanying Mackerel, and, indeed, a few are taken with almost 
every catch of that fish. In July, 1907, an adult specimen was 
captured with a baited hand-line off Newquay. When so taken 
it displays remarkable activity, and sometimes tangles the line 
in a very singular fashion. In spite of its bright green bones and 
unpleasant odour this fish is much in demand at Newlyn for the 
London market. Elsewhere it is greatly appreciated as bait, and 
when cut into strips or " snaids " is more effective than Mackerel. 
On Oct. 8th, 1907, a large shoal of young Garfish from three and 
a half to four inches long was noticed in Falmouth Harbour. 
Three days later they had all disappeared. The Saury Pike or 
Skipper (Scombresox saurus, Bl. Schn.) is evidently a regular 
visitor — often in large shoals — off the south and west of the 
county, and at least occasionally in the Bristol Channel. Large 
quantities are frequently taken a mile or two off land in summer 
and autumn in drift-nets and in Pilchard-seines, and it has been 
obtained in the Fowey almost at the limit of tidal influence. In 
September, 1903, it was remarkably abundant several miles 
south-west of Newlyn, and in November, 1901, a drift-boat 
brought in a number at Newquay. The Greater Flying-fish 
(Exoccetus volitans, L.) was reported by B. Q. Couch as having 
been seen by him in Mount's Bay, but the only authentic speci- 
men recorded from the county was obtained by I. Couch from the 
Helford Biver. The Three-spined Stickleback {Gasterosteus 
aculeatus, L.) is somewhat locally distributed round the county, 
but abounds in many of the streams. At times in the late spring 
the variety trachurus is plentiful in Fowey Harbour, about Fal- 
mouth and Helford, and in 1902 was common at the Fistral 
Beach, Newquay. The variety spinulosus is common in the 
streams of the middle and west, but apparently scarce in the 
east, and the variety gymnurus occurs somewhat sparingly in 
the streams about Truro. The Fifteen-spined Stickleback or 
Sea-adder (G. spinachia, L.) is common along the south coast 
and local on the north. Its nests are occasionally found among 
the low weed-covered rocks between tide-marks at the westerly 
end of Fistral Bay, Newquay. 

The Broad-nosed Pipe-fish (Siphonostoma typhle, L.) is fairlv 
common locally among Zostera along the south, and particularly 



16 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

in Falmouth Harbour and the mouth of Helford River. It has 
also been taken at St. Ives, at Padstow, and near Bude. The 
Greater Pipe-fish (Syngnathus acus, L.) is occasionally taken at 
Gyllyngvase Beach among the seaweed at low spring-tide, is 
moderately common on weed-covered bottoms and on low rocks 
from shallow water- downwards along the south and west, and 
may occasionally be seen slashing along the surface of the water 
as much as three or four miles from land. On the north coast it 
has been taken at St. Ives and at Padstow. Syngnathus rastel- 
latus, Nilsson, has till lately been confused with S. acus. It has 
been obtained at Cawsand Bay (M. B. A.), at Mevagissey, and 
near Coverack, and may be common. The Snake Pipe-fish 
(Nerophis cequoreus, L.) is common, at least locally, all round the 
coast from shallow water downwards. It is often found attached 
to Crab- and Lobster-pots, and in August, 1907, several pieces of 
netting submerged in Falmouth Docks for six weeks by the writer 
in connection with some County Council net-tanning experiments 
were taken possession of by hundreds of this fish. They were 
all immature, the largest being nine inches in length, and clung 
tightly to the thread of the net by means of their tails. One 
piece of the netting, about three yards square, slimy with green 
seaweed, carried no fewer than a hundred and twenty-two speci- 
mens when it was pulled on board, and another piece, six feet by 
two, had forty-seven ! The Straight-nosed Pipe-fish (Nerophis 
ophidion, L.) is evidently variable in number, but in some years, 
notably 1904, was locally the most plentiful of all the Pipe-fishes 
in the county, and on certain days during the summer literally 
swarmed under stones and tufts of seaweed from half-way 
between tide-marks downwards about Mevagissey, Gorran, and 
the mouth of Helford River. It is at times common in shal- 
low water, and has been dredged in quantity down to thirty 
and thirty-five fathoms in Falmouth Bay. For the last two 
years (1906 and 1907) it has been very scarce as a littoral species 
at Gyllyngvase and Helford, and apparently, indeed, all along the 
south coast except at St. Michael's Mount. Specimens are occa- 
sionally taken along the north coast as far as Bude, where, in 
July and August, 1905, it was fairly plentiful. The Worm Pipe- 
fish (Nerophis himbriciformis, Yarr.) is not uncommon in weed- 
covered rock-pools, and is occasionally plentiful under stones at 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 17 

low spring-tide along the south and west. On the north coast it 
has been found at St. Ives, and in August, 1905, a single speci- 
men was obtained under a stone at the Black Bock, Widemouth 
Bay, Bude. The Hippocampus or Sea-horse (Hippocampus 
antiquorum, Leach) was taken some years ago in a ground- seine 
at St. Mawes (Rice). On Sept. 14th, 1899, one was captured at 
Porthleven, on Mount's Bay. An attempt was made to bring it 
alive in a pickle-bottle to the Technical Schools, Truro, but it 
died on the way. 

The Carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) is common in ponds through- 
out the county, and the Golden Carp or Gold-fish (C. carassius, L., 
var. auratus, Bl.) thrives in ornamental ponds and fountain- 
basins. Both are, of course, introductions. The Gudgeon 
(Gobio fluviatilis, Flem.) is mentioned by Couch as having been 
introduced into some ponds near Penzance, but Cornish knew 
nothing of it, and there is no subsequent record ; so that it has 
probably died out. Dace (Leuciscus dobula, L.) was recorded by 
Couch as confined to the Tamar and its tributaries, and Miss F. E. 
Tripp describes one that was caught in the Linney. In spite of 
assertions to the contrary, it does not appear to have been taken 
either in the Camel or the Fowey. The Minnow (Leuciscus 
phoxinus, L.) has not been seen by the writer west of Truro, 
though it occurs locally in that neighbourhood, and is probably 
plentiful in the streams of the east, as Couch, who knew the 
latter well, says it is common in many of the rivers, but not in 
all. It is certainly abundant at Trebartha, and in most of the 
tributaries of the Lynher. It also occurs in Dosemary Pool 
(J. D. Enys), and in the stream at Harlyn, near Padstow. The 
Tench (Tinea vulgaris, Cuv.), first introduced by Sir Rose Price, 
Bart., into the ponds at Trengwainton, Penzance (R. Q. Couch), 
is now a common pond-fish throughout the county. The Loach 
(Nemachilus barbatulus, L.) is evidently scarce in the middle and 
west, but is reported as plentiful in the east. Miss F. E. Tripp, 
in some MS. Notes on the Natural History of the Altarnum dis- 
trict, speaks of it as a familiar object in the Linney, and it is 
found in some of the tributaries of the Fowey. It has been 
reported from one of the Looe streams, and from the Perranar- 
worthal stream at Ponjeravah, near Constantine. The Salmon 
(Salmo salar, L.) is chiefly confined to the Tamar, the Fowey, 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., January, 1908. c 



18 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

and the Camel, though during the last few years mine-pollution 
has almost destroyed both Salmon- and Peal-fishing in the 
Fowey. Salmon will at times linger for weeks at its mouth 
without attempting to enter the river till a heavy flood has puri- 
fied its waters (H. J. Bowse), and in many cases, according to the 
local fishermen, will pass out to sea again without entering at all. 
The Camel and the Fowey are among the latest Salmon rivers 
in England, the bulk of the fish appearing in November and 
December. Bod-fishing is allowed up to Nov. 30th. Peal 
(Salmo trutta, L., var. cambrensis, Donov.) naturally frequents the 
same rivers as the Salmon. It begins to run up the Fowey in 
May and the Camel in June (H. J. Bowse). These early fish are 
large but few in number. The smaller fish — the school Peal — 
appear from July or August onwards. The spring Mackerel 
boats often encounter shoals of Peal in the mouth of the Bristol 
Channel, most frequently about ninety miles N.N.W. of the 
Longships. The Trout (Salmo fario, L.) is plentiful in almost 
every non-polluted stream in the county. The indigenous variety 
— at least in the small streams — is cornubiensis, Walb., in which 
the parr finger-marks persist through life, and the length 
rarely exceeds eight inches. Several varieties and species have 
been introduced from time to time into ponds throughout the 
county. 

The Anchovy (Engraulis enchrasicholus, L.) is probably much 
more plentiful out at sea round the Cornish coast in autumn and 
winter than the records would indicate, as the size of mesh in the 
nets of the drift fishermen is much too large to capture it. In 
November, 1871, Matthias Dunn took one hundred and fifty 
thousand in Pilchard-seines set in Mevagissey Bay; and when 
tow-netting just outside the entrance to Falmouth Harbour on 
Dec. 4th, 1902, the writer's boat passed through a dense shoal 
of undersized fish averaging three to three and a half inches in 
length. A few are caught every now and then in Pilchard-nets 
all along the south coast and at St. Ives. It is usually scarce, 
however, close inshore, but large shoals have been reported 
during the last eight years by Herring-boats south of the Dod- 
man, off Falmouth Bay, at the mouth of the English Channel, 
and in the lower reaches of the Bristol Channel. In the opinion 
of the fishermen, however, its appearance is much too uncertain 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 19 

and irregular to justify the expense involved in equipping the 
boats with the small-meshed nets necessary for its capture. 

The Herring (Clupea harengus, L.) in Cornwall practically 
reaches the southern limit of its distribution. Till lately, though 
large quantities were taken off the Cornish coast in autumn and 
winter, it was not of sufficient importance to maintain a separate 
fishery. About twenty-five years ago it appeared in increasing 
numbers around St. Ives, and, as the seine fishery for Pilchards 
died out there a Herring fishery was gradually developed in its 
place. During the last few years the average annual export of 
Herrings from St. Ives has been about two thousand tons. Port 
Isaac, and to a smaller extent Newquay, are now also centres of 
regular Herring fisheries. On the south coast large quantities 
are brought in at Looe and Mevagissey, and recently the schools 
of Herring have been abundant and regular in their appearance 
from the Eunnelstone to Porthleven. At present the best ground 
in the south is off St. Loy, both for the size and the frequency of 
the takes, but during the last three seasons the numbers in and 
about Mount's Bay generally have been so great that the Newlyn 
men are looking forward hopefully to the establishment of a 
regular Herring fishery there. The movement of the Herring 
from deep water shorewards for spawning purposes and their 
migration along the coast are somewhat irregular, and greatly 
affected by the weather and other less recognisable influences. 
A storm drives them at once into deep water, where they remain 
till fine weather again tempts them inshore ; but even with little 
or no change in the surface of the sea they may be found some 
distance out one day and close in on the rocks the next. In some 
seasons the fish at particular localities spend much more time 
inshore than usual, or else hug the shore much more closely in 
passing. At Sennen, near Land's End, for instance, the Herring 
generally pass some distance out at sea, but during the winters 
of 1905-6 and 1906-7 large schools were frequently seen within 
a quarter of a mile of the breakers, but unfortunately the fisher- 
men there do not possess sufficient equipment to enable them to 
make full use of such opportunities. 

There is no spring Herring fishery in Cornwall, but large 
specimens are taken in the Mackerel-nets in May and June out 
in the Channel and N.N.W. of St. Ives, and in June, July, and 

c 2 



20 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

August by Pilchard drift-nets in deep water. In October num- 
bers begin to put in an appearance on the south coast, though 
the fishing about Mount's Bay and westward does not generally 
commence till the middle of the following month. Early in 
November, as a rule, large schools are found travelling westward 
along the Bristol Channel past Port Isaac, Newquay, and St. 
Ives. These north coast fish are usually of medium size, but 
amongst the November arrivals on the south coast are a number 
of large Herrings that spawn later than the great majority of 
the medium and small-sized ones — in February for the most 
part instead of in December and January — and, as Matthias 
Dunn suggested, may represent a different strain that comes 
directly inshore from deep water instead of coasting round the 
county. This present season, however, Herring of very unusual 
size have already (Nov. 20th, 1907) been taken in quantity all 
along the north coast, and the Port Isaac men complain that 
their packing barrels, made to contain five hundred, will hold no 
more than three hundred and a quarter. The Herring fishery is 
most productive in November and December, but is often con- 
tinued with success into the New Year, though, of course, the 
percentage of " shotten " fish increases rapidly after Christmas. 
Fish are at times taken in quantity as late as the month of 
March out to twenty miles south of the Lizard. Though usually 
regarded as surface-feeders, Herring are occasionally taken on 
the bottom in fairly deep water. A number of large full speci- 
mens were taken with a beam-trawl in twenty fathoms of water 
in Falmouth Bay in December, 1901, and several of medium size 
in thirty-five fathoms about the end of October, 1904. The 
Sprat (Clupea sprattus, L.) apparently fluctuates considerably in 
its numbers and distribution, for Day, as a result of personal 
investigation, says it is rare along the south coast of the county, 
though numerous at St. Ives, whereas during the past four years 
it has been locally common along the south from Polperro round 
to the north coast. In 1900 and 1901 it was scarce at St. Ives, 
and on the south was only obtained in quantity in Mount's Bay, 
while scarcely a single specimen was captured further east. 
Probably on account of the irregularity of the supply there is no 
regular Sprat fishery in the county, except with ground-seines at 
Saltash and on the shores of the Hamoaze. The Pilchard 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 21 

(Clapeapilchardas,h.) is the most characteristic of Cornish fishes. 
Though occasionally taken off Exmouth and Seaton, its English 
range, from the fisherman's point of view, has in the past been 
from Trevose Head, near Padstow, all round the Cornish coast 
to Start Point, in Devon. In or about 1883, however, the large 
shoals that visited the north coast in abundance in the autumn 
somewhat suddenly ceased to put in an appearance except in a 
casual way, and though large quantities of Pilchards still appear 
in September and October off St. Ives, the great diminution in 
the coasting shoals has caused the large Pilchard seine-fishery 
there to dwindle into insignificance. Casual fish are taken at 
the end of May and early in June, but the great schools do 
not enter the Cornish seas till the middle of June or later. 
The fish are usually thickest close inshore, though in June and 
July, 1905, they were remarkably abundant and compact some 
five miles south-east of the Wolf. All through the summer, as a 
rule, Pilchards are plentiful and dense in Mount's Bay, and this 
is naturally the seat of the most extensive Pilchard fishing in 
the county. In addition to the local boats from Mousehole, 
Newlyn, and Porthleven, the St. Ives men fish there up to 
September, when they return to their own waters. During the 
Pilchard season the colour of the water in the Bay is green and 
thick so long as the wind keeps in the south-west, but with a 
northerly or north-east wind for a short time the water gets very 
clear with less fish (Pezzack). The Mevagissey boats fish, as a 
rule, 'off Veryan and the Dodman, and the Looe boats about 
Downderry and Portwrinkle. This summer, however, for the 
first time for many years, Falmouth Bay proved to be the best 
of all the fishing centres, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Swanpool. though the fish did not come as close inshore as they 
usually do in Mount's Bay. The Pilchard fishery may come to 
a close in October, as in 1905, or it may continue through the 
month of November, and on rare occasions up to Christmas. 
The average Cornish Pilchard measures eight to nine inches in 
length, and rarely exceeds eleven, though W. E. Bailey, of 
Penzance, had a model made of a Cornish specimen that 
measured fourteen inches. As the Sardines sent to England 
in oil in airtight tins are simply young Pilchards which appear 
in great numbers off the French and Iberian coast from May to 



22 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

October, Cunningham carried out a systematic series of experi- 
ments with French small-meshed nets and the French method 
of fishing in Mount's Bay, Falmouth Bay, Mevagissey, and 
Looe, to ascertain if it would be possible to establish a Sardine 
industry in the county. Though the small fish were occasionally 
found in abundance, their occurrence was much too irregular to 
justify the outlay on a factory. 

The Allis Shad (Clupea alosa, L.) is commonly called the 
Damon Herring in Cornwall. It is often taken in an emaciated 
condition in the Mackerel-nets in May and June out at sea on 
the south and west of the county, but shoals are scarce and 
usually small, except inshore near the estuaries and river- 
mouths. In the spring of 1900 about three hundred and fifty 
were obtained in a Mackerel-seine at Looe, and in 1903 it was 
taken plentifully by the writer on the east side of the Manacles 
when whiffing for Pollack. Day says it is rare in Mount's Bay 
and St. Ives, but during the last eight years it has been of 
frequent occurrence in the west. It is often obtained singly in 
the Bristol Channel. In May, 1907, a small shoal appeared in 
Padstow Bay, and a little later several were captured in the 
Camel at Egloshayle. The Twait Shad {Clupea finta, Cuv.) is 
not so common as the Allis Shad, but a few are taken in the 
Mackerel drift-nets in May and June every year from off the 
Dodman round to St. Ives. In 1902 it was plentiful for a few 
days in the first half of May some miles south of the Wolf. 
Specimens are occasionally obtained in Pilchard-nets in August, 
and rarely in September. 

A single specimen of Paralepis coregonoides, Bisso, was driven 
on the beach alive by Porpoises at Polkerris, near Par, on June 
2nd, 1869, and picked up by Matthias Dunn, who sent it to 
Couch, and he in turn presented it to the British Museum. 

The Eel {Anguilla vulgaris, Turton) is fairly common but not 
abundant in the harbours and locally close to the shore along 
the south, and young ones are often plentiful in many of the 
streams during the early summer. It is also frequently reported 
from the north. The Conger {Conger vulgaris, Cuv.) is plentiful, 
and in places abundant, all round the coast, and occurs from 
low spring tide down to sixty fathoms. It is specially common 
on " scuddy " ground, but among the most favoured localities in 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF COBNISH FISHES. 23 

the county are the Epsom ground, four or five miles south of 
Porthgwarra, and off the Longships and the Brisons. It is 
captured chiefly by long-line fishermen with Pilchard or Mackerel 
as bait. In Cornish waters the fish occasionally attains an extra- 
ordinary size. Buckland mentions one obtained by Matthias 
Dunn that weighed 112 lb., and Bailey, of Penzance, saw one 
taken off Porthgwarra that measured 7 ft. in length and weighed 
105 lb. The largest handled by the writer was 64£ lb., and was 
taken at the Bizzies, near Portscatho, in July, 1900. Two 
examples of Muvcena helena, L., a common Mediterranean fish, 
are recorded from the county by Couch, the last in 1866. In 
March, 1897, a specimen 44|- in. long was trawled off the Eddy- 
stone, and taken to the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 
(Journ. M. B. A. v. 91). 

The Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio, L.) is a fairly frequent casual 
along the south coast and out to the south-west. Dunn/, says 
it has been taken in the trammel-nets at Mevagissey. Bice 
recollects one being captured at St. Mawes, and one about 4 ft. 
long was taken in a trammel at Porthgwarra in the spring of 
1898, the head of which was seen by the writer. The majority, 
however, are obtained some distance out at sea by the big 
trawlers. In February, 1900, one 5 ft. 2 in. long was brought 
in at Porthleven, and in May, 1902, a fine specimen over 7 ft. 
long was captured by a boat from Newlyn. In 1904 two more 
were reported from Newlyn. Pezzack says that to his personal 
knowledge fifteen to twenty specimens have been landed in that 
district during the past thirty years. 

The Blue Shark {Carcharias glaucus, L.) appears along the 
south coast every year, and is often common in the Bristol 
Channel. It arrives, as a rule, in May or June, and departs in 
the early autumn, but its movements are greatly influenced by 
the warmth of the water. It evidently never puts in an appear- 
ance till the sea-temperature is over 50° F., and as a rule the 
hotter the summer the more plentiful does it become. It has 
been seen as early as the first week in March, and as late as the 
third week in November. In 1906 it was remarkably common in 
Mevagissey Bay, and a number were taken with bait and line. 
On its first arrival it is generally very savage, and is at all times 
liable to do serious damage to the fishing-gear by rolling itself in 



24 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the drift-nets and tearing thern with its teeth. In August, 1906, 
a specimen 7 ft. 10 in. long was killed in Falmouth Bay, and still 
larger examples have been reported. The Tope or Toper (Galeus 
vulgaris, Flem.) is occasionally taken in Mackerel-nets and on 
boulters, chiefly during the summer months. On Sept. 28th, 
1907, one measuring 5 ft. 2 in. in length was caught near the 
outer end of the Manacles, where it was ravenously pursuing a 
shoal of Pilchards. The only specimen of the Hammerhead 
(Zygana malleus, Eisso) recorded from the county was taken at 
Newlyn in 1834. The Eough Hound or Murgie (Scyllium cani- 
cula, L.) is common on sandy bottoms, in sandy " lanes," and at 
times among low rocks along the south coast, and is occasionally 
taken in the north. It seems to live for the most part at the 
bottom, two or three miles out at sea, but is often taken in drift- 
nets after a storm. The Nurse Hound (S. catalus, Cuv.) is plen- 
tiful along the south, for the most part in deepish waters on a 
rocky ground. It is evidently a bottom-feeder, and is in places 
taken with hook and line as a bait for the Crab-pots. It was 
taken near Sennen in September, 1906, but has been probably 
overlooked on the north coast. The Black-mouthed Dog-fish 
(Pristiurus melanostomus, Bonap.) was taken at Polperro in 1834. 
Dunn/, reports one he saw in an emaciated condition at Newlyn 
in the late spring of 1906. The Smooth Hound (Mustelus vul- 
garis, Miiller et Henle) has been obtained on the south coast all 
the year round, but is most plentiful during the months of July, 
August, and September. On the north coast it has been identi- 
fied twice during the last eight years. The Porbeagle Shark 
(Lamna cornubica, Gmel.) is often common in deep waters to the 
south and south-west of the county from early summer into 
autumn, and is at times so troublesome to the Mount's Bay 
Mackerel fishermen by dashing backwards and forwards among 
the fish that they are obliged to draw in their nets and go else- 
where. The Shark itself is rarely caught except with baited 
lines, for when it gets rolled up in the net it quickly makes a hole 
the size of its head and slips out without causing very serious 
damage to the net. It is occasionally reported from the Bristol 
Channel. Vallentin mentions one caught in St. Ives Bay in a 
Herring-net that measured 8 ft. 3 in. The Thrasher (Alopecias 
vulpes, Gmel.) is taken almost every year in the Mackerel- and 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 25 

Pilchard-nets ; and in some seasons, notably the late summer of 
1899, and the month of October, 1907, several have been seen 
along the coast about the same time. On Aug. 20th, 1902, a 
small specimen measuring 4 ft. 2 in. in length was captured near 
St. Ives, and it has been twice reported from Tintagel. Some of 
the Cornish specimens are very large. In June, 1874, one 
13 ft. long was killed at Scilly. The Basking Shark (Selache 
maxima, Gunn) is a rare visitor from the Mediterranean, notable 
for its great size, Couch's specimen measuring 31 ft. 8 in. in 
length. One was apparently seen by the crew of an east coast 
Mackerel-boat in May, 1900, some miles south of the Wolf, and 
one was brought into Penzance a few years ago. Three speci- 
mens of the Six-gilled Shark (Notidanus griseus, Gmel.) have 
been taken in the county, the last at Mevagissey in 1873. The 
Picked Dogfish or Spur Dog (Acanthias vulgaris, Risso) is the 
most serious scourge the Cornish fishing industry has to contend 
against. In some years great crowds appear irregularly in the 
waters of the south and west, disturb and destroy the shoals of 
Pilchard and sometimes of Herring and Mackerel, and dash sud- 
denly and recklessly on the fish just as they are entering the net, 
and not only ravenously devour every single specimen but in 
their savage onslaught often destroy the net as well. So abundant 
are they in places that the boats are often compelled to abandon 
the infested grounds altogether for a time. Occasionally the 
" dogs " appear in incredible numbers, and are so widespread 
that the nets are destroyed to an alarming extent, and the con- 
tinuance of the Mackerel, Pilchard, and Herring fishery under 
such conditions would be altogether impossible. In the early 
part of last autumn a steam-drifter shot a boulter, with two thou- 
asnd hooks, eight miles south-west of the Lizard. The captain 
says that when the line was drawn there was a Dogfish on every 
hook, and in some cases three or four savagely clinging to a cap- 
tured " dog," and in others only the head and gills were left on 
the hook (Pezzack). All along the Channel from the Eddystone 
to the Longships, and off Pendean and St. Ives, the shoals 
last autumn were numerous and dense. On the morning of 
November 15th the nets of two fishing-smacks in Whitsand Bay, 
W.N.W. of the Eddystone, suddenly became alive with Dogfish, 
tearing and rending the meshes in all directions. The efforts to 



26 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

haul the nets on board having failed, the men tried to tow their 
tumultuous catch into port, but in a few minutes every fish had 
torn its way through and escaped, leaving only the tattered nets 
behind. News, too, had just come to hand that the Mevagissey 
fleet of sixty boats had returned to its moorings after one of the 
worst autumn Pilchard seasons on record. On account of the abun- 
dance of Dogfish the nets could not be left in the water, and even 
when a catch was made the Pilchards were devoured, and the nets 
rendered useless before they could be hauled on board. At every 
fishing port along the south a similar tale was being told, and the 
autumn Pilchard fishery last year threatens to be a disastrous 
failure. The loss inflicted by these predatory vermin of the sea 
during the past few years has excited considerable public interest 
in the county, and sundry schemes have been put forward for 
lessening the evil. One of these is to draw the "dogs" together 
in some convenient place by an extensive dumping of fish-offal in 
the sea, and then to blow them to pieces with dynamite. Attempts 
have also been made to popularise the fish as an article of food 
under the recently adopted name of "Flake." When skinned 
and cooked fresh the flesh is firm, wholesome, and palatable, 
but for various reasons it is most readily saleable when smoked, 
in which condition its quality and flavour are excellent. With 
a good and reliable market for the fish, special nets could be 
prepared for its capture, and its presence might then be turned 
to profit. 

A stray specimen of Centrina salviani, Kisso, was trawled in 
twenty-six fathoms near the Wolf, and was described by Cornish 
(Zool. 1887, p. 221). The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, 
Gmel.) has been frequently obtained along the south coast, 
twelve county specimens being mentioned by Day. One 5 ft. 
4 in. long was brought in by a trawler at Newlyn on Dec. 10th, 
1899, and one 7 ft. 5 in. in length was caught with hook and 
line in Falmouth Bay on July 4th, 1902. The Angel-fish or 
Monk-fish (Rhina squatina, L.) is fairly common in spring and 
summer along the south, and is occasionally taken on the north 
coast, especially at St. Ives. It is caught in trammels, on long 
lines, and at times in trawls, and is used by the crabbers for 
bait. The Torpedo (Torpedo nobiliana, Bonap.) has been fre- 
quently captured round the coast from Polperro to St. Ives, and 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 27 

during the last eight years has been recorded nine times on the 
south coast, the last in 1906 at Newlyn (Pezzack). On May 
26th, 1904, a specimen about 3£ ft. long was found dead near 
the mouth of the Camel, and in 1905 two were reported and one 
seen by the writer at St. Ives. The Common Skate (Raia batis, 
L.) is fairly common along the south coast, and evidently local 
on the north. It may often be taken in some quantity with a 
boulter on a sandy bottom close to "scuddy" rocks, and is 
frequently brought in by trawlers. The Flapper Skate (R. macro- 
rhynchus, Kaf.) has been recorded from the south coast, but is 
not distinguished from the Common Skate by the fishermen, and 
has not been seen by the writer. The White Skate (R. alba, 
Lacep.) is locally fairly common in deep waters from Downderry 
round to St. Ives in summer and early autumn, and has been 
obtained near Padstow. Small specimens were very common at 
Pendower Beach, Falmouth, last year (1906), and were readily 
captured with hand-lines. The Long-nosed Skate (R. oxy- 
rhynchus, L.) is occasionally brought in by trawlers, more espe- 
cially from the west and south-west. In some years at least it 
is common on a little patch of "scuddy" ground in forty-five 
fathoms of water about a mile west of the Wolf Lighthouse. The 
Shagreen Bay (R.fallonica, L.) is mentioned by Couch as rare in 
Cornwall. On June 21st, 1900, the writer found a specimen 
2 ft. 7 in. long in the fish-market at Penzance that had been 
brought in from Mount's Bay. The Thornback (R. clavata, L.) 
is common from shallow water to twenty-five fathoms on a sandy 
bottom all round the coast, and locally also in deeper water 
throughout the summer. In winter it has been taken with a 
long line at a depth of fifty fathoms. Last year (1906) it was 
unusually plentiful in the deeper water inside the long sandy bar 
at Pendower Beach, Falmouth, where it was voraciously feeding 
on the Plaice, small Turbot, and other flat-fish that are generally 
to be found there in considerably quantity. The Homelyn or 
Spotted Kay (R. maculata, Mont.) is common on sand, especially 
in shallow water, along the south coast, but seems to be local on 
the north. This and the Thornback are the chief edible Bays in 
the county. The Blonde (R. blanda, Holt et Calderwood) is said 
to be larger and more spiny than the Homelyn, with which it 
has till recently been confounded. Holt says Couch's description 



28 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

applies to both, but was based on a specimen of the Blonde. The 
Painted Ray (R. microcellata, Mont.) appears to fluctuate in 
numbers, but is usually fairly common and in places abundant 
throughout the summer along the south coast. For the last few 
years it has been plentiful near Mevagissey. In 1901, and again 
in 1906, it was common in Gerran's Bay from fifteen fathoms 
downwards. In 1901 and 1902 it was taken in quantity two or 
three miles out in Falmouth Bay, and of late it has been common 
locally in Mount's Bay. The only recognized Cornish specimen 
of the Starry Ray (R. radiata, Don.) known to the writer was 
brought into Newlyn on Nov. 14th, 1902, from some " scuddy " 
ground close to the Wolf in about forty-five fathoms of water. It 
measured 16£ in. in length and 12^ in. in breadth. The Cuckoo 
Ray or Sandy Ray (R. circularis, Couch) is frequently taken on 
sandy and " scuddy " ground in deep water along the south, and 
off St. Ives. It has been taken lately off Mevagissey, at Port- 
scatho, off Pendower Beach, and has been reported from Cove- 
rack, off Praa Sands in Mount's Bay, and twice from St. Ives ; 
but it does not seem to be at all prevalent in any of these 
localities. The Sting Ray (Trygon pastinaca, L.) is a frequent 
casual from shallow water downwards in sand, and especially in 
muddy sand, all round the coast from Downderry to Padstow. 
The largest Cornish specimen seen by the writer measured 2 ft. 
8 in. in length and 1 ft. 8 in. broad, and was taken by hook and 
line in twenty-three fathoms in Falmouth Bay. On Aug. 2nd, 
1901, five small ones were taken at the mouth of Helford River. 
Couch says the Eagle Ray or Whip Ray (Myliobatis aquila, L.) 
has once occurred in Cornwall. Several specimens have been 
taken off Plymouth (Day). 

The Sea Lamprey {Petromyzon marinus, L.) is apparently 
scarce. On May 17th, 1902, two were seen and one gaffed in 
Fowey Harbour, and on April 10th one was taken at St. Mawes. 
The Larapern or River Lamprey (P.fluviatilis, L.) is frequently 
taken in the Lynher and its tributaries, but does not seem to 
be known in the west of the county. The Mud Lamprey (P. 
branchialis, Cuv.) is common in almost all the rivers of Corn- 
wall. Because of its great toughness it is much in request as a 
bait for Whiting-Pollack. The Hag-fish {Myxine glutinosa, L.) 
is described by Cornish as rare, and apparently the only county 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CORNISH FISHES. 29 

record is of a specimen found by Cocks in the stomach of a Cod 
at Falmouth. The Lancelet {Branchiostomma lanceolata, Pall.) 
is evidently very local in sand down to forty-five fathoms all 
along the south coast, but cannot be considered rare. In a 
favoured spot in twenty-five fathoms in Falmouth Bay eleven 
were obtained at a single cast of the dredge in 1904, and speci- 
mens have been taken on each of three subsequent visits to 
the same place. On the north coast single specimens have been 
found at St. Ives and at Padstow. Vallentin found young larvae 
4 to 6 mm. long fairly common in St. Ives Bay in August, 1905, 
but in spite of careful dredging was not successful in finding its 
permanent habitat. 



30 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



AVES. 
Eggs of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio). — Your correspon- 
dent's suggestion in regard to the variation in the eggs of Lanius 
collurio (Zool. 1907, p. 429), to my mind, is entirely wrong, contrary to 
my own experience, and to what I think is now generally accepted as a 
concrete opinion, viz. one bird, one type. If Mr. Mussel- White will 
take a trip to Bempton when the cliff men are " egging," and get into 
conversation with some of them, they will convince him on this 
point in a very short time. They know from a very lengthy experi- 
ence that in many cases (unless anything has happened to the bird) 
the same type of egg will be found on the same ledge year after year ; 
so well do they know these particular spots that they will tell you 
what type of eggs they expect to bring up. Mr. J. M. Goodall has 
among his exceedingly fine series of eggs of Guillemot (Uria troile) 
the production of several birds extending over a number of years, and 
taken from the same ledges frequented by those particular birds. In 
each case they are all absolutely identical, and obviously laid by the 
same females, and would, I venture to say, convince the most sceptical 
oologist on this all-important and most interesting problem. Those 
who have formed a large series of the eggs of U. troile will appreciate 
the difficulty there is in finding two eggs identical in ground colour 
and marking. It is therefore a comparatively easy matter to trace 
those which are the produce of one female ; though they may differ 
slightly in marking the general character is maintained. I have 
proved this conclusively in regard to many species (including Lanius, 
collurio). Among them I may mention Black-headed Gull, Thrush, 
Nightingale, Nightjar, Cuckoo, Kentish Plover, Herring-Gull, Tree- 
Pipit, Blackbird, Kestrel, Redbreast, Lapwing, Richardson's Skua, 
Stone Curlew, &c. With regard to the Red-backed Shrike, it is well 
known that the eggs of this species vary considerably, but neverthe- 
less are confined to four distinct types (not varieties). There are of 
course intermediate, modified, and extreme types, which may be, and 
should be, termed varieties, or, strictly speaking, varieties of types. 
In a large series of these eggs it is quite easy to detect these four 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 31 

distinct types. The majority of writers are in error in regard to the 
number and description of these types, some of which' are omitted 
altogether, or very inadequately described, Seebohm and Charles Dixon 
alone mentioning and accurately describing them, though Seebohm 
only figures two. They are well figured in ' Oologia Universalis Palse- 
arctica,' George Thrause, part v., and in ' Eggs of the Birds of Europe,' 
H. E. Dresser, part viii. In the latter splendid work they are beauti- 
fully figured, but unfortunately Mr. Dresser has apparently left out the 
buff type. They are : (1) pure white to pale yellow ; (2) palest pink to 
rich salmon ; (3) pale green to greenish white ; (4) pale brown to rich 
buff. I have placed them in the order to which they occur numeri- 
cally. No. 4 type is the one to which I refer as having been in- 
accurately described or omitted altogether, chiefly, no doubt, owing to 
its rarity. For the present purpose I have thought it sufficient to 
refer only to the ground colour, which is, to my mind, the most im- 
portant and only correct way of distinctly separating the types, not 
only of this species but of nearly, if not all, others. Now, it is quite 
obvious to me that the bird spoken of by Mr. Mussel- White as having 
produced the grey type in 1906 was not the same bird that produced 
the red type in 1907. Were his contention right, would he claim 
that in 1908 this bird would produce another type '? — say, the green 
type — and finally, in 1909, it would produce the buff type, thus having 
produced the four types in four consecutive years. Now we come to 
the crucial point — is the bird to commence producing these four 
types over again, which it should be expected to do if Mr. Mussel- 
White's theory be correct ? This is, I think, most improbable and 
quite contrary to the accepted rule of Nature. I am quite convinced 
in my own mind that the one type is perpetuated by one female (even 
though she may change her mate) — at least, all the evidence I have 
accumulated points in this direction — and the more experienced I 
become in the science of oology the more convinced I am, every 
season bringing fresh evidence in support. I will quote one case in 
point which has helped that conviction (in addition to the one 
already quoted). In the spring of 1906 I received from a corre- 
spondent in North Devon three eggs of the Tree-Pipit (A. trivialis) 
of a most uncommon variety, intermediate between the red mottled 
type and the red spotted or blotched type, which I had never seen 
before among the great number of clutches brought to my notice. 
This year I received, from the same correspondent and locality, a 
clutch which is identical in every respect and cannot have been pro- 
duced by any other than the same bird. Speaking of eggs generally, 



32 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the age of the bird has nothing whatever to do with the coloration, 
except in regard to the intensity or modification of such, the predomi- 
nating pigments always remaining the same. This of course only 
applies to normal conditions, and not to those birds whose condition 
has become abnormal and produce varieties or .freak eggs. Food, I 
am inclined to think, has a certain influence on the colours of eggs, 
but not in regard to the actual and set types. Climatic conditions I 
do not find influence in the smallest degree the normal and set types, 
eggs from the Continent being identical in every respect with those 
found of the same species in this country, though in size and shape 
they may differ, but only to an almost imperceptible degree. Why 
Mr. Mussel- White should think that the Cuckoo (C. canorus) should 
perpetuate the same type of eggs and not the Eed-backed Shrike 
I cannot say, though fully endorsing all he says in regard to 
G. canorus ; of this I have in my series of Cuckoo's eggs sufficient 
evidence which to my mind is conclusive. As wonderful as it is 
(taking into consideration the risks entailed in migration) that certain 
birds return to the same neighbourhood annually, it must be 
remembered that after all they are simply being guided by their 
hereditary natural instinct. — Peecy F. Bunyaed (57, Kidderminster 
Eoad, Croydon). 

Great Grey Shrike near York. — A fine specimen of the Great Grey 
Shrike (Lanius excubitor) was caught by two birdcatchers when 
"setting" limed twigs for Linnets at Strensall, near York, on Nov. 
28th last. The Shrike, caught by the wing, struggled fiercely, and 
savagely bit at its captors, who, not knowing what the bird was, 
willingly disposed of it alive for a small sum. The purchaser kept it 
two days, endeavouring to get it to eat mice, which it readily killed 
but would not eat, and through lack of knowledge of Shrike's food on 
the part of its possessor the bird died of starvation, the preserved 
remains being added to the collection of Mr. Harry Dale, of York. — 
Sydney H. Smith (20, Park Crescent, York). 

Richard's Pipit (Anthus richardi) in Ireland. — On Nov. 22nd last 
a birdcatcher brought me a live bird taken in his net the previous 
night at Lucan, Co. Dublin, whilst netting Sky-Larks. As the bird 
had the appearance of a large Pipit, I had little difficulty in recog- 
nizing it from the description in Saunders's 'Manual' as a Eichard's 
Pipit. Some idea of its rarity in this country may be estimated by 
the fact that the supposed occurrence in Ireland was in 1824, and 
that was considered so doubtful that it was removed from the Irish list 
by Messrs. Ussher and Warren in their work on ' The Birds of Ireland.' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 33 

This capture places the bird once more beyond doubt on the Irish list. 
It was seen in the flesh by Mr. E. M. Barrington. — W. J. Williams 
(2, Dame Street, Dublin). 

Ospreys in Co. Sligo. — I regret to record the capture of two 
Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), within a few miles of one another, in 
Co. Sligo during the month of November last. The first was captured 
by a boy, the second was shot a fortnight after ; they were both in 
immature plumage, and doubtless the offspring of the birds so rigidly 
protected in Scotland. — -W. J. Williams (2, Dame Street, Dublin). 

Night-Heron in Ireland. — An immature bird of this species (Nycti- 
corax griseus) was shot on Lord Darnley's estate in Co. Meath on 
November 21st last. It was in fat condition and perfect plumage. 
Stomach empty when captured. — W. J. Williams (2, Dame Street, 
Dublin). 

American Wood Duck in Oxfordshire. — Early in last December 
Mr. E. W. Calvert saw hanging up in Oxford Market a strange Duck, 
which he was informed had been shot on Otmoor — the great resort in 
Oxfordshire of wildfowl — on the 4th of the month. He most kindly 
purchased it and had it sent to me. It proved to be a specimen of 
the Wood (or Summer) Duck (JEx sponsa) in the plumage of the 
female. This beautiful Duck is one of the American species which is 
not admitted to a place on the British list, on the grounds that it 
breeds on ornamental waters in this country, and that young birds 
which are left full-winged sometimes wander away. But it has a 
wide range in North America — from Hudson's Bay to the Gulf of 
Mexico ; and, according to Mr. D. G. Elliot, it is one of the earliest of 
the water-birds to start on its southern migration from the northern 
part of its habitat . . . "so anxious does it seem to be to get away 
from even the suspicion of winter " (cf. ' The Wildfowl of North 
America,' p. 87). The example in question was in good condition and 
in beautiful plumage, and weighed 17 oz. when it came into my 
hands. — 0. V. Aplin (Bloxham, Oxon). 

Wild Ducks near Lincoln City. — On the morning of Dec. 6th, 1907, 
I passed a sheet of water lying within a mile of the centre of Lincoln 
City, and, seeing that the surface was dotted over with wildfowl, I turned 
a strong pair of prism-glasses upon the birds, and saw that they con- 
sisted of Coots and no fewer than seven species of Ducks. The species 
and approximate numbers were as follows : — Mallard and Duck, fifty 
pairs ; Teal, twenty-five pairs ; Shoveler, three ducks ; Wigeon, one 
duck ; Tufted Ducks, ten, only one old drake ; Pochard, three pairs ; 
Zool 4th ser vol. XII., January. 1908. d 



34 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Golden-eye, three, ducks or immature. Many Hooded Crows were 
flying about, and hundreds of Lapwings. The lake, known as the 
Ballast Pit, lies close to a railway embankment, and is perhaps half a 
mile in extreme length, being shaped like an obtuse-angled triangle. 
The day was bright and frosty, there being a little ice on the water, 
and the wind was light from the south-east. It was interesting to 
find so many species of wildfowl close to a populous city. — F. L. 
Blathwayt. 

EEPTILIA. 

The Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca) in Devonshire. — As there 
appears to be no record of the occurrence of the Smooth Snake in 
Devonshire, it may be worth while to note the recent capture of an 
example near Sidmouth. My friend and pupil, Mr. H. G. Oliver, was 
walking along a cliff-path at Weston Coombe, about three miles east 
of Sidmouth, on Sept. 14th last, when he disturbed a specimen basking 
in the sun by the side of the path. It at once tried to make off, but 
was partially disabled by a blow from a walking-stick. On being 
picked up it bit savagely at the hand of its captor ; it was with some 
difficulty got into a sandwich-box and so carried home, being subse- 
quently transferred to a bottle of alcohol. The specimen was brought 
to Nottingham for my inspection, and is an adult in good condition, 
measuring nineteen inches in length. — J. W. Caee (University 
College, Nottingham). 



( 35 ) 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



Final Natural History Essays. By Graham Renshaw, M.B., 
F.Z.S. Sherratt & Hughes. 

This is the third and final volume of Dr. Renshaw's natural 
history essays. It is solely confined to mammals, and refers to 
twenty-four different species of animals from various parts of 
the world. The volume is both popular and scientific ; the first 
element is found in an eloquently written dream or reminiscence 
of the species in its original environment, the scene sometimes 
laid in prehistoric times ; the second and very prominent feature 
is to be found in much bibliographical information as to the 
first description, status, and distribution of the creature. Nearly 
all the species are well illustrated from photographs taken by the 
author. 

Many of the species which form the studies for these essays 
are, alas ! approaching perilously near extinction, the lines 
which conclude the volume being almost too suggestive : — 

" And I beheld and saw them one by one 
Pass, and become as nothing in the night." 

With some ghosts of their former selves, such as the South 
African Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus), Dr. Renshaw has ren- 
dered distinct service by recording the number of specimens 
brought to Europe, and their location. 

We are sorry to read that these are final essays, but finality 
is only an abstract term, and there is an element in the papers 
to which Dr. Renshaw will find it difficult to write finis. We 
shall therefore look forward to "New" or "Supplementary 
Essays " from the same writer, and the promise, we think, can 
be safely made that they will be as favourably received as their 
predecessors. These pages mark a very distinct advance on the 
general literature now so abundant on natural history topics. 

We would rather have found an index than " Press Notices " 
at the end of the volume. 



36 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

How to Sex Cage Birds (British and Foreign). By A. G. Butler, 
Ph.D., &c. " The Feathered World" Publishing Office. 

The opening words in the introduction to this very useful 
volume may be taken as its justification : — " Amongst technical 
ornithologists it has been a custom, much to be deplored, to 
describe all birds in which the sexes do not exhibit marked diffe- 
rences in colour of plumage, or well-defined external ornamenta- 
tion, as follows : ' Female similar to male.'" In America more 
minute examination is now being made with unsexed preserved 
skins, and keys being sought to discriminate the sex of same. 
This question has for some years engaged the attention of Dr. 
Butler, and it is a study for which he was particularly well 
equipped. Not only is he a well-known aviculturist, and has 
had a large number of live birds both British and foreign under 
his constant observation, but for many years he was in charge 
of the Lepidoptera at the British Museum, where he was recog- 
nized as having acquired a remarkable keenness in the detection 
of minute differences among butterflies and moths. This faculty 
has now placed him in an excellent position for the discrimination 
of the slightest sexual characters in the plumage and superficial 
structure of birds. He has also made prolonged examination 
among the skins contained in the wonderful collection of the 
British Museum, and has compiled sexual descriptions, where 
available, from much of the ornithological literature. The result 
is this small and well-illustrated volume, which will long remain 
a text-book on the subject. In some cases the differential equa- 
tion will not appear so clear to those who have not the trained 
eyes of the author for the lesser distinctions, which are not in- 
frequently difficult to express in words. A shepherd is said to 
individually recognize his sheep — another acquired faculty which 
is difficult to explain in words, and requires personal tuition and 
an apt pupil. Dr. Butler, however, has given us a book which 
clearly sets forth a large number of clearly apprehended sexual 
differences, and as to a considerable number of others he gives 
the key for a more difficult identification. 

This small volume is amply illustrated, and contains four 
coloured plates. 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 37 

The Useful Birds of Southern Australia, ivith Notes on other Birds. 
By Kobert Hall, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., &c. T. C. Lothian, 
Melbourne & Sydney. 

This book is for the horticulturist a vindication of a number 
of common Australian birds. Their depredations are shown to 
be in the main useful, their food that of the gardener's enemies, 
their habits innocuous. Of the Yellow-rumped Tit {Acanthiza 
chrysorrhoa) we read : — " Each Tit that owns a house in an 
orchard is worth more than its weight in gold, so valuable are 
the services of this insectivorous genus. On no account what- 
ever, except for strictly scientific purposes, should this bird be 
killed or driven from a garden." On the other hand, introduced 
species may become noxious. " Australia has no bird that 
proves so disastrous to rural industries as the introduced Spar- 
row. A law for its stringent suppression should be a satisfactory 
one." The European Starling is recognized as " come to stay. 
Being gregarious, its every action for good or for ill is one of 
whole measure. . . . Up to the present time the bird as a help- 
mate to the grazier and farmer is a valuable one. To the 
orchardist the menace is a serious one." In the introduction we 
are told : — " It is a problem for the future to decide whether a 
war of suppression shall be waged against the Starling, and it 
behoves all who have the farming interests at heart to closely 
watch its ways. Bemember the Babbit and the Sparrow ! " 

Apart from the avine economical standpoint, this small and 
fully illustrated volume tells us much of the life-histories of the 
species which are included in its category, the details given being 
not those of a compiler but the observations of a well-recognized 
Australian ornithologist. Our space will not allow a long quota- 
tion, otherwise we should like to print the summary given of a 
paper by Mr. M'Alpine on the relations between the Lory and 
the fungus of- the citrus tree. Mr. Hall has written a useful 
book on an important subject. 



38 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 



A paper was recently read at Hampsteacl by Mr. W. F. Kirby, 
F.L.S., &c, on " Ants from a Social and Theosophical Standpoint." 
Mr. Kirby commenced his paper by remarking that while much that 
is taught as Theosophy is true, much is highly probable and other 
statements cannot at present be verified, and must be treated as 
useful working hypotheses, to be verified or disproved later on. 
Among these was the statement that several distinct lines of evolu- 
tion were running their course in this world parallel with our own. 
He thought it more probable that ants belonged to one of these than 
to our own line of evolution. There are four groups of insects which 
stand out as prominently from the rest of the insect world as does 
man from the larger animals. These are bees, wasps, termites or 
white ants, and ants, the last of which are the most interesting. He 
then spoke of the contrast between ants and ourselves ; how they 
emerge from the eggs as helpless maggots, and are cared for by the 
working members of the community (which are sterile females) till 
they reach their perfect state, when they are born with all their 
working tools, including brushes and combs, and are able to take 
their share of the work of the community. Their senses are different 
from ours, for there is reason to believe that they see colours which 
are invisible to us. Some of their communities are so vast that a 
single colony might contain a much larger number of individuals than 
the whole human population of the globe. Most communities own 
large herds of cattle (plant-lice, caterpillars of blue butterflies, &c), 
and pets, whilst others subsist by the chase or by growing corn or 
mushrooms. Generally speaking, ants are very patriotic ; and there 
are no unemployed, for in an ant's nest it is each for all and all 
for each. But strangers from another nest are often ruthlessly 
slaughtered, while wars between one nest and another are not un- 
common. Still more remarkable are the slave-making ants, some of 
whom have become so degenerate that they will actually die of 
starvation in the midst of plenty unless they have a slave to feed 
them. They are also annoyed by various enemies and parasites, 
among others by a small cricket, which is in the habit of slyly 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 39 

nibbling at an ant till she turns round, when the cricket bolts. In 
conclusion, Mr. Kirby said that our proceedings would probably 
appear far more irrational to beings proportionately larger than our- 
selves than those of ants do to us. 



Large Fish Caught in 1907. — Exceptionally large "game" fish 
have been killed, notably a splendid Salmon of 61| lb., caught in the 
Tay below Perth by Mr. T. Stewart ; a 50 lb. specimen from the Awe, 
at Taynuilt, landed by Dr. Child ; and a 47 lb. Salmon, secured in the 
Earn, another Scottish river, by the Hon. H. Stonor. Over thirty 
years have elapsed since the Tay yielded to rod and line such a large 
Salmon as that recorded above. In Norway there has also been 
caught a 62 lb. Salmon. 

The Trout landed have included the record fish for London waters 
—the 18 lb. specimen secured by Mr. J. Brigg in the New Eiver at 
Harringay — though the best Trout from the Thames only scaled 8 lb. 
3 oz., a falling off in the weights of previous years. The Thames fish 
was secured by Mr. P. Green, President of the London Anglers' Associa- 
tion. Trout of 17 lb. 4 oz. (Lakes of Killarney), 14 lb. 12 oz. (caught 
in Ireland by Mr. Buckingham, Gresham Angling Society), 13 lb. 3 oz. 
(taken by Mr. H. Currell, Jun., of Hertford), 13|- lb. (secured at Lough 
Corrib by Captain C. E. Bruce), and 12f lb. (taken in the Frome at 
Dorchester by the Eev. S. E. V. Filleul) have been secured. Of the 
Grayling creeled, one of 3 lb., taken by Mr. Zerfass (Gresham Angling 
Society) from a Hampshire stream, heads the list. 

In Pike the Thames has yielded the finest river specimen of the 
year, taken by Mr. E. J. Bowles at Oxford; it scaled 291b. A mon- 
ster Pike of 34 lb. is also recorded from a Wiltshire lake, landed by 
Mr. Angerson, of the Bristol Golden Carp A. A. The Tweed has 
yielded one of 31 lb., the Nene a 24-pounder, and the Sussex Pother a 
22| lb. Pike. 

A couple of 6 lb. Chub hail from Hampshire, landed by Messrs. 
E. J. Walker (Piscatorial Society) and T. W. Bowman (Gresham) ; 
and Mr. Locksmith has taken, near Wey bridge in the canal, the 
largest Carp known for many years ; it scaled 19| lb. A splendid 
Carp of 14 lb. 8 oz. also fell to the rod of Mr. C. E. Cooke, in Twicken- 
ham Deeps. 

Some fine Eoach have been basketed, including specimens of 
2 lb. 9 oz., 2 lb. 8| oz., and 2 lb. 5 oz., the two former caught in the 
Arun by Messrs. P. Allum and A. L. Woode, and the latter taken in 



40 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the Thames at Shepperton hy Mr. R. Smith. Large Dace have also 
been captured, including one of 1 lb. 6 oz., taken in a Christchurch 
mill-pool, and another of 1 lb. 1 oz., secured in Walton's river — the 
Lea. In merit, size for size, these Dace equal a 60 lb. or 70 lb. 
Salmon. The largest was caught by Mr. Hullett. 

One of the heaviest Bream brought to bank was taken in the 
Colne by Mr. Gerken, a member of the West Green A. S., Tottenham ; 
it scaled 7 lb. 1J oz. For size and quality the Thames has again 
furnished the largest Barbel of the season, this being a specimen of 
10 lb., taken by Dr. Macroy at Sunbury, and fine Perch of 4 lb. (Old 
Windsor) and 3 lb. (Reading) are also recorded from this river. — 
Evening Standard and St. James's Gazette, Jan. 1st, 1908. 



Voracity of the Chub. — " A friend once brought us a big Aire 
Chub to set up, weighing 4 lb. 2 oz. When opened it was found to 
contain a half-grown Water- Vole, which had no doubt been pulled 
under when crossing the river. Nothing in the shape of food seems 
to come amiss to the swarms of this fish, which thrive somehow 
in the sewage-contaminated parts of the Aire within the limits 
named." — W. H. Whitaker, " The Fishes of Upper Airedale " (Brad- 
ford Scientific Journal, July, 1907). 



th Series. 
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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 800.— February, 1908. 



ON THE PEBFOKATIONS OF MABINE ANIMALS. 

By Professor McIntosh, Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 

In former papers* special groups of marine forms which 
perforate have been dealt with. On the present occasion a 
general sketch of the subject as represented by the various types 
of invertebrate marine animals which bore in rocks, shells, sand, 
and other media will be given. The burrowing of marine forms 
on our shores is a familiar feature to every zoologist. Moreover, 
scarcely a dead shell can be dredged from the sea-bed that does 
not present perforations of boring sponges, the slightest force, 
in well-marked cases, sufficing to break the thin superficial crust 
concealing the yellowish substance of the sponge in the interior. 
Multitudes of living Oyster-shells are affected in the same 
manner, so that the Whitstable Oyster Company and others 
have been greatly concerned about their depredations, which, 
however, are not on the whole very serious. Further, these 
perforating sponges often perform their work of destruction in 
the most regular and beautiful manner, leaving arborescent 
patterns with necklace-like dilatations, or a branching pattern 
like a Gorgonian, to mark their progress in the shell. In the 
same way the surface of the limestone rocks of the southern 
shores is riddled with these sponges (Cliona). So far as at 

* Ann. Nat. Hist. 4th ser. vol. ii. pp. 276-295, plates 18-20, October, 186S ; 
and ' Marine Invert, and Fishes of St. Andrews,' pp. 58-60, 1875. 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., February, 1908. E 



42 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

present known, sponges bore only in calcareous substances, viz. 
in limestones, shells, nullipores, and corals, but their exact 
method of operating is still involved in mystery. Prof. K. Grant 
seems to have been one of the first to notice that Cliona formed 
its own tunnels, and Duvernoy followed him in describing a 
foreign species. Nardo,* again, subsequently gave an account 
of the perforations of the shells of mollusks, and Michelin 
further pointed out the dendritic pattern of such excavations. 
McCalla (1849) also knew that Cliona was destructive to shells. 
Dr. Bowerbank, the able author of the 'British Sponges,' held 
that they never perforated either rocks or shells, but only took pos- 
session of cavities bored by other forms, and that he had found the 
sponges only partially filling the chambers in the calcareous rocks 
on the southern coast. Some hold that the soft animal jelly or 
protoplasm of the sponge is the agent, while others, such as the 
late Albany Hancock, maintain that it bores by aid of its spicules. 
One or two, again, like Dr. Bowerbank, have insisted that the 
sponges do not perforate, but inhabit the galleries of other forms. 
Thus, some years ago, an able zoologist considered that the 
so-called boring sponges only occupied the tubes of annelids, 
and forwarded many specimens with a view to substantiate this 
opinion. From dredgings off the Channel Islands a very thin 
shell (lower valve of Anomia ephippium), in which translucent 
medium a Cliona had established itself, was forwarded to the 
zoologist. When held up to the light the beautiful dendritic 
patterns made by the sponge were clearly outlined, the oscula of 
the sponge, moreover, projecting from the widened areas. Now 
this shell was so thin (much thinner than that of Placuna 
placenta) that no known annelid could form a lodgment in it. 
The zoologist did what, perhaps, was most judicious, viz. 
avoided all subsequent allusion to the matter. A considerable 
time ago the subject was investigated by Nassonow,t who culti- 
vated young boring sponges on thin transparent calcareous 
lamellae. The larvae, after a free stage, settled on the plates, a 
rosette-like mark appeared, and the sponge gave off thin pro- 
cesses, which passed into the substance of the plate and followed 
the contour lines of the rosette. This penetration happened 

* ' Atti degli Scienziati Italiani,' p. 161, Pisa, 1839. 
t Zeitsch. f. Wiss. Bd. 39 (1883), p. 295. 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 43 

before the spicules of the sponge were developed. Nassonow 
thought both chemical and mechanical agencies were employed, 
but he could not demonstrate the presence of an acid. 

The action of sponges on calcareous organisms in the ocean 
is a widespread and important one in disintegrating the in- 
numerable shells, corals, and nullipores on the floor of the sea, 
as well as the calcareous rocks at its margin ; and whether this 
ceaseless destruction is caused by intrinsic or extrinsic agencies 
(e.g. by the aid of carbon-dioxide in sea-water), there can be no 
doubt as to the magnitude of the operations. It is, moreover, 
noteworthy that, so far as known, only calcareous media are 
affected by boring sponges. 

Burrowing in hard substances seems to be rare in the 
Ccelenterates, though Peachia, Edivardsia, and Cerianthus bury 
themselves in sand, clay, and mud. Prof. Haswell* mentions a 
minute Actinia which occupies cavities in a Cdlepora much 
deeper than the length of the polyp itself. In most cases the 
orifices are furnished with a low projecting rim, and frequently 
two unite internally. This may, however, be an instance of the 
growth of the Polyzoan round the Actinia, and not an instance of 
true perforation. Whether the case of the Anemones in holes of 
the rocks at Jamaica differs from the foregoing in so far as per- 
foration is concerned remains for further investigation. 

Turning to another and somewhat higher group of marine 
animals, viz. the Echinoderms, it is found that at least one 
species — the Purple Sea-urchin (Echinus lividus) — excavates con- 
siderable cavities, in which it lodges, in rocks — sometimes in 
rocks so hard as gneiss and granite. Authors assign to the teeth 
the main agency in the perforations, yet the cavities are some- 
what smooth. 

J. W. Fewkes,t after a careful examination of the perforations 
of Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis on the coast of Grand Manan, 
United States, considers that the excavations are due to the 
motions of the animals produced by waves and tide as well as to 
teeth and spines. He also thinks that they play some part in 
the formation of pot-holes. Prof. Cragin in the same volume, t 

'■'■'■ Proc. Linn. Soc. New South. Wales, vol. vii. p. 608, 1882. 
-j- ' American Naturalist,' vol. xxiv. p. 1, 1890. 
\ Ibid., p. 478. 

E2 



% 



X 



44 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

however, points out that similar urchins wedge themselves in 
most firmly if they find force applied to them, so that the wave- 
action is doubtful. 

The Annelids, again, include many forms which ceaselessly 
bore through sand (like the lobworm), earth (as in the case of 
earthworm), peat, and many soft media. Others penetrate 
aluminous shale, sandstone, limestone, shells, and various solid 
substances. Each form, moreover, fashions a characteristic 
tunnel in the rock, so that the particular borer may in most 
cases be determined, even after the dissolution and disappearance 
of the animal. They do not, however, bore in wood, and though 
pieces of telegraph-cable have frequently been forwarded with 
accompanying annelids as the depredators, in no instance has it 
been deemed prudent to connect them with the injury. Some 
authors have a different opinion, but the misapprehension has 
arisen simply from the presence of formidable calcareous jaws in 
annelids found lurking in holes which have been drilled by other 
forms. In short, it is a revival of the ancient notion which, 
assuming the shells of Teredo to be its teeth, credited it with the 
habit of eating its way into timber. In the same manner it 
has been supposed that Polydora and other boring annelids 
have found their way between the valves of Oysters, and subse- 
quently have been enveloped by the shelly secretion of the 
mollusk. 

Certain members of a group somewhat allied to the Annelids — 
viz. the Gephyreans — also bore in calcareous substances, such as 
shells and limestone rocks, as well as more generally in mud and 
sand. Such include the little Sipunculus of the British shores, 
and which at St Andrews makes cavities in sandstone ; Bonellia of 
the more southern waters ; and Thalassema, which Dr. Farran* 
found in limestone near Dungarvan, in company with Gastro- 
chcena. Other members of the group are partial to boring in sand 
and tough clay, or muddy clay. 

Certain forms allied to the Polyzoa likewise perforate cal- 
careous rocks. Thus Phoronis, a form which in its larval state 
has relationship with higher types, has been found in tunnels in 
chalk, and so far as could be made out it appeared to have 
formed them. It is interesting: that Phoronis often occurs in 



Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. vii. p. 156. 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 45 

great numbers in the tough mucous sheaths in which an Austra- 
lian Cerianthus lives.* 

The burrowing powers of all the foregoing forms would seem 
to be well calculated to secure protection for themselves, but 
there can be little doubt that they also perform an important 
function in the disintegration of dead shells, and in corroding 
the surface of calcareous and other rocks. While they thus act 
beneficially in regard to dead shells, the same cannot be said 
with respect to their interference with the living ; for as soon as 
the perforations of either annelid or sponge touch the internal 
surface, the Oyster or Limpet, for example, secretes layer upon 
layer of the nacreous substance in order to shut out what is 
evidently an irritating intruder, and thus the thickness of the 
shell is often greatly increased. 

So far marine animals have been dealt with which bore into 
various earthy substances, but others perforate wood and allied 
materials, like the Crustacea, whilst the Mollusca also do so, 
and likewise bore in rocks varying in hardness from chalk to 
granite, as well as make holes in other shells. 

Boring and burrowing are common features amongst the 
Crustacea. Thus, to take them in their order, certain Cirripedes, 
e. g. Alcippe lam-pas, Cryptophialus, and Lithotrya, perforate 
shells, the former attacking the columella or axis of the shell, 
while the boring sponge enters the exterior surface and rapidly 
spreads over the whorls, so that between them the shell soon 
crumbles to fragments and disappears. Its discoverer (Mr. 
Hancock) did not think Alcippe bored by its shelly plates, though 
the perforations might "result from a solvent, or from the appli- 
cation of minute cutting bodies on a highly contractile, soft, and 
pliant surface, "t Darwin J thought theburrowingof Lithotryaw&s 
mechanical, the peduncle being studded with calcified heads and 
star-headed spines, which form a rasping surface, and are worn 
away, to be replaced next moult. " It [burrowing] is effected by 
each layer of shell in the basal attached disc overlapping in a 
straight line the last formed layer, by the membrane of the 

* Prof. Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. vol. vii. p. 341. 
f Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. (4), p. 313, plates 8 and 9, 1849. 
| Monogr. Cirripedia, pp. 336-348, 1851. 



V- 



46 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

peduncle and the valves of the capitulum having excellent and 
often renewed rasping surfaces ; and, lastly, by the end of the 
peduncle (that is, homologically, the front of the head) thus 
roughened extending beyond the surface of attachment, and 
possessing the power of slight movement." Many crustaceans 
perforate sand, clay, mud or sandy mud, while two at least 
(Chelura terebrans and Limnoria lignorum) are well-known de- 
stroyers of wood. 

The first of these (Chelura terebrans) is a form less familiar to 
Scottish zoologists — especially those on the eastern shores — than 
to our southern colleagues. It is abundant, however, on the 
southern and western coasts and in Ireland, its range likewise 
extending to many parts of Europe and the United States. A 
similar form (Chelura pontica) is also described by Czerniavsky 
as occurring along with Teredo in the Black Sea, while elsewhere 
it is generally associated with the other form, Limnoria. In 
xylophagous powers it is even more destructive than the latter, 
since its excavations in timber are considerably larger and more 
oblique, the wood being ploughed up rather than bored into, so 
that the surface thus undermined is rapidly washed away by the 
action of the sea. In one of the many beautiful memoirs 
written by the late Prof. Allman, formerly the distinguished 
occupant of the Chair of Natural History in the University of 
Edinburgh, a description is given of these crustaceans in the 
timber-piles of the jetty of the Harbour of Kingstown, near 
Dublin. It has been calculated that Chelura will destroy a piece 
of Memel timber thirteen inches square in less than ten years, 
working from the level of the mud almost to the height of neap- 
tides. It is believed that the mandibles of the animal enable it 
to perforate the moist timber, which it swallows. The mouth- 
organs consist of an upper and a lower lip, a pair of mandibles, 
and two pairs of maxillae. Between the spines and the base of 
the mandibles is an oval elevated surface marked with transverse 
ridges, which are again crossed at right angles by delicate striae. 
Prof. Allman considered that this eminence constitutes a very 
efficient grinding surface. The last pair of appendages at the 
tail of the animal are remarkable in size and length, and pro- 
bably aid in effecting various movements within its chamber, as 
well as in leaping (after the manner of a Springtail) when placed 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 47 

on a flat surface. Its movements in the water are very active, 
and it swims chiefly on its back. 

The second form, Limnoria lignorum (the Gribble, as it has 
been popularly called), is an Isopod,* and closely allied to 
the Sphcsromidce, which occur in crevices of rocks, especially on 
the southern (Channel Islands) and western shores (Outer 
Hebrides). Though this form (Limnoria) must have been 
familiar to marine observers from a very early period, it was 
fully described by Dr. Leach only in 1811, when Mr. Eobert 
Stephenson, the celebrated engineer, found it burrowing most 
destructively at the Bell Eock in the large beams of Memel fir 
supporting the temporary beacon in which he and his assistants 
resided. The sides of these beams had been charred and coated 
with pitch, but the ends resting on the rock had been overlooked, 
and there Limnoria began its operations. Other logs of pine 
were reduced at the rate of about an inch a year, and the house- 
timbers were so much destroyed that many stood clear of the 
rock, supported only by the iron bolts and stanchions. Since 
its ravages at the Bell Bock brought it under the notice of men 
of science it has been found very generally distributed on our 
shores from Shetland to the Channel Islands, and it is common 
in European waters. It attacks all kinds of submerged wood, 
such as piles facing the wharves, sunken wrecks, stakes of 
Salmon-nets, and indeed all unprotected wood. The late Dr. 
Coldstream, of Leith, the author of an excellent account of the 
animal, mentions that, in 1825, so extensive were the ravages 
of Limnoria that many of the piles of Trinity Chain Pier had to 
be replaced after four years' service, and studded all over with 
broad-headed iron nails from the base to the limit of high-water 
mark. The same plan was adopted in extending the pier at 
Leith on wooden piles four years afterwards (at a cost of £1000, 
the whole pier being £30,000). At Devonport Dockyard at this 
moment it is more troublesome than the Teredo. 

Like the foregoing species, Limnoria uses its mandibles for 
burrowing, and the particles of wood are swallowed. It gener- 
ally chooses the softer places, shunning the knots and hard lines 
of wood. It even avoids the New Zealand pine (Cowdie). As 

*An elaborate and well-illustrated Report on this form was published by 
the Netherlands Commission in 1893. 



48 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

already mentioned, it is effectually kept out by studding the 
surface of the piles with large -headed iron nails (scupper- nails), 
the oxidation of which in the sea-water rapidly impregnates the 
surface to a degree distasteful to the creatures. In the case of 
wrecks it is, however, observable that their borings closely 
approach iron bolts, so that ferruginous wood is not always 
shunned. At Devonport Dockyard the most approved method 
\ of warding off the attacks of Limnoria is to use good Memel 
timber (fir) thoroughly impregnated with creosote, this absorbent 
wood taking in about ten pounds to the square foot. The wood 
is well dried and warmed before being treated. 

This habit of penetrating wood is unquestionably a very 
ancient one with Limnoria, but within comparatively recent 
years another taste has developed itself, viz. that of perforating 
the protecting envelopes and gutta-percha in which submarine 
telegraph-cables are sheathed. This habit is no less disastrous 
than the former, for by exposing the wires their insulation is 
interfered with, and the cable has to be raised for repairs. Con- 
siderable doubt seems to exist in regard to the form which is thus 
so troublesome to telegraphic engineers ; indeed, it is a prevalent 
impression that annelids cause the mischief. Thus, amongst 
others, the late Dr. Carpenter forwarded Nereis pelagica, a 
common annelid, which like Nereilepas has the habit of dwelling 
in holes made by various borers, as the depredator in the case of 
a Spanish cable. Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys and Sir John Murray sent 
examples of others, including the French Atlantic cable from 
a depth of thirteen hundred fathoms. In all these Limnoria or 
Xylophaga appeared to be the cause of the faults, the repair of 
which is often a costly undertaking. Thus Mr. Andrews,* who 
found Limnoria in the gutta-percha coating of the submarine 
cable between Holyhead and Ireland, observes that a loss to the 
company of no less than £10,000 was eventually caused by this 
diminutive yet destructive crustacean. It would appear, there- 
fore, that the views of Dr. Wallich,t who thought that " if any 
material exists, the characters of which are so thoroughly dis- 
similar from those of any substance known to occur at the 
bottom of the sea as to render it highly improbable that such 

" ;: Quart. Journ. Micros. Sc. (ii.), 15, p. 332. 
+ Aun. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. (8), p. 58, 1861. 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 49 

creatures as live there could improvise means to pierce it, 
whilst at the same time it would secure perfect insulation of 
the telegraph-wire, caoutchouc is that material,'''' have not been 
verified. 

The work of the burrowing crustaceans, however, is quite 
overshadowed by the far more serious encroachments which the 
boring shell-fishes are capable of making in timber and similar 
substances, as well as in rocks of diverse kinds. 

Many are probably familiar with the perforations of the 
various species of Pholas on rocky shores, for they bore in sand- 
stone, gneiss, mica-schist, limestone, chalk, lava, aluminous 
shale, peat, wood, and even wax. All round the western and 
Castle rocks at St. Andrews, as well as at many parts of the 
eastern rocks, the shale, limestone, and sandstone are extensively 
perforated by Pholas crispata, and less frequently by P. Candida, 
while the calcareous rocks and chalk of the southern shores of 
England abound with another species, viz. P. dactylus. All 
these are occasionally used as food, like their southern congener 
of the coasts of Italy, viz. the date-shell (Lithodo'mus) . Pholas 
Candida seems to bore at St. Andrews in rocks somewhat beyond 
low water, for it was only when the blasting operations of 1896 
connected with the drainage works took place that fine examples 
of this species were thrown in numbers on the beach, and collected 
by Dr. Mactier.* Gastrochcena, again, mostly frequents the 
shells of other mollusks such as Pecten on the southern coasts, 
and lines its tube with a shelly secretion. It likewise bores in 
granite and limestone, yet its external horny layer presents 
slight evidences of friction — indeed, only at one end. 

The effect of the ceaseless boring of rocks all round the 
shores of Britain by Pholades, Saxicara, and other forms must 
be noteworthy, since at and beyond low water the sea, especially 
in storms, will break up the much perforated ledges of rock, 
liberating the adult as well as the smaller Pholades as food for 
other marine animals, but not before an abundant series of larvas 
carry the operations to fresh sites, which range from half-tide 
mark to the laminarian region, and probably beyond. No effort 

* This rare mechanical cause is analogous to the action of certain remark- 
able storms which once in fifty years may send such species as Thracia 
convexa on the beach at St. Andrews, where it was also collected by Dr. 
Mactier. 



50 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

of man can modify to any extent these natural conditions, 
especially in connection with their inroads. On the other hand, 
the deposits going on in the bed of the sea, the drifting of 
ordinary and coral sand, and the increase of the deltas of rivers 
are examples of agencies which tend to counterbalance the 
effects of such erosion. 

A closely allied species, Xylophaga dorsalis, which occurs 
abundantly in the deep water off the Forth (e. g. east of the Island 
of May, and off St. Abb's Head), as well as elsewhere both in 
England and Scotland, confines its boring action entirely to 
wood. This little bivalve mollusk has two helmet- shaped convex 
valves crossed by very fine strias. Two small dorsal shields or 
plates are likewise present. It shows certain intermediate 
characters between the stone-borers just mentioned (Pholades) 
and the typical wood-borers (Teredines), having the short siphons 
of the former, the habit of perforating wood only to the extent 
necessary for its safety, and in having no calcareous lining to its 
tunnel ; while in the structure of its valves it mainly leans 
towards Teredo. The late Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, the able and 
experienced author of ' British Mollusca,' is doubtful whether 
the soft parts of the animal can be contained in the shell, but in 
all the living examples both from the eastern shores and those 
from the Outer Hebrides, such can readily be retracted within 
the outline of the valves. 

In wood attacked by Xylophaga there is very little externally 
to attract attention, except the presence on the surface of minute 
apertures, which probably indicate the points by which the 
young animals obtained entrance. On breaking the wood the 
adults are found in smooth tunnels in every fragment large 
enough to afford a lodgment. Thus even a willow-basket will 
be invaded by them, especially the ribs, which are somewhat 
thicker than the other parts. The burrows are quite smooth, 
and generally contain greyish pulpy debris of minute grains of 
wood, which have passed through the alimentary canal and been 
ejected by the excurrent siphon. Most of the perforations are 
against the grain of the wood. 

The effects of Xylophaga in connection with the destruction 
of wood in British waters are considerable, especially in the case 
of submerged branches, but they fall far short, both in British 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 51 

and foreign seas, of those of the widely distributed genus Teredo. 
As a rule, every piece of wood from the wrecks of ships and 
boats on the eastern coast, and which has lain for some time on 
the bottom, is riddled by Teredo, and occasionally by Xylophaga. 
Their development seems to be such as to spread them rapidly 
and widely over large areas. The minute larval forms (in 
Teredo) are found in the branchial cavities in June, and in the 
middle of July the young, though very small, are fully formed. 
In September they penetrate the wood. It is further stated that 
these minute forms often fix themselves to a piece of wood so 
thin that development can only take place up to a certain size, 
when all must perish. This is thought by some to be a provision 
for keeping their increase in check, but such is probably in- 
appreciable. 

In regard to the hard parts, the globular valves agree with 
those in Xylophaga, being helmet-shaped and sculptured in a 
remarkable manner, so as to present a file-like surface, the 
function of which, not a few observers consider, is to aid in per- 
forating the wood. There are no shelly plates or shields such as 
occur in Xylophaga, but attached to the muscular ring at the 
base of the siphons are a pair of pallets, which are useful to 
zoologists in discriminating the species, and to the animal for 
protection. Thus when alarmed it withdraws its long siphons 
within the shelly tube, and guards the aperture by folding the 
calcareous pallets over the tip, just as the annelid, Lagis koreni, 
does with its broad golden bristles. Teredo more readily accom- 
plishes this by the presence of ledges projecting from the narrow 
or outer end of the shelly tube, which is a secretion of the 
mantle. 

The food of the Teredo consists of Diatoms, Infusoria, and 
other minute pelagic plants and animals which abound in all 
climes in the sea. It is only necessary to drag a tow-net a 
little distance below the surface of any of our bays (either in 
summer or winter) to find an abundance of minute forms — 
amply sufficient to nourish these and other marine animals. 
The shipworm thus has no need to depend for subsistence on the 
minute particles of wood which it swallows, though, like the 
Swedish peasants with their Bergmehl, or the eaters of clay in 
North America, such doubtless increases the bulk of the food. 



52 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

In the tube of the Teredo, and also in the tubes of Pholas, as 
the learned Jesuit, Bonanni, discovered so far back as 1684, an 
annelid (Nereilepas fucata) often occurs, and some observers men- 
tion that it performs the part of keeping the mollusks in check — 
in short, that it is a destroyer of Teredo. So far as known there is 
no foundation for this view. It is found that the same species of 
annelid frequents, along with the common Hermit-Crab, the 
shells of the Great Whelk, not for any predatory reason but 
simply as a commensal. The association of annelids with other 
forms in tubes or elsewhere is extremely common ; indeed, many 
are found only in this association, but it is not for the purpose 
of preying on their neighbours, though the bodies of their hosts 
in many cases are softer than those of Teredo, and their own jaws 
not less formidable than those of Nereilepas. They are commen- 
salistic forms or messmates- — that is, dwell in association with 
other animals, each, as the late Prof. Van Beneden, of Louvain, 
tersely said, requiring from his neighbour a simple place on 
board his vessel without asking to partake of his provisions. 
Besides, Nereids have a habit of lurking in holes of any kind, and 
even perforating peat for shelter ; and it would be unsafe to 
condemn them from an examination of their jaws, since some of 
those best armed live only on seaweeds. 

But — to return from this digression — it is found that no fewer 
than four British species of Teredo and several others are occa- 
sionally found in driftwood. In the great and especially the 
warmer oceans almost every piece of timber is attacked, so that 
strict precautions are necessary to protect wooden ships, boats, 
and piles from their ravages. 

The object in life of all the species of Teredo is to bore cease- 
lessly into timber, which they tunnel for the protection of their 
long worm-like bodies, and they line the interior of their tubes 
with a calcareous coat, which helps in some cases to separate 
them from their neighbours. The perforations are generally in 
the line of the grain of the wood, and vary in length according 
to the size of the specimen and the particular species. Thus the 
common Teredo {T. navalis) has a tunnel from one to two feet in 
length, while that of the giant Shipworm (T. arenaria) extends 
fully a yard, and is two inches in diameter. A curious species 
(T. corniformis) , which burrows in the husks of floating cocoa-nuts 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 53 

and other woody fruits in tropical seas, has extremely contorted 
tubes, from the limited area at its disposal. 

In connection with distribution it was formerly supposed that 
Teredo did not bore under twenty fathoms, but it is quite a 
common thing to dredge pieces of water-logged wood from much 
greater depths with the living mollusks in the perforations, as in 
the deeps off St. Abb's Head and beyond the Island of May. 
Certain foreign species, again, live both in fresh water and in 
brackish, one, for instance, burrowing in the roots of the man- 
grove trees in the rivers on the West Coast of Africa, into which 
the sea-water penetrates only at intervals. 

As might have been expected from their marked effects on 
submerged wood, these boring mollusks were well known to the 
ancients. As Forbes and Hanley and others state, they {Tere- 
dines) are mentioned for the first time in the " Knights " of 
Aristophanes. Theophrastus, the favourite pupil of Aristotle, also 
probably alludes to Teredo when he speaks of " worms which 
corrupt wood in the sea." Pliny the elder designates the same 
form as the large-headed Teredo " which gnaws with teeth and 
lives only in the sea"; and similar easily recognisable allusions 
are made by Ovid and other authors. The ravages made by 
Teredo on the piles composing the dykes for resisting the inroads 
of the sea in Holland, however, prominently brought it before 
the natives of that country, and three investigators took it in 
hand between 1720 and 1733, viz. Massuet, Eousset, and Sellius. 
On the present occasion it is unnecessary to enter into an 
account of the labours of each of these, but an excellent resume 
is given in the ' British Mollusca ' by the accomplished authors, 
Prof. Edward Forbes and Sylvanus Hanley. One paragraph only 
need be quoted. It is : — " Massuet was a Belgian, and had been 
a Benedictine monk, but became a Protestant and took refuge in 
Holland, where he studied medicine under Boerhaave. He was 
fortunate ; for, dividing his time between his patients and his 
researches, he saved enough to buy a seigneurie and die rich. 
He wrote on history and natural philosophy. Bousset began 
life as a soldier, and quitted the sword for the birch. He would 
not have meddled with the Teredo, but that it took part itself in 
the political prospects of Europe. Sellius was a native of 
Dantzic, very learned but very unfortunate. He wrote a work of 



54 THE ZOOLOGIST, 

three hundred and sixty pages on Teredo, citing within it nearly 
two hundred authors, and bringing all the learning of the ancients 
and the moderns to bear on the subject." This Dutch naturalist 
correctly recorded that the animal was a shell-fish, a fact which 
Linnaeus overlooked, since he placed Teredo in his heterogeneous 
group "Vermes" — a division comprising many widely divergent 
forms. An interesting account of the subsequent literature of 
the subject is given by Forbes and Hanley, and more recently by 
Gwyn Jeffreys, in their respective works. 

In boring the timber it is a fact of interest that the animals 
avoid the tubes of each other, though perhaps it may not be 
considered, as Sellius did, that they are actuated by a con- 
scientious anxiety to avoid injury to their fellows. Sellius, 
indeed, was of opinion that Teredo closed in its shelly tube and 
died of starvation rather than penetrate into the tunnel of its 
neighbour. 

Stokoe* more recently made the observation that in certain 
fossils, consisting of the harder parts of the skeleton and teeth, 
the boring mollusks did not affect the enamel or enamel-like 
dentinal layer, a fact which shows that they discriminate between 
such and the parts more easily penetrated. In respect of avoid- 
ing the tunnels of its neighbours, Teredo offers a contrast to 
Limnoria, for in the stakes of the nets for Salmon on the West 
Sands, at St. Andrews, the tunnels of the latter sometimes 
meet, and thus the young, ten or twelve of which occasionally 
accompany the parents at the end of the burrow, may more 
readily spread throughout the wood. 

The destruction caused by the animals in the harbours of 
our own country is considerable, since it has been computed 
that at Plymouth and Devonport alone many thousands of 
pounds' worth of wood are annually destroyed. The French 
and Dutch, however, suffer much more seriously, the former in 
regard to harbours, the latter in regard to piles. Special com- 
missions in both countries have, indeed, been appointed to in- 
vestigate the subject, and various reports have been issued, to 
some of which allusion will by-and-bv be made. 

The opinion of the older authors that the valves of the 
Teredo were the teeth by means of which it gratified its appetite 

* ' Nature,' vol. xx. p. 428, 1879. 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 55 

— by devouring all the wood it eroded — could not long satisfy 
more philosophic inquirers, and accordingly many able memoirs 
on the boring of these and other marine animals have enriched 
zoological literature during the last century. In briefly alluding 
to these the perforations in various hard substances will be in- 
cluded, in order to illustrate the several features of the action. 

It will be found that the theories which have been brought 
forward to explain the mode by which marine animals perforate 
materials so different as wood, limestone, resin, wax, granite, 
sandstone, and aluminous shale, range themselves round two 
great centres — the chemical and the mechanical, for it is un- 
necessary to dwell on such as those of a few, who fancied that 
Pholas, for instance, only bored in soft clay, and that its presence 
in stone was due to the petrifaction of the soft materials around 
it. This explanation is comparable to that of the religious 
authority mentioned by Hugh Miller, who accounted for the 
beautiful fossil fishes in the rocks by courageously asserting that 
" they were formed of stone from the very first." 

The advocates for the chemical theory seem to take it for 
granted that the borings occur chiefly in calcareous substances, 
and with propriety, therefore, they make their solvent an acid. It 
is clear, however, that this notion is unable to explain the per- 
forations in media totally impervious to such action. Moreover, 
no trace of acid is found in many borers, and though present in 
some it is likewise characteristic of other marine animals which 
do not bore. Further, it is purely hypothetical at present to 
bring in the aid of carbon-dioxide derived from sea-water for 
the same reason. 

The mechanical theory, again, supposes that the animals 
perforate by means of shells, gritty particles, or odontophores in 
the case of mollusks, teeth in the sea-urchins, bristles in the 
annelids, horny processes in certain sea-acorns (Cirripedes) and 
Gephyreans ; but doubt remains concerning the extensive and 
wonderful excavations of the sponges, those of the Bryozoa, the 
Helices, and the rest of the Cirripedes. If, however, the theory 
of " maceration" is regarded as a modification of the foregoing, 
certain objections will disappear. The grains of wood found in 
the stomach of Xylophaga and Teredo are, however, interesting 
in this connection. 



56 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

In regard to the borings of rnollusks, many authors — such as 
Bonanni, Adanson, Born, J. E. Gray, Fleming, Osier, Forbes 
and Hanley, Cailliaud and Kobertson — have believed that such 
are made by rotations of the valves after the manner of augers. 
Little, however, is said about the smooth valves of such as 
Saxicava, Gastrochcena, and Lithodomns in contrast with the 
rough valves of Pholas and Teredo. 

This theory, however, is not supported by an examination of 
the perforations of the Algae, Sponges, Bryozoa, those of the 
Annelids, Gephyreans, Cirripedes, and Helix, nor by a compari- 
son of the shells and tunnels of the animals themselves. The 
texture of the valves of the date-shells, for instance, is so soft 
that they could not act materially on the hard stones into which 
they bore. Moreover, it has to be remembered that the surface 
of such shells is covered by the periostracum, which would mate- 
rially suffer before much effect could be produced on the rocks. 

Hancock, again, propounded the theory that the holes were 
made by silicious particles in the foot of the mollusk (which 
particles could not, however, be found by that most accurate and 
conscientious observer, the late Prof. Busk), while Bryson gave 
the chief action to grains of sand from the exterior. Fisher 
thought that they were effected by the foot in some way. None 
of these views would explain the perforations in limestone by 
the " Helices saxicaves " of Bouchard-Chantereaux.* Other 
authors asserted that the annelids bored by aid of their bristles, 
just as Darwin had predicated of the Gephyreans and their 
chitin. 

A more gentle method of tunnelling was that advocated by 
Garner, who held that the excavations were due to ciliary currents 
aided by rasping. The currents may assist, but seem to be in- 
sufficient to account for the borings in any group. 

The next theory is one that has been frequently applied to 
the action of marine animals on their surroundings, viz. that 
the perforations are due to a chemical solvent. Amongst others 
who have chosen this explanation may be mentioned Gray, 
Osier (for Saxicava), Drummond, Cailliaud, Mantell, Thorrent, 

* Ann. des Sc. Nat. 4e ser. xvi. pp. 197-218, pi. 4. These figures exactly 
correspond with a fine mass of limestone perforated by Helix sent by Dr. 
Scharff from Ireland. 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 57 

Reeve, Bouchard-Chantereaux, Spence Bate, Darwin (for Ver- 
ruca), Ray Lankester, Parfitt and Schiemenz (for Natica). The 
latter has shown that the main agent in the small holes made 
in mussels and other shells by Natica josephina at Naples is the 
boring-sucker on the under surface of the proboscis.* Carazzi 
also describes the perforations of the date- shell (Lithodomus 
dactylus) as being due to chemical action, since its perforations 
are keyhole-shaped. It differs thus, he says, from Pholas. 

But this view will not explain the extensive perforations in 
wood (now specially before us), in aluminous shale, gneiss, 
granite, sandstone, gutta-percha, resin, and wax. It is interest- 
ing, however, that shells and calcareous rocks are much affected 
by burrowing marine animals. Moreover, it is well known that 
even gentle friction on a wet calcareous surface — as by the feet 
and tails of Wallabys and allied forms at a drinking-place — 
will make a beautifully polished " face " like that on the finest 
marble. 

Thompson and Necker, again, were of opinion that the boring 
action was a compound one — the result of a secreted solvent, 
aided by rasping ; hence the solvent would require to vary with 
the nature of the rock attacked. 

Lastly, the very old idea of Sellius (and Deshayes), adopted 
by Gwyn Jeffreys, has to be considered, viz. that the perfora- 
tions are caused by a macerating or simple solvent action of 
the foot, and De Quatrefages thinks also of the mantle.f This 
would certainly avoid many of the difficulties caused by the 
previous theories, but it is doubtful if much support for this 
opinion would be derived from the action in Sponges, Bryozoa, 
Annelids, Gephyreans, and Cirripedes. It has also to be borne 
in mind that the crustaceans which burrow in wood do so only 
by mechanical means, and so with certain burrowing insects. 

Leaving the subject of the means, which would appear to be 

* Mitt. Zool. Stat. Neapel, Bd. x. p. 152, Taf. 11. 

f This recalls the statement that if a plant be permitted to grow on 
polished marble an outline of the root is marked on it, a result supposed to 
be due to an acid secretion (chlorhydric) of the root-hairs. Prof. J. H. Storer, 
indeed, endows the rootlets with what he terms a power of osmotic dissocia- 
tion, and he would extend the same explanation to the boring animals (Amer. 
Jour. Sc. 28, pp. 58-61, 1884). 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII.. February, 1908. f 



58 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

varied, by which marine animals bore for the present, a glance 
may now be taken at the methods of protecting timber from 
their ravages. Very many suggestions and experiments have 
been made with this view. Even so early as the days of Sellius 
several hundred preparations were known, most of which, how- 
ever, were useless. At the present time the means for defending 
submerged timber from a scourge so serious group themselves 
under two heads, viz. (1) in regard to the kind of wood employed, 
and (2) the treatment of the wood before immersion. 

In the first category, it is stated that Teredo will not touch the 
Pyengadu or Iron wood Tree, a species of Acacia from the Burmese 
forests. It contains a thick gelatinous oily substance. The same 
is said of Huon or Macquarie Harbour Pine, Tasmania, and the 
Kaurie or Cowdie Pine (Dammara australis) from New Zealand. 
The Jarrah Tree (Eucalyptus marginatus) defies Teredo and the 
white ants, so that copper-sheathing is unnecessary, a state 
probably due to its odour or taste, as no specially distasteful 
chemical substance, acid or otherwise, has been found. The 
Heartwood Tree (Nectandra Rhodicei) of Guiana, which furnishes 
Beberia, is considered by some to be proof against Teredo, 
though this is doubtful. It pertains to the natural order 
Lauracece, which comprehends sweet-bay, camphor, sassafras, 
and other well-known forms. Other woods, such as sneeze- 
wood from the Cape ; teak, hemlock-tree with its bark, Cay-don 
from Cochin China ; and various hard and close-grained woods 
have been recommended, though, so far as known, with com- 
paratively little success on a large scale. 

Under the second head fall all the chemical and other sub- 
stances which have been applied to the exterior of the wood, or 
forced into its tissue under great pressure. Many preparations 
of tar and varnish would suffice to keep out the young Teredo, if 
such would remain intact, but unfortunately friction soon inter- 
feres with their continuity, and then a lodgment is effected. 
Soluble bitumen (composed in all probability of pitch and wax), 
silicate of lime, and various patent compositions have each in 
turn been tried externally ; while the silicate of lime, creosote, 
and other fluids have been driven under great pressure into the 
tissue of the wood. 

The Dutch Commissioners experimented with metallic sub- 



PERFORATIONS OF MARINE ANIMALS. 59 

stances — Russian talc, paraffin varnish, oil of tar, various kinds 
of paint, and by carbonising (by burning) the surface of the 
wood ; but none of these methods met with their confidence. 

Impregnation of the wood was next tried with sulphate of 
copper, sulphate of iron, acetate of lead, calcium chloride, oil of 
tar, and creosote. The latter alone, and only when thoroughly 
carried out, was found to be useful ; and at the present moment 
this, sheathing in copper, and the studding of the timber with 
broad-headed nails (scupper-nails) are the only reliable methods 
adopted in the Netherlands. And yet creosoted timber is not 
always safe, for Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys found it attacked in Sweden. 
Somewhat recently an American has recommended that a cylin- 
drical excavation round the core of logs of wood should be filled 
with a special cement, impenetrable to Teredo. It would be 
difficult, however, to adopt this on a large scale. 

While the Dutch, French, and other Commissions have thus 
done material service in regard to the best means for protecting 
timber from the attacks of various borers, the subject is by no 
means exhausted. On the contrary, it would form a fitting one 
for modern research at the Marine Laboratories. 

In the foregoing remarks only a brief resume has been given 
of the kinds of marine animals which by the extent of their per- 
forations materially affect submerged timber and other solid 
substances. In conclusion, however, it is well to draw attention 
especially to the fact that this ceaseless boring in wood is not an 
unmitigated evil, even though Mr. Brunei had not received a 
hint from Teredo in forming the Thames Tunnel. The masses 
of timber swept seawards by many foreign rivers would prove a 
serious impediment to navigation if the marine borers did not 
slowly but surely accomplish their dissolution. In the same 
way floating timber and the relics of many a ship and boat in 
the depths of the sea are disposed of. Fortunately the extensive 
use of iron and steel in shipbuilding now renders the ravages of 
the borers in wood less prominent. Moreover, vast numbers of. 
shells are broken down by boring sponges, annelids, boring algae,* 
and other forms, and ultimately are either altogether dissolved 
or deposited as shell-gravel. Further, this increase of animal 
life— both larval and pelagic, and adult and sedentary — is every - 

* Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. xxv. pp. 323-332, 1902. 

f2 



60 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

where utilized directly or indirectly for the food of fishes at 
various stages of growth, the minute young capturing the larvae, 
and the older forms feeding, for instance, on the boring shell- 
fishes scattered by the breaking up of the honeycombed slabs on 
the floor of the ocean. Thus the ultimate result of all these 
processes would not appear to be wholly disadvantageous to 
man. 

In connection with the perforations of marine animals in 
hard materials, it is to be hoped that fresh and careful observa- 
tions will by-and-by be undertaken in every group available on 
our shores, not primarily for the sake of avoiding the compara- 
tively slight erosions thus caused on the coastal rocks, or of inter- 
fering, even were that possible, with the beneficial action on sub- 
merged driftwood and wrecks, but for the purpose of increasing 
knowledge. Quite recently the country has embarked on an outlay 
which will not fall far short of £100,000 for marine investigations 
which, if for the moment the pleasant international camaraderie 
is put aside, experience knew from the inception were on the 
main point futile, or, at best, could only substantiate what already 
had been proved. It might be well if the Government considered, 
in this light, whether in the past it has done its duty to scientific 
marine investigations at Marine Laboratories. 



( 61 ) 



NOTES ON THE ARCTIC WHALING VOYAGE 

OF 1907. 

By Thomas Southwell, F.Z.S. 

Bad as the voyage of 1906 proved to be, when only seven 
Whales were killed, that of 1907 was far more disastrous, the 
chief causes of which were severe weather and unfavourable ice 
conditions. I am informed that in Davis Strait on many 
occasions Whales were seen, sometimes quite near the vessels, 
but it was impossible to lower the boats for their capture. The 
result is that in all only three Whales were captured, one of 
which, little better than a sucker, was procured in Davis Strait, 
the other two at the Greenland fishery. 

It is curious that during the past two seasons the greatest 
success (small, indeed) has been obtained in the Greenland Seas, 
where these Whales were believed to be practically extinct, so 
much so that no vessels were despatched there for several 
years, whereas in the Davis Straits only three Whales have 
been killed in the past two seasons against six in Greenland ; 
but in both regions more Whales were seen than captured, 
particularly in Davis Strait, where they are reported, especially 
late in the season, to have been very restless, and always on the 
move, a fact which the captains found it difficult to understand ; 
so far as could be seen no Grampuses, their greatest enemies 
next to man, were about to produce the disturbance. The 
weather is said to have been atrocious in the Straits during the 
whole season, and other conditions, the worst ever remembered. 

Seven vessels left Dundee, as last year — the ' Active ' for 
Hudson Strait, whence she returned with a rather miscellaneous 
cargo collected at the winter station there, consisting of 32 
White Whales, 374 Walruses, 185 Seals, 65 Bears, 650 Fox- 
skins, and 22 tuns of oil, but no Whales. 

The ' Scotia ' first visited Greenland, where she captured 



62 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

two Whales of eleven feet and nine feet bone respectively, 
yielding 32 cwt. of bone ; a third Whale broke away with 
nineteen lines and was lost. Others were seen but not cap- 
tured. The season was very unfavourable for the northern 
fishery, but the southern — apart from fogs— was very fair. From 
Greenland the ' Scotia ' proceeded to Davis Strait, but there had 
no success. 

The other five vessels — the ' Diana,' ' Balsena,' ' Eclipse,' 
'Morning Star,' and 'Windward' went to Davis Strait direct, 
where the only Whale captured was the sucker already men- 
tioned, killed by the ' Diana,' which yielded only half a hundred- 
weight of bone — a poor return for seven months' toil. The 
other vessels were still more unfortunate. When opportunities 
did occur their attempts were always attended with disappoint- 
ment — fog coming down or harpoons drawing. Indeed, the 
voyage is described as one continuous battle against storm, 
ice, and fog. 

We have yet to speak of the ' Windward.' On June 25th 
this vessel struck upon a submerged rock near the Carey 
Islands, and became a total wreck. Her crew took to the 
boats, and after terrible exposure and great hardships they were 
eventually rescued by the ' Morning Star ' on July 6th. Death 
also added to the misfortunes of the fleet. On June 14th the 
engineer of the ' Windward ' died, and on August 16th one of 
her rescued crew died on board the ' Eclipse,' which latter vessel 
also lost one of her hands by death. 

The ships' logs, from the beginning of the voyage to its end, 
are said to be a continuous record of battling with wind, sea, and 
ice, varied with spells of what sailors dread more than these — 
Arctic fog ; added to which the want of success which attended 
their efforts to capture Whales when seen, the deaths of their 
companions, and loss of one of the fleet render the voyage of 
1907 one of the most disheartening on record. 

In addition to the seven vessels named the ketches ' Snow- 
drop ' and ' Albert ' brought home produce collected at the 
Frobisher Strait and Pond's Bay stations, the latter reporting 
that they had only seen one Whale during the whole season. 

The total result of the season's fishing, including the pro- 
duce brought home by the ' Snowdrop ' and ' Albert,' was three 



NOTES ON ARCTIC WHALING VOYAGE OF 1907. 63 

Whales, 36 White Whales, 634 Walruses, 1021 Seals, 258 Bears, 
740 Fox-skins, 97 tuns of oil, and 32£ cwt. of bone. A large 
proportion of this miscellaneous collection was obtained at the 
winter stations. The price of whalebone, the quantity of which 
in hand from the North Atlantic is, I believe, very small, is about 
£2400 per ton, and that of oil £22 10s. per tun. The total 
value of the whole produce is roughly estimated only at about 
£13,000. 

What will be the result of the series of disastrous years, 
entailing so serious a loss upon the " adventurers," it is difficult 
to say. Perhaps there is no industry which offers such prizes 
to the successful, but the climatic conditions on which to so 
large an extent success depends are so uncertain that the enter- 
prising Dundee merchants may still be tempted to court fortune 
in the frozen North. 

I am, as usual, much indebted to Mr. Eobert Kinnes, of 
Dundee, and for statistics to Mr. Mitchell's 'Circular.' 



64 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



BIRDS OF THE GRAAKALLEN MOUNTAIN, NORWAY. 
By Rev. William Sekle, M.B.O.U. 

The Graakallen — a mountain rising nearly 2000 feet in 
height — is a well-known ski-ing resort, six miles south of the 
town of Trondhjem, North Norway. On the top it is bare and 
rocky, but the slopes are covered sparsely with pines, while some 
little lochs lie around the base. On its slopes I lived from May 
18th till June 6th, 1907, and I spent the time wholly studying 
its bird life. Unfortunately for my purpose the season was an 
abnormally late one, and whilst at the beginning of my stay 
birds were scarce, when I left they were becoming abundant in 
every spot — I only saw one Willow- Warbler at Trondhjem on 
May 11th ; by the beginning of June they simply swarmed on 
the Graakallen. I seemed to think the migrant birds that 
gradually ascended the hill-slope did not first strike Norway by 
the Trondhjem Fiord, but by the mouth of the Orkla River, 
thence into the valley of the River Nid, and so reached the 
Graakallen ; and I might further remark, judging from the type 
of coast-land between Bergen and Trondhjem, that migrants 
from the Scottish coasts will likely seek the Norwegian coast to 
the north of Trondhjem, leaving the greater part of Norway to 
be occupied by birds migrating north by way of Heligoland and 
the entrance to the Baltic. Birds were comparatively tame, and 
were not molested by boys. I noted a kind of nervousness about 
them, but then they are seldom disturbed in their breeding 
haunts. I give a list of the birds observed on the Graakallen, 
omitting the Gulls, which flew across country from the harbour 
at Trondhjem to the mouth of the Orkla. 

Mistle-Thrush (Turdus viscivorus). — I came upon a pair on 
the east slope of the hill, pretty low down, which seemed to have 
a nest, judging from their anxious behaviour. 

Song-Thrush (T. musicus). — Distributed all over. Strange 
however, were it not for their song it was easier finding their 



BIRDS OF GBAAKALLEN MOUNTAIN, NORWAY. 65 

nests than getting a sight of the birds. Here they are very 
quiet and retiring in their habits and seldom seen ; they 
began singing about 10 p.m., and sang more or less all 
night, but their song had not the compass or quality of home 
birds. 

Redwing {T. iliacus). — This bird, not over-abundant when I 
arrived, became very common later. I saw them first on May 
17th, crouching on the sides of the road whilst showers of snow 
were drifting past. It is rather difficult wading among the deep 
snows amid the pines, yet I found a good few nests, and could 
easily have found more had I been anxious. Their trilling 
song is very pleasing and very characteristic of these lonely 
parts, and gives a good indication of the number of pairs that 
may be breeding around. Their nests were fairly well hidden, 
built low down, and one I found built against a boulder. I took 
the first full clutch on May 22nd, and I saw young ones well 
grown on June 3rd ; yet in the valley leading down to Loch 
Shelbrea I found no nests on June 5th, although the Redwings 
were numerous, and by their behaviour they indicated they were 
later in breeding in that valley. 

Fieldfare (1\ pilaris). — A most abundant bird, breeding in 
colonies ; later I noted birds nesting separately further up the 
hillside. I took a clutch on May 18th. Here the colony at the 
time was small, but it became a large one before I left. Field- 
fares are very noisy at their nests, and do their very best to 
tell you where they are. They build higher on the tree than 
Eedwings. 

Eing- Ouzel (T. torquatus). — There were scattered pairs all 
round. They had not commenced breeding when I left, but 
then a lot of snow fell during the last five days of May, and the 
Ring-Ouzels frequented exposed parts. 

Wheatear (Saxicola cenanthe). — A common bird. It had 
commenced tp breed before I left. 

Whinchat (Fratincola rubetra). — A common bird in suitable 
spots. A persistent singer. TheBe birds had not started nesting 
at the beginning of June. 

Redstart {Ruticilla phosnicurus) . — Common. They com- 
menced breeding in June. 

Golden-crested Wren (Regulus cristatas)* — It was easier to 



66 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

hear their squeaking notes in the pine-woods than to see the 
birds. They were not common. 

Willow-Warbler (Phylloscopns trochilus). — By the first days 
of June they simply swarmed everywhere, but had not com- 
menced breeding. I seemed to think their notes louder than 
at home. 

Hedge-Sparrow {Accentor modularis). — A lonely retiring bird 
here, but common ; its numbers increased as time went on. A 
heavy snowstorm late in May covered a nest containing five 
eggs. I thought the bird would have deserted the nest, yet in a 
day or two she returned and began to incubate. 

Great Tit (Parus major). — Though common low down, I 
only heard their notes on the hillside when June had come. 

Northern Marsh Tit (P. palustris borcalis) . — Common every- 
where. It was a pleasure listening to their notes. They are 
very light in colour. 

Wren (Troglodytes parvulus). — I saw it, but it is evidently 
scarce. 

White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). — Common when I arrived, 
scarcer later when they scattered to breed. 

Tree-Pipit (Anthus trivialis). — One took up its quarters in a 
bit of marsh near a stable. 

Meadow-Pipit (A. pratensis). — A few pairs were to be found 
about the mountain. 

Siskin (Chrysomitris spinus). — This pretty bird was in fair 
numbers. I noted one carrying nesting material. 

Greenfinch (Ligurinus chloris). — I noted but one, feeding on 
a juniper bush. 

House- Sparrow (Passer domesticus). — The first Sparrow — a 
female — appeared where I stayed on May 30th. They bred later. 

Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs). — Everywhere common. 

Brambling (F. montifringilla) . — A common bird. They were 
only commencing to build when I was leaving. 

Linnet (Linota cannabina). — I noted a few. 

Northern Bullfinch (Pyrrhula europaa major). — Two pairs 
of this large form of Bullfinch were always to be found at two 
certain spots. 

Yellowhammer (Emberiza ciirinella). — Fairly common, and 
not objecting to the pine-woods. 



BIBDS OF GRAAKALLEN MOUNTAIN, NORWAY. 67 

Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). — The first one appeared where 
I was staying on June 3rd. The proprietor was delighted to 
have them back for the season. He told rne that a pair had 
remained for the first time during the last winter at a neigh- 
bouring farm place in the Nid Eiver valley. 

Magpie (Pica rustica). — A common breeding bird. 

Hooded Crow (Corvus comix). — Common; and suspiciously 
watched when he looks near a Fieldfare colony. 

Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). — First heard on June 1st from the 
top of the Graakallen. Two were calling to one another from a 
high snow-covered moor to the south — odd-looking surroundings, 
I thought, for the bird. 

Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris). — A large Hawk, I am pretty sure, 
of this species I saw flying across Loch Shelbrea carrying some- 
thing to a thick clump of pine on the side of the mountain. 

Mallard (Anas boscas). — A pair frequented a little sheet of 
water. 

Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus). — An abundant bird all over the 
mountain. 

Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). — I saw a few of these birds 
among the pines. People spoke of these and of Black Grouse 
as common. 

Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola). — A few seen regularly at 
nightfall flying down to a marshy tract of land to feed. 

Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus). — A common bird on the 
small rivulets flowing down to the lakes. 

Curlew [Numenius arquata). — A few scattered all round. 



68 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF D WARD A, A GENUS OF 

COLEOPTERA. 

By Erich Wasmann, S.J.* 
(Translated by Horace Donisthorpe.) 

As an instance of recent species building, I 

brought forward, in 1901, t the genus Dinarda, in the Brachy- 
elytra (Staphylinidce) . It can be shown that our North and 
Central European two-coloured (red and black) forms of Dinarda, 
which are adapted to different species or races of the genus 
Formica, stand in different stages of species building. Two of 
these — Dinarda dentata (with F. sanguinea) and D. mdrkeli (with 
F. rufa) — have already become throughout their area of distri- 
bution such constant forms that they have been hitherto not in- 
correctly treated as species. Two other nearly related forms, on 
the other hand — D. hagensi (with F. exsecta) and D. pygmcea 
(with F. ruftbarbis, and especially with the var. fusco-rvfibarbis) 
— are still considered to be in the process of adaptation to their 
ant-hosts ; in some parts of the area of distribution of the latter 
they have already become well -denned forms ; in other regions 
they still show numerous transitions towards D. dentata; finally, 
in others, no adaptation of Dinarda to F. exsecta and rufibarbis 
has yet taken place. We have also before us in these two forms 
of Dinarda, which gradually approach in the path of variety and 
race-building, every stage of species building which has already 
been reached by Dinarda dentata and mdrkeli. My previous 
observations have strengthened these ideas in essentials, and at 
the same time have also afforded some further points of con- 
firmation relative to external factors, which imply these processes 
of differentiation with regard to adaptation. \ 

* Sonderabdruck aus der Festschi'ift fur J. Rosenthal., Leipzig, 1906. 
f " Gibt es tatsachlich Arten, die heute noch in der Stamniesentwickelung 
begriffen sind? " (Biol, Centralbl. xxi. nr. 22, u. 23). 

I See my book also on this, ' Die moderne Biologie und die Entwicke- 
ungstheorie ' (Freiburg, i. B. 1904), pp. 214-215. 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF DINABDA. 69 

The sooner the adaptation of Dinarda to F. exsecta and rufi- 
barbis has taken place in a region, the more they are protected, 
through local isolation of the ants' nests in question from those 
of allied species of Formica (especially of F. sanguinea), so much 
the further has also the differentiation of the forms of Dinarda 
in question progressed. 

This is most clearly shown, as yet, in the differentiation of 
D. pygmaa from its ancestral form dentata. 

Also as regards D. hagensi, some new facts have been added 
in the last few years, which show that its adaptation to F. 
exsecta is not yet completed, but that in different points of its 
area of distribution it stands at different stages in the process of 
species building. Donisthorpe* found a number of Dinarda with 
F. exsecta at Bournemouth (county of Dorset, South England), 
which comes nearer to the typical examples taken by Von Hagens 
in the Siebengebirge in 1855 than the Dinardas taken by me at 
Linz on the Rhine with the same ant in 1893-1901. Most of 
these English examples show, just as Von Hagens's type, no 
raised keeled border to the elytra, but these organs are regu- 
larly arched, in which these examples even depart from the 
generic diagnosis of Dinarda (" elytrorum margine laterali cari- 
nato "). Also, the antenna? are shorter and more compact than in 
D. dentata. On the other hand, the border of the elytra in the 
examples from Linz is distinctly raised and keeled, and the 
antennse are somewhat more slender than in dentata. In some 
of Donisthorpe's examples from England transitions between 
both the hagensi forms are noticeable in that the border of the 
elytra is sometimes feebly raised, and the antennae are less com- 
pact. Dinarda hagensi has evolved, at different points of its 
area of distribution, as far as different stages towards a peculiar 
form ; further, according to the specimens found up to the 
present, it has made the greatest progress in the Siebengebirge, 
in the Ehine Provinces, and in South England, which during 
"diluvial" times remained free from ice, and represents the 
oldest district for the adaptation of this Dinarda to F. exsecta. 
Should the process of differentiation which separates D. hagensi 

■' " Dinarda hagensi, Wasm., a species of Myrmecophilous Coleoptera 
new to Britain " (Entom. Record, 1905, pp. 181-182). Donisthorpe sent me 
examples of these Dinardas. 



70 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

from dentata make still further progress elsewhere, then D. 
hagensi could not be included any moreen the generic diagnosis 
of Dinarda, since the keeled border of the elytra of the latter has 
hitherto been regarded as essential. We must even define the 
whole group of Dinardini differently, since that keeled border of 
the elytra formed its most essential character ! It has been 
objected by some defenders of the " constancy theory " that the 
previous observations on Dinarda offer no evidence on behalf of 
the evolution theory, since here it is only the question of evolu- 
tion " within the species." In fact, it is perhaps better to 
reckon, as I showed more completely in 1896,* our four two- 
coloured Dinarda forms as races, rather than as species in the 
strictest systematic sense. But, in any case, they offer races, 
which stand at different stages in their evolution ; D. dentata 
and mdrkeli, as far as concerns their constancy, have arrived 
much nearer to "true species" than D. hagensi and pygmcea. 
Further, indeed, as has been shown above, the keeled border of 
the elytra in the typical D. hagensi has disappeared ; but when 
in this evolution a character can disappear, which has hitherto 
been held as essential, not only for the species but even for the 
genus in question, even for the whole group of genera, then the 
objection that it is only a case of evolution within the species will 
fall to the ground. 

Let us now consider a similar process of differentiation, such 
as is the case which has furthered, and is still furthering, the 
evolution of our two-coloured forms of Dinarda, through the 
adaptation to different species of the genus Formica, extended to 
the adaptation of allied Dinardas to ant-guests of different genera 
and subfamilies. In this case, too, we get a phylogenetic under- 
standing for the differentiation of the genera Dinarda and Chitosa. 
Dinarda nigrita, which occurs in the Mediterranean province, 
which Cassey has lately raised to the new genus Chitosa, is in 
the highest degree probably sprung through the adaptation of a 
Dinarda-like ancestor to the Myrmicide Stenamma (Aplmnog aster) 
testaceopilo-nigrita, which is the actual host of Chitosa nigrita. 
The same essential differentiation process that we find in the 
evolution of Dinarda also takes place here, only that it already 

* " Dinarda- Arten order Passen " (Wien. Entom. Zeitung, xv. 4und 5, 
Heft. pp. 125-142). 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF DINARDA. 71 

began at an earlier date, and has attained, owing to the great 
difference of the hosts, the genera Formica and Stenamma, a 
much greater divergence between the adaptation forms in 
question. The same thing can also be shown for the tropical 
genera Fauvelia and Allodinarda, Wasm. 

As I have previously remarked, it would be certainly wrong 
to conclude that the evolution of new species and genera has been 
effected in other ant-guests and Termite guests along the same 
path of a quite gradual variety-and-race-evolution, as in Dinarda. 
For the guests of the protected type, to which Dinarda belongs 
in a great measure, other biological principles of adaptation are 
in force than for the guests of the Symphile type (=relations of 
friendship) and the mimicry type. Together with the fluctuating 
variation we must always take into consideration the possibility 
of the building of new forms through mutation. Without 
entirely excluding Natural Selection, I believe further, in the 
case of guests of the Symphile type, we must attribute* great 
weight to Friendly Selection as a factor in evolution. 

* See on this ' Biologie und Entwickelungstheorie,' 2 Aufl. 9 Kap., 
especially pp. 219 ff., 230, 259 ff. * 



72 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



AVES. 
Domestication of the Jackdaw. — About the middle of June, 1907, 
I brought home two young Jackdaws from a neighbouring village, 
which were allowed their liberty about the place with uncut wings, 
and only shut up at night. At the time of the autumn migration 
their habits became rather erratic, so that sometimes we did not see 
them for two or three days at a time, and on November 9th we had 
what we thought was the last visit from one. However, on January 
14th we were surprised to see him return, none the worse for the 
sharp frost, which must have made food difficult to obtain. He was 
as tame and friendly as ever, perching on the arm of his mistress and 
feeding from her hand, and up to the present (January 21st) he has 
come back every morning, going away at night. It would have 
surprised us less had he appeared at the return migration in March 
or April, and there is a record in the ' Birds of Norfolk ' (vol. i. p. 279) 
of a Jackdaw which returned after nearly a year's absence, coming to 
the call of the boy who used to feed it, and settling on his shoulder. 
Certainly there are no bird-pets to compare with full- winged Jack- 
daws for tameness and sociable habits ; these two birds, for example, 
would accompany my daughters and their dogs for long walks about 
the fields and meadows, and spend hours with us in the garden, where 
their attentions to fruit and flowers were not always of a desirable 
nature. But at the same time there are no pets more likely to be 
lost. — Julian G. Tuck (Tostock Eectory, Bury St. Edmunds). 

Bean-Geese on the Dee Marshes. — As there appears to be some 
doubt as to the occurrence of the Bean-Goose (Anser segetum) on 
these marshes, it may be worth recording that on January 22nd 
last I saw a "gaggle" of fifteen of this species near Puddington. 
The difference between this bird and the Pink-footed Goose (Anser 
brachyrhynchus) was very apparent with the aid of a telescope at a 
reasonable distance. Compared with the Pink-footed — of which there 
are large numbers annually on the salt-marshes — the Bean-Goose is 
considerably less wary, and is apparently a more silent bird both on 
the wing and on the ground. I walked towards them for some 
distance in the open before they took wing, which they did without 
uttering a sound. — S. G. Cummings (Upton, Chester). 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

American Wood Duck in Oxfordshire. — In the last number of 
' The Zoologist ' (p. 33) it is suggested that the specimen of 
Mx sponsa shot in Oxfordshire might possibly be a wild one. We 
have large flocks both of Mx sponsa and Mx galericulata, which have 
never been pinioned, and the former have bred here for years. 
Woburn is about twenty-five miles " as the crow flies " from Oxford. 
M. Bedford (Woburn Abbey, Woburn). 

The Smew in Northumberland. — A male of this species (Mergus 
albellus) in fine plumage was shot in the neighbourhood of Colt 
Crag, North Tynedale, Northumberland, in December, 1907. — J. S. S. 
Walton (Sunniside, Stocksfield-on-Tyne). 

Ornithological Records from Chester and North Wales. — 1. Siskin, 
female (Chrysomitris spinus) ; Hoole, near Chester, Dec. 15th, 1906. — 
2. Fork-tailed Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa) ; Ellesmereport, near 
Chester, Dec. 16th, 1907. — 3. Common Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) ; 
Stoke, near Chester, Jan. 28th, 1908. — 4. Bed-throated Diver (Colym- 
bus septentrionalis) ; Corwen, Nr. Wales, Jan. 7th, 1908. — Alfred 
Newstead (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). 

Wildfowl in Somerset. — The following notes from my own obser- 
vations made lately in Somerset may be of interest :— On Jan. 9th 
there were plenty of Gulls (Lams ridibundus) inland on the flooded 
fields near Yatton Station. On Jan. 9th, a cold frosty morning, I 
noticed the following birds in Sand Bay, north of Weston-super- 
Mare : — Mallard and Duck, twelve ; Sheld-Duck, quite five hundred, 
scattered in parties over the Bay (this species has certainly increased 
of late years in the district) ; Scaup-Duck, a flock of about one 
hundred and fifty ; Pochard, one drake ; Curlews, about two hundred ; 
Bedshank, three ; Binged Plover, about thirty ; Dunlin, a large flock 
of one thousand or more. There were also many Gulls about, chiefly 
L. canus and L. ridibundus. On Jan. 15th Scaup and Sheld-Duck 
were still in the bay in large numbers, and another flock of about two 
hundred Scaup were feeding in Weston Bay. This species is a 
regular winter visitor to the Bristol Channel, the flocks including a 
large number of adult drakes, conspicuous, through a strong glass, 
owing to their grey backs and white flanks. On Jan. 15th I went to 
the Bristol Waterworks Company's new reservoir at Blagdon, com- 
pleted about eight years ago. This fine sheet of water, which, except 
for the dam, looks like a natural lake, extends for a mile and three- 
quarters in a valley to the north of the Mendip Hills. When the lake 
is full the surface area is four hundred and fifty acres. In places the 
water is very shallow, but the maximum depth is thirty-seven feet. I 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII.. February. 1908. g 



74 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

expected to find this reservoir a good resort for wildfowl, and was not 
disappointed. Tufted Ducks, to the number of at least two hundred, 
were busy diving in twos and threes, and little parties of twenty or 
thirty all over the water, a good proportion being adult drakes in full 
plumage. The birds were rather restless and often on the wing. 
Pochards were perhaps a little more abundant than the Tufted Ducks. 
Coming rather suddenly on a sheltered bay, I counted one hundred 
and fifty of this species resting, with other waterfowl, in a compact 
flock on the water. They were not very shy, merely swimming 
quietly out a little way into the lake, and returning to doze as soon as 
I had passed. Besides this flock many other Pochards were scattered 
over the water. A splendid adult drake Golden-eye followed by a duck 
kept well out in the rough water, and was continually diving. There 
were also a good many Mallard about, and a fair number of Wigeon 
and Teal, all very shy and probably lately shot at, but I could only 
make out two Shovelers, both fine drakes. A bird which must have 
been a female or immature Smew puzzled me for a long time. It was 
perhaps the shyest bird upon the water, and kept out of easy range 
of my glasses. The throat and neck showed white, and during flight 
there were very conspicuous white markings visible on the wings. 
Coots might be seen in hundreds, perhaps in thousands. They were 
everywhere, and mingled with the other fowl. I also noticed two 
Herons. A strong south-west breeze was blowing, ruffling the water 
considerably, but many of the Diving Ducks seemed to like the rough 
water. I am told on good authority that other species, such as 
Grebes and Divers, have been seen on the water, and that Shovelers 
and Tufted Ducks have been known recently to remain to breed by 
the lake. In winter twelve guns are said to have shot two hundred 
Duck, chiefly Teal, in one day. The lake, already famous for its big 
Trout, is evidently a very interesting bird resort, and is worthy of the 
attention of naturalists. — F. L. Blathwayt (Lincoln). 

Distinct Types in Eggs. — In ' The Zoologist ' (ante, p. 30) I have 
read with interest the article on " Eggs of the Eed-backed Shrike," 
which is a reply to a previous note on the same subject. My limited 
experience leads me to agree with Mr. Bunyard. For years I had 
the run of a large Black-headed Gullery (Larus riclibundus) in Perth- 
shire. Year after year in the same part of the moss we used to look 
for and find the exact same type of eggs — such as spotless blue and 
beautifully zoned eggs, We always held these were the production of 
the same female. In 1903 I picked up a clutch of two almost spotless 
blue eggs, slightly malformed. Returning to the same spot in 1904, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 75 

I again got a clutch of two eggs of the exact same type, and also 
slightly malformed. Both clutches I still have, which to my mind 
proves them to be the product of the one bird. Speaking to one of 
the St. Kilda men about a specially fine Puffin's egg, he told me that 
this same type of egg (and only one egg) was laid each year in the 
same burrow. I could give many other instances, but do not wish to 
trespass any further on your space. — T. Thobnton Mackeith (The 
Hall, Caldwell, Eenfrewshire). 

Some Ornithological Notes from Mayo and Sligo. — This has been 
the first season since 1898 that Motacilla alba has not been observed 
visiting the Island of Bartragh on their spring journey to the 
northern breeding haunts. However, I have no doubt but that they 
did pay their usual visit to rest and feed, though sometimes, as they 
remain only a few hours, it is possible that during their short stay 
they escaped the notice of Captain Kirkwood and his man, who 
always keep a good look-out for these birds during the migration 
time, the end of April and beginning of May. When they visit 
the island they are always to be met with on and about a marshy 
pasture near the shore situate between the garden and the sand- 
hills, sometimes in the garden and a field close by, but their favourite 
haunt is the marshy pasture. If northerly or north-easterly winds 
prevail at the time of their visits their stay is prolonged for a day or 
two until the wind moderates. The birds generally appear in little 
flocks of four or five individuals, on different dates, and leave 
and are replaced by others. In the season of 1898 there were 
four separate arrivals and departures, one pair of the last party of 
visitors remaining until the end of May, and the late Mr. A. C. Kirk- 
wood, expecting and hoping they would remain to nest, was much 
disappointed by their leaving the island as the others did. In 1906 
there were four arrivals on separate dates. Captain Kirkwood 
observed two birds on May 1st, but they remained only a few hours. 
On the 5th six appeared, out of which he obtained a pair for me. 
This little flock disappeared next day, but was replaced by four birds 
on the 9th, and were joined by another bird on the 10th, when I had 
the pleasure of seeing and watching them for nearly an hour as they 
ran about and fed on the marshy flat adjoining the Rabbit-burrow. 
This lot also left that evening or next morning ; but afterwards a few 
other birds were observed by Captain Kirkwood on the 12th and 
13th, the last visitors for the season. No large flocks have ever 
been noticed, and the unusual number of fifteen has been only once 
observed by the late Mr. A. C. Kirkwood, on May 12th, 1898. Our 



76 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

small birds — Chaffinches, Green Linnets, and Yellowhammers — as 
usual, disappeared this autumn. I believe they began leaving in 
August, for on Sept. 1st no Chaffinches were about this place, and by 
Oct. 1st none of these species were to be seen anywhere about the 
district. It was not until Nov. 12th that any of the strangers put in 
an appearance here, when I observed about thirty birds in one of my 
fields ; but no doubt the large migratory flocks had arrived inland 
some time previously, because for some days or weeks after their 
arrival they keep flocked together before dispersing over the country, 
and replacing the home-bred birds in the usual haunts. In the last 
week of November I noticed that the strangers had assembled in 
numbers about the stubbles and stackyard here, and about eight or 
ten days later I remarked that all through the district the birds had 
settled down, Chaffinches being especially numerous. With regard 
to the swimming birds and waders, Curlews did not appear to be as 
numerous as last season, and the Lapwings far less ; while Golden 
Plover occasionally appeared in very large numbers, quite as numerous 
as last season. Wigeon appeared in their usual numbers, and during 
the few nights' frost the first week of the New Year very large num- 
bers assembled in the estuary. But the Wild Ducks did not leave 
their inland haunts ; very few were down, because the frost was not 
severe enough to drive them from the bogs and lakes. On only two 
nights was the mercury down to twenty -five degrees, and unless there 
are at least ten degrees of frost very few Mallards come down to the 
estuary. — Eobeet Warren (Moy View, Ballina). 

Wood-Pigeon Diphtheria. — Much public interest has been shown 
lately in the disease of which Wood-Pigeons have been dying so 
freely this winter. The subject is of considerable scientific interest ; 
moreover, it is quite possible, although it has not yet been absolutely 
proved, that this disease, which is most infectious amongst Wood- 
Pigeons themselves, may also be contracted by other birds, especially 
game-birds. It is of great importance, therefore, to find a means of 
stamping out the diphtheria. Before, however, any effective means 
can be taken to eradicate the disease it is necessary to discover its 
origin. To the January issue of ' British Birds ' Dr. C. B. Ticehurst, 
of Guy's Hospital, contributed an article on the subject of Wood- 
Pigeon diphtheria, and explained that it was due to a specific micro- 
organism called Bacillus diptherice columbarum. At the same time 
Dr. Ticehurst pointed out that the etiology of the disease is most 
incomplete, and that much has to be learnt as to how it originates, 
when it comes, and as to its distribution before we can suggest a 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 77 

remedy. The Wood-Pigeon disease forms an excellent ' case for a 
systematic inquiry all over the country, and many schedules of the 
questions to be answered have been posted. Much information and 
many specimens have thus been received, but more of both are 
needed, and I should be delighted to supply schedules to any of 
the readers of 'The Zoologist' who may be in a position to give 
information on the subject. All the observations will be collated and 
studied by Dr. Ticehurst, who will draw up a full report at a later 
date. — H. F. Witherby (326, High Holborn, London). 

A Correction: 'Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales.' — In my recently 
issued book there is an unfortunate printer's error on p. 222 which 
exactly reverses the meaning of the sentence, making me state that 
the Buzzard is double-brooded. The passage as I wrote it ran thus : 
" The Buzzard never rears two broods in a year, but like most birds," 
&c. All readers who have copies of the book are earnestly requested 
to make the correction. — H. E. Foeeest (Hillside, Bayston Hill, 
Shrewsbury). 

ARACHNIDA. 

Curious Habit of a Chelifer. — My friend H. W. Bell-Marley 
recently sent me from Natal two specimens of a species of Chelifer 
which he had found firmly attached to the principal vein of the wings 




^^s= 



of a large Longicorn beetle (Macrotoma natala). It need scarcely be 
mentioned that the wings are membranous, and quite different to the 
strong elytra which cover them. Another species of Chelifer about 



78 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the same size but distinct from the one here figured has been 
described by C. J. With, of Copenhagen (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. xv. 
p. 123 (1905)), as G. equester, of which eight females and thirteen 
males were found beneath the elytron of a beetle (not identified) at 
Tavieta, Kilimanjaro. Some of the smaller species of the Pseudo- 
scorpionidae have been seen clinging to the legs of flies, a habit 
generally considered as denoting a convenient means of transport 
from place to place rather than an intention of preying on the flies 
themselves ; but these specimens from Natal are much larger, and 
must prove a considerable inconvenience and annoyance to their 
hosts. The specimen here figured measures 5| millim. in length of 
body, and is apparently an undescribed species, but being in a dried 
condition is not suitable for specific diagnosis. — W. L. Distant. 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



The Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales. By H. E. Forrest. 
Witherby & Co. 

This book is a real contribution to natural history, and per- 
tains to a British area whose fauna required the historian. A 
number of papers on Welsh ornithology have recently appeared 
in our pages, and they are not unused in this volume ; we hope 
that ' The Zoologist ' will be equally in demand for records when 
a volume on South Wales appears. The work commences with 
short obituaries of the deceased zoologists of North Wales, and 
portraits of many of them give a peculiar value to the pages, 
while a good bibliography of the writings of living naturalists is 
also compiled. 

Of the mammals, we read that at the present time 41 species 
are known to occur in North Wales, 8 became locally extinct 
within the historic period, while 15 have been identified only 
from remains found in limestone caverns of the prehistoric era. 
No list of mammals for North Wales had previously been pub- 
lished save that by Eyton in 1836. 

Two hundred and seventy-two species of birds are enumerated ; 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 79 

of these 22 are recorded on doubtful evidence, 93 are residents, 
52 winter visitors, 38 summer migrants, 17 chiefly occurring on 
passage in spring and autumn, 47 have occurred accidentally, and 
3 are extinct locally ; 143 have been known to breed in the 
district. The Eeptiles and Amphibians are naturally not nume- 
rous, but 159 species of Fish are enumerated — 27 fresh-water 
and 132 marine. 

It will be evident from the above figures that Mr. Forrest has 
had to deal with a fair- sized vertebrate fauna, and he seems to 
have scarcely let a record slip the meshes of his net, supposing 
such a record to bear the imprimatur of authenticity. We have 
not made a microscopical search for errors, nor have we found 
any; one of the printer is corrected by Mr. Forrest himself in 
this issue (ante, p. 77). But we have looked for facts, and abun- 
dantly found them, analysed and well arranged. The book is 
embellished with a number of plates illustrating the haunts of 
different birds in North Wales, and it forms a notable addition 
to our now fast-increasing literature on faunal areas of Britain. 



Birds of Britain. By J. Lewis Bonhote, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 
Adam & Charles Black. 

In a literary sense no naturalist is so well catered for as the 
British ornithologist, or the individual who is interested in 
British birds. Book follows book, one author inspires another, 
the supply is recurrent, and of course the standard is not always 
the same. Mr. Bonhote's volume, as might be expected, is not 
an ordinary compilation ; it naturally does not reach the high- 
water mark of the late Mr. Howard Saunders's phenomenal 
condensation in his universally known ' Manual,' but it possesses 
originality and charm. It contains notes and observations 
which have " been taken at first-hand straight from Nature," 
and it is illustrated by one hundred coloured plates selected by 
Mr. H. E. Dresser from his ' Birds of Europe.' These features 
will alone distinguish the publication from many other works on 
the same subject, and make it an occupant of our shelves. Here 
at last is a book which will provide another judicious presentation 
to any lover of birds who would yet know more about them. 



80 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Guide to the Specimens of the Horse Family (Equidce) exhibited in 
the Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). Printed by order of the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

Although no name appears on the title-page, we read in the 
preface that this " Guide-Book" is the work of Mr. B. Lydekker. 
It is, however, more than a guide-book, and is practically a 
short but condensed memoir on the Equidce, and as such is 
a publication to be remembered by students of the family. The 
National Collection now contains the skulls and some other 
parts of the skeletons of many of our celebrated thoroughbred 
racehorses, and their pedigree and performances are detailed in 
this small publication. This is a very welcome sign of the 
times, and a proper purview of a national and legitimate sport 
from the point of both the naturalist and the true sportsman is 
more likely to favour racing and the racehorse than the presence 
of mob3 of gamblers at some plating saturnalia. We hope that 
the Museum will obtain many more of these trophies incidental 
to a national pastime and the improvement of man's noblest 
domestic mammal. 

These pages are illustrated by twenty-six figures, and the 
cost of the publication is trifling. 



Records of the Indian Museum {a Journal of Indian Zoology). 

Calcutta. 
The Indian Museum at Calcutta has now followed the example 
of most of our Colonial Museums and those of other countries by 
publishing its own Journal. Parts i.-iii. of vol. i. have now 
reached us, and from the contents these ' Becords ' will be recog- 
nized as of considerable zoological importance. There is also 
an accompanying publication of a larger size, ' Memoirs of the 
Indian Museum,' the first part of which contains " An Account 
of the Bats of Calcutta," by Dr. W. C. Hossack, which is beauti- 
fully illustrated by coloured and other plates. 

These publications reflect the energy of Dr. Annandale, the 
Superintendent of the Zoological Section of the Calcutta Museum. 



•th Series. 1 
XII.. No. 135. 1 



March 16th, 1908. 



No. 801 








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reader quite apart from the interesting things he has to tell. The chapter entitled 
'From the Point of View of a Dunlin' is charmingly written, and may be recom- 
mended to the indiscriminate batchers who go out with the intention of killing as 
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" There is a delightful freshness and originality with this book which at once 
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"This is a book written by an enthusiastic bird collector, who shoots and sets 

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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 801.— -March. 1908. 



SOME NOTES ON A HABIT OF THE GEE AT SPOTTED 
WOODPECKEE (DENDROCOPUS MAJOR) IN EE- 
LATION TO A SIMILAE BUT MOEE DEVELOPED 
HABIT IN THE CALIFOENIAN WOODPECKEE 
(MELANERPES FORMIC IVOR US) . 

By Edmund Selous. 

As is well known, a certain Woodpecker of North America — 
Melanerpes formicivorus to wit, known commonly as the Cali- 
fornian Woodpecker — has the habit, which, in view of its appa- 
rent uselessness, has been pronounced extraordinary, of studding 
certain trees with acorns by wedging them, in great numbers, 
into holes which it has previously made in the bark for their 
reception. The following notes (made in Sweden) on an analo- 
gous, but less irrational, habit of the Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker (Dendrocopus major) may perhaps throw light on the 
origin and real meaning of the more peculiar one. 

April 23rd, 1907. — To-day, on one of the islands of this lake, 
I was surprised to see, upon the stump of a felled Scotch fir-tree, 
at about a foot from the ground, a fir-cone set, apex upwards, in 
the bark, and so deeply that, had it been sliced off level with the 
surface, one-half of it would have remained where it was. 
Taking it off, I found that a groove in the thick bark of the 
Scotch fir had been made for its reception, which just fitted it, 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII , March, 1908. H 



82 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

and, an inch or two higher on the same side of the trunk, was 
another cutting made evidently for the same purpose. At the 
base of the trunk, and on the same side of it, thirty-eight fir- 
cones belonging not to the Scotch fir but to the spruce — as did 
also the one imbedded — lay strewed in a half circle, the outlying 
cones on each side reaching, together, to about half-way round 
the tree, and, directly under the two grooves in the bark, was a 
litter of the dust and " leaves " of fir-cones. Looking amongst 
this, I found what, from previous experience, I knew to be the 
droppings of a Woodpecker (no doubt Dendrocopus major), and 
instantly thought of the Californian species which studs a tree- 
trunk with acorns, and, extremely interested in what looked like 
an earlier stage in the evolution of the habit, I concealed myself 
at some little distance from the stump in question, and waited 
in the somewhat forlorn hope that the Woodpecker, if it really 
were one, would return to its hoard. I sat on for some hours, 
but nothing broke the lifeless stillness of the island. Meanwhile, 
however, I had noticed another Scotch fir quite near me, at 
whose base lay a very much larger heap of cones — also of the 
spruce — and, upon going up to it, found that its bark had been 
treated in just the same way. Here there were three groovings, 
two of the same general shape as the others, and each of these 
held firmly almost any cone of the heap that I picked up, though 
one was a good deal longer than any of them — which, however, 
though it made the shape less exact, did not at all affect the 
firmness of the fit. The third mould was smaller and more 
rounded, and appeared to be adapted for a smaller cone. This, 
however, as I soon found, was a wrong conclusion, for a little 
later I came upon a tree from which a cone projected outwards, 
as well as upwards, in a very striking manner. But for the 
bizarre outline thus presented, which at once caught my eye, I 
should probably have passed this tree, as there were but few cones 
beneath it, and these only strewn about, not forming a heap. 
This was also the case with regard to a fourth tree, in which, like 
the first, a cone was similarly inserted in a socket which just 
fitted it. I cannot now remember whether there was another 
empty one, and if so whether it was rounded or elongate, but on 
going back to the tree in which I had first noticed the latter kind 
of groove, and trying a cone in it, after the fashion of the pro- 



HABIT OF GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 83 

jecting one, I found that it took it exactly, so that quite the same 
appearance was presented. 

A fifth tree was interesting in another manner, for here the 
depression in the trunk was natural, caused, I think, by a branch 
having once sprung there. It was larger than the other, nor was 
the shape nearly so true, more resembling that of an inverted 
peg-top. Nevertheless, a fir-cone had been inserted in it, in the 
same manner, whilst one or two others lay on the ground 
beneath, though here, as in the two preceding cases, there was 
no heap. In every case the tree was a Scotch fir— the bark of 
which gives special facilities for such carving — and the cones 
always of another kind, apparently those of the spruce. Under 
all, or nearly all, these trees I found the excrements of a Wood- 
pecker, and at the large heap some of these were buried under 
the litter of the desiccated cones, giving the idea that the collec- 
tion here had been a work of time, the refuse of the last-brought 
cones falling upon and covering that of the former ones, and, 
with it, the bird's excrements, which thus lay at different levels. 
The grooves for the reception of the cones in this tree — where I 
more particularly examined them — had the appearance of having 
been first cut with a knife, and then worn by friction, some being 
smoother than others. This smoothness, I think, must have 
been produced by the constant placing of successive cones in the 
groove. The cones presented all the appearance of having been 
hacked at with a hard, pointed implement, and the refuse, much 
of which was like sawdust, was also to be best explained in this 
way. 

April 24th. — After breakfast rowed to another island — the 
nearest to the settlement — in order to examine the trees there. 
The results of my investigations were as follows : — 

(1) A fair-sized Scotch fir had one deep engravure in the 
bark, of a shape differing very much from those I had found 
yesterday. The chief difference was that, taking those as the 
standard, it was upside down — that is to say, the part corre- 
sponding to the tip of the cone pointed downwards, and, in pro- 
portion with its breadth, it was shorter. On the ground lay 
cones of the tree itself, and some of these seemed to have been 
pecked into. On placing several in the mould with the apex 
downwards, I found that all were effectually secured in it, even 

h2 



84 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the smallest ones becoming so by pushing them down towards the 
narrow part. This was not, however, the case with a corre- 
sponding number of spruce-cones that I tried, for though they 
were larger than the largest of those of the Scotch fir that I 
could find, and filled the hole more completely than they did, 
still the fit was not so good, nor the cone so secure. Yet I could 
find no Scotch fir-cone which quite filled the mould. This cleft 
was at a greater height than any I had yet seen (an inch or two 
higher from the ground than the length of my walking-stick 
camp-stool, which would be about three feet). There was no 
heap of cones, nor did I find spruce-cones strewed with the 
others near the trunk, but had to fetch them. 

(2) On another Scotch fir were three such niches, at different 
heights, of the same shape, but not so well made, and in the 
highest of these — the height of my chest from the ground — a 
small Scotch fir-cone, not more than one-third of the length of 
its niche, was squeezed tight and firm towards the narrower, 
downward-pointing end, with the apex up — i. e. against the 
shape of the frame. The other groovings were lower, but the 
lowest over two feet from the ground. No heap and no spruce- 
cones that I could see. 

(3) Another Scotch fir had three large spruce-cones lying 
close to its trunk, with others some yards off, but all, it seemed, 
must have been brought. In the trunk of this tree, however, 
I could find no cleft. There was no heap. It is, however, 
possible that these cones had belonged to felled trees which had 
been removed, for there was a huge debris of shavings of the 
inner bark. Yet I could not make out that this had been the 
case. The fellings seemed to have been of Scotch firs. 

(4) On another Scotch fir, at about the same height, there 
was a quite small and roughly-shaped cleft — not so deep — into 
which a correspondingly small cone of the tree stuck, when I 
placed it there, very well. No heap. One spruce-cone, which 
must have been brought, lay near the trunk, and this was well 
pecked, from the base to near the middle, on one side. 

(5) A Scotch fir in which was a long, narrow grooving of a 
foot, or near that, in length, its base being nearly three feet from 
the ground. Here no attempt seemed to have been made to 
approximate the shape of the groove to that of a cone, yet a 



HABIT OF GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 85 

cone of the tree, that I tried, stuck in it very well. We seem 
here to see the beginning, or, more probably, an early stage of 
the habit. Some inches below this long cleft was something 
that may have also been one, with more idea of shape, but 
very rude and rough. There was no heap and no transported 
cones. 

(6) A more shapely cleft, about two feet from ground, but 
looked old. No heap, no transportations. Always the Scotch 
fir. Shape an oval. Could not distinguish apex from base. 

(7) Ditto, but fresher, with pecked cones of the tree lying 
about. Apex down,* height from ground some two feet. 

(8) Something that may have been a natural cleft, into 
which, judging by the pine-needles it contained, cones may 
have been placed. About same height from ground. 

(9) A fairly well- shaped cleft, to take the average Scotch fir- 
cone. The apex down. Some cones of the tree, well-pecked, on 
ground, and one spruce-cone— apparently unpecked — that must 
have been brought, but was too large for the groove. 

(10) A somewhat small niche. Shape approximating to oval 
but apex — if any — rather up than down. 

(11) Ditto. Height from ground 2| to 3 feet. Apex down 
but roughly shaped. No heap (as in all). Pecked cones of the 
tree — one pecked to pieces. No transported cones. 

(12) A well-marked cutting, of the spruce-cone shape, the 
apex down. Underneath, but not quite in line with the cleft, 
and from six inches to a foot out from the trunk, a heap of the 
pecked or broken-out " leaves " of a spruce-cone, with other 
spruce-cones lying about that must, I think, have been brought. 
One of these seemed to have been pecked, but the others not, or 
only very slightly, at the base. Picking one to pieces I found it 
contained some small white grubs which would, no doubt, be 
palatable to a Woodpecker. I noticed here, just by the trunk, 
the excrement of a Woodpecker, which upon examination I 
found to contain what I took to be the hard parts of ants (but 
this, as will be seen farther on, was a mistake). Some cones of 
the tree itself — the Scotch fir, as in every case — seemed to have 
been pecked, but they were old, and it was difficult to tell. 

* It would be easier for the bird to peck it out so, and this is no doubt 
the reason. 



86 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

There were other examples of this interesting habit, but 
these must suffice. There was nothing in any of them quite like 
what I had seen on the other island, about a quarter of a mile 
off. In no case, there, could I see signs of the Scotch fir-cones 
having been eaten. Going again to this island, I could not find 
that any change had taken place in the disposition of the cones, 
&c, at the two principal depots, but with a view to testing this 
another time, I placed two, each in a groove, above the larger 
heap, to see if they would be moved, and rowed on to the next 
island, some ten or fifteen minutes away. Here, however, with 
the exception of some half a dozen quite small spruces, there 
were Scotch firs only, and accordingly I found no example of the 
cones of the former tree having been brought to them. All 
about I found trees marked in the way I have described — there 
is no need further to particularise — and in several of these cones 
were so tightly stuck that they offered a sharp resistance to 
being pulled out. They were at various heights, generally above 
two, and in one case nearly four, feet from the ground. No 
heaps. When the niche was not oval, or nearly oval, the apex 
or narrow end of it pointed down. The conditions on two other 
closely adjacent islands being the same, I did not land upon 
them. 

Some days afterwards I found the two cones which had been 
placed by me in their niches exactly as I had left them. This, 
with various other indications, assures me that the present time 
of the year is not that at which the Woodpecker which makes 
these clefts and brings the cones to them occupies itself in this 
manner. 

May 2nd. — Towards evening I rowed to the nearest island to 
get a specimen of these clefts made by Woodpeckers in the bark 
of the Scotch fir, with cones of the tree fixed in it. I found one, 
but also noticed another, in which a perfectly new-looking 
spruce-cone was fixed, projecting and upright — a most eye- 
catching object. How I can have missed it before, the island 
being small and thinly grown, I hardly know ; but I have no 
reason to think that the birds are now at work in this way. 

May 5th. — The other day I examined the Woodpecker's 
excrements which I had found on one of the islands, under the 
circumstances described, with a Codington lens. After some 



HABIT OF GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 87 

time, during which I was in doubt, I made it out to consist of 
minute fragments either of fir-cone or fir-wood, but, taking 
everything into consideration, I have no doubt the former. It 
was difficult, at first, to be sure, and, as I say, I was in doubt 
for some time. There were great numbers of little flakes, some 
entire, when they were of an oval shape, forming a cavity on one 
side, whilst others seemed to be chips and breakings of these, 
and were of various irregular shapes. The entire ones looked 
something like the shards of beetles, but minute examination 
never bore this out, but showed a woody grain in them. I 
compared the substance of these excrements with some of the 
small flakes and debris of the cones amongst which I had found 
them, and, though the latter showed lighter, the difference was 
no more than might have been accounted for by the one having 
been exposed to the digestive processes and passed through the 
intestines of a bird. I could not find one head, leg, or other 
recognizable portion of any insect. All was the woody material, 
and as the entire excrement was thus composed, and I examined 
half a dozen or so of them, we seem here to have a Woodpecker 
feeding entirely on fir-cones, having thus — for a certain time of 
the year, at least — exchanged an animal for a vegetable diet. 
The question arises whether these woody fragments were in all 
cases the seeds of the fir-cones, or portions of them. This is 
the theory, but I myself suspect that, from the seeds, the bird 
has come to feed upon the actual wood of the cone, and the 
desiccated and even powdered condition in which some of the 
cones, forming part of the large heap, were, goes to support this 
view. 

During the following winter I was in Germany, and from 
towards the end of December, and through the greater part of 
January of the present year, I watched the Greater Spotted 
Woodpecker actually feeding in this manner, but here the cleft 
in which the cones were placed was high up in a small stump- 
like branch, denuded of bark, which rose upright from the centre 
where the trunk bifurcated. The tree, as in all the other in- 
stances, was a Scotch fir. This is just as described by Brehm's 
father (as quoted in Brehm's ' Thierleben '), who says that he 
only once saw such a hole in the bark of a Scotch fir (Kiefer) 
near to the ground, and adds that it was but little used. In the 



88 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

' Natiirgeschichte der Vogel Mitteleuropas ' much the same 
account is given, but the cleft in the bark is spoken of as though 
it were resorted to somewhat oftener. In Sweden, if I may judge 
from these islands, and from some little heaps of cones near the 
trunks of trees which I have passed in the forests, without 
paying special attention to, the latter represents the common 
practice. In both the accounts I have mentioned the bird is 
described as going to the top of the tree in which its cleft 
is situated and bringing cones to it from there, but, for once that 
the one I watched did this, it must have flown half a dozen times 
and more into other trees for them — usually into one or other of 
two that were quite near, but sometimes into others a little way 
off. No mention is made in either work of the cones of the 
spruce, or any other fir tree, being placed in holes made in the 
Scotch fir. It is obvious that as long as the bird stayed on its 
own tree, so to speak, this latter interesting development could 
not arise, but, as soon as it flew into others, the long, fine cones 
of the spruce might offer greater attractions to it than the 
small ones of the Scotch fir. The latter, however, is the only 
tree of its kind which seems adapted for the making of these 
clefts. 

From the above observations the evolution of this habit may 
perhaps be traced. It seems probable that, in the beginning, the 
bird kept to the higher parts of the tree, and, instead of making 
a niche, utilized one that it found. Brehm's father speaks of its 
hacking a hole on the upper side of a split (gespalteten) bough, 
and one of the clefts of the trunk in which I found a cone in- 
serted was certainly a natural one. From this to improving 
any such accidental facility would be a short step, but from the 
top of the tree, where the bark either of trunk or bough presents 
no special facilities, to near the bottom, where it is thick and full 
of chinks, seems a long one, nor can I think of any intermediate 
halting-place, as long as the cones of the Scotch fir alone were 
the attraction. But once let those of the spruce be attacked, 
and their size, even if detached by the Woodpecker itself from 
the bough on which they hung, would present an obstacle to free 
transportation through the air. They would probably either fall 
at once to the ground, or gradually drag down the bird, who 
would then have to get them to its tree either by dragging them, 



HABIT OF GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 89 

or in repeated short flights at a low elevation. The tree 
reached, however, there would be no possibility* of getting them 
to the top of it, and the Woodpecker would have either to 
abandon its meal, to eat it on the ground, or to make a new niche 
near the base of the tree. In deciding on the latter course it 
would be urged by an already confirmed habit, which, however, 
would not prevent it making more or less use of the natural 
chinks of the bark, improving them by some additional grooving, 
and from this coming gradually to make a mould approximating 
somewhat to the actual shape of the cone. Of course, when the 
bird had once got, in this way, to the thick, chinkey, and com- 
paratively soft bark, its advantages for being thus used would be 
apparent, and one would not expect it, for long, to carry large 
cones to one part of the same tree and small ones to another. 

The object with which the Greater Spotted Woodpecker thus 
inserts fir-cones into niches which hold them is, of course, that 
he may the more conveniently peck down upon them, and thus 
extract their seeds. There is no question of storage — of pro- 
viding food for the winter. The food is all about, and the bird 
feeds, in this way, from the middle of August, according to 
Brehm, to February or later. I last saw it doing so on January 
19th. Therefore, the fact that the Californian Woodpecker — 
which inserts acorns into holes that it makes in the bark of a 
tree in much the same manner — does not do this in order to 
provide food for the winter, inasmuch as it migrates during that 
season, does not strike me as extraordinary. It does so — or, 
at any rate, I have little doubt that it once did — in order to eat 
them conveniently. The strength of the habit has, however, 
increased upon it, so that, instead of using each acorn, as it is 
placed, it yields to a feverish anxiety to place another and 
another — nor is it for any better reason, as I am convinced, 
through watching them, that many birds build several nests in 
quick succession. Most people have felt the difficulty of stop- 
ping from some trivial mechanical work which they may have 
occasion to do, but which there is no need for them to do all at 
once. However banal, the thing, if it be easy, is apt to become a 
pleasure, and there can be little doubt, I think, that the Californian 
Woodpecker experiences a strong and active pleasure in making 

* Or, at least it would be, I Bhould think, very laborious. 



90 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

his holes and inserting his acorns. As soon as he has finished 
one he feels, so I explain it, an impulse to begin another, and so on. 
I see nothing wonderful in this, but if, all the time, he were to be 
thinking of the coming winter, and how he would then enjoy the 
banquet he was now getting ready, I should think that wonder- 
ful. Never having been in America, I cannot, of course, say 
whether, or to what extent, the Californian Woodpecker now 
eats the acorns that he so busily studs the trees with ; but that 
he once did so — or something inside them — and that the habit 
commenced with this object seems pretty plain both from the 
analogy of our own European species, and also because it is 
difficult to imagine another origin for it. But let a thing be 
once done with acharnement, and, where the reason is not strong 
enough to prevent this it is always liable to be done for its own 
sake — for the mere pleasure of the doing, which may come, in 
time, to eclipse or obscure the object for which it was at first 
performed. With birds it has always seemed to me that this is 
particularly the case, and the true philosophy of many of their 
actions must, I believe, escape us, if this principle is not kept 
steadily in view. But why then does not the Greater Spotted 
Woodpecker leave fir-cones uneaten, or but little eaten, all over 
the trunks of trees ? The strength, and consequent blindness, 
of an instinct bears probably some relation to the number of 
generations through which it has descended, and the one in 
question may have had a later origin in the one species than in 
the other ; with our own bird, in fact, it may be still a habit 
only, and not a true instinct, for that the first does, in some 
cases, pass into the second, there can, I think, be little doubt.* 
Habit or instinct, the custom is certainly one which two or more 
Woodpeckers might very well have developed independently, 
and the fact that it is not common to the family as a whole is 
evidence that such has been the case. But does the European 
species show no traces of a disposition to follow in the footsteps 
of its American relative ? I think myself that such traces can 

* Or rather I bad better say that I think it likely, myself, that habits are 
inherited. Is not the blind performance of what seems obviously by origin 
a habit some evidence of this ? Why should a creature starting only from 
its own individual experience, and thus acting at first intelligently, become 
such an automaton ? 



HABIT OF GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 91 

be detected. Some of the trees, for instance, which had been 
put to this purpose had not one niche only, but two or more 
close to each other. Moreover, the blindness of any instinct 
may show itself in various ways — for instance, where Melanerpes 
has come to place many acorns in as many holes, Dendrocojms 
may be getting to place an unnecessary number of cones, in 
accelerated succession, in one and the same hole. As to this, I 
noticed that many of the cones which the bird I watched had 
scattered about beneath its tree had been very slightly pecked, 
and also that though to fetch another cone was the inspiring 
motive of every little journey it made into trees near about, 
yet sometimes it would come back without one, as though the 
recollection of a cone left unfinished had suddenly crossed its 
mind. It would then go on pecking at the cone it had left, 
which, as a rule, was thrown out only when it returned with a 
fresh one. Many cones having just the size and appearance of 
those habitually chosen by the bird were intact, but I could not 
be perfectly sure that these did not lie as they had fallen them- 
selves. This could not be the case, however, where transported 
cones of the spruce lay beneath a Scotch fir that the bird had 
worked upon, and a certain number of these showed no signs of 
having been pecked, which was, moreover, only slightly the case 
with some still sticking in the niches. These facts offer, perhaps, 
some slight evidence that something irrational or non-purposive 
may have begun to mingle with the habit or instinct, even in the 
European species. In conclusion, I would suggest that the best 
way of properly understanding very developed habits in one 
species is to study less developed ones, of a similar character, in 
another species. 

I have mentioned the small — but by no means minute— white 
grubs which I found living within some of the cones. In these, 
instead of in the seeds, we may perhaps see the Woodpecker's 
original object in pecking open the cone. I found these, how- 
ever, in the spruce- and not, as far as I recollect, in the Scotch 
fir-cones, and if they, or some other creature, do not inhabit the 
latter, this explanation will not serve. Yet it is unlikely that, 
when the cones of one fir are inhabited, those of another should 
not be. 



92 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE OTTER (LUTRA VULGARIS). 
By W. Payne Collier. 

For many years now I have taken a great interest in the 
doings of the Otter. Not only has this crafty animal given me 
much pleasure in following in its chase, but more since I found 
out it was of the greatest use towards the preservation of Salmon 
and Trout. This may seem to be somewhat conflicting, but the 
matter will be explained as my paper proceeds. Of course, 
every rule has its exception, and I will admit that under certain 
conditions some rivers would benefit by its absence, but these 
being the minority they must necessarily give place to the 
majority. Though I have watched the habits of the Otter to 
some extent, I know there is still much to be learned. But year 
by year this is becoming more difficult to carry out. None of 
our wild animals are more sensitive to the presence of the 
human being, and by the increase of anglers, which is so greatly 
in evidence, it becomes harder and harder to get within sight of 
them, the Annual Report issued by the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries showing that the increase in the Sale of Trout Licences 
alone is 56,871, per Government Report, 1905. What I have 
just said is only too well shown in the Otter having earned the 
name of " wily," and, to show its craftiness, it may be stated 
that when a trap, either of steel or wood, is set to catch them, it 
will generally be six weeks before they will again approach the 
spot on which it is placed, notwithstanding that it may be right 
in the middle of their regular path for years previously. I 
have mentioned anglers in the matter of the research, as no 
one is better placed to obtain information on the subject. Fly- 
fishers' movements are slow and silent, and therefore many more 
practical instances of the natural history affecting our rivers can 
be witnessed by them. 

Until within the last few years it was supposed that Otters 



NOTES ON THE OTTER. 93 

were only to be found in the solitude of the least inhabited por- 
tions of the country, but this theory has gradually exploded. All 
our rivers having short courses to the sea are frequented by them 
more or less at different seasons of the year, which has been 
proved by successful hunts which have been carried on, where 
only a few years ago their presence was unknown and un- 
thought of. The Otter breeds in two different seasons of the 
year — spring and autumn — but whether the same animal breeds 
twice I am unable to say. Choosing some " holt," as its under- 
ground workings are called, well away from the haunts of man, 
they will make a nice comfortable nest of dry grass and other 
soft matter. Here they produce and bring up their young until 
old enough to forage for their own living. While they suckle the 
mother they render her powerless to leave any scent by which 
either hound or dog could trace her to her lair. When under the 
mother's care she is most attentive, watching over their welfare 
with as much motherly affection as will one of our own species 
with her firstborn, and in evidence of this I once saw a good 
illustration. 

Fishing up the Eiver Tamar, through the Duke of Bedford's 
beautiful domain called "Endsleigh," by Tavistock, in Devon- 
shire, as I rounded a bend in the stream I suddenly " gazed " 
an Otter close to the edge of the water, trying to take hold 
with her mouth of what looked like a little lump of fur, but 
which wriggled and kicked to such an extent that she found 
some difficulty in attaining her object. In a moment, how- 
ever, she seemed to be aware of my presence, though her back 
was towards me, and, making a final and successful grab, 
with a rush she took the water, and on landing on the far side 
at once disappeared in one of the many gutters with which 
these beautiful gardens are drained. Though her whole body 
was exposed to my view right across the river, she completely 
hid her cub. 

In this same neighbourhood I also saw another instance of 
their affection. As I was about to leave the river, after wading 
up a " stickle," suddenly I saw a wave coming down the pool 
above me (all Devon rivers beyond navigation are pools and 
stickles), as though a large fish had jumped, but in a moment 
I saw two fair-sized cub Otters quickly swimming round and 



94 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

round in circles, as though looking for something, and at the 
same moment there rose about five yards above them a full- 
grown Otter, to which they hurried with great excitement, 
emitting as they swam a soft, low, whistling sound, no doubt 
of pleasure. This evidently was one of their parents. But the 
fun had not finished yet. On reaching its side they were fondly 
caressed, and then began a game something after what we in our 
childhood used to call " king of the castle." First one cub 
would creep on to the parent's back, only, however, to be pushed 
off by its mate, and vice versa — the large Otter now and again, 
when the game got too troublesome, sinking slowly under water, 
submerging the whole of the players. This continued for some 
few moments, when by a sudden slipping of my foot their notice 
was attracted, and before you could say one they had all dis- 
appeared ; but by my experienced eye I hit the " chain " of the 
big one as it dived across the pool, and also that of the cubs — 
in much smaller globules, of course — as they made the nearer 
bank. 

However, though so affectionate to its offspring in their early 
youth, as soon as they get old enough to take their own part in 
life their fondness seems to disappear, and both their father 
and mother become their bitterest enemies. Naturally a river, 
or portion of a river — and no doubt Otters have their own little 
kingdoms — will not supply above a certain amount of sustenance, 
and therefore, as soon as their young begin to want their fishy 
food, they are driven away to seek their living in fresh pastures. 

Generally they go down stream, and continue, if the lower 
sections are occupied by other Otters, to the estuaries, where 
they live on Plaice, Dabs, and no doubt Conger, when they are 
in luck ; and from evidence I possess are often taken for Seals, 
for they sometimes occupy the caves on the coast, as I found on 
examination in those under the bold headlands at Tintagel. 
Should a dog or bitch Otter meet with an untimely end, though 
even many miles from the mouth of a river, in a few weeks, or 
even sometimes days, the survivor will be joined by another of 
the sex required, and if the new-comer should have the bad luck 
to be killed before its comrade with which it has connected its 
fortunes, it will be found to be younger than the one previously 
despatched. From experience I should say that they are driven 



NOTES ON THE OTTER. 95 

from home when about ten weeks old, as few have I seen killed 
or have been reported to me as having been met with between 
the age of mere cubs and that of youngsters of about eight or ten 
pounds. There are exceptions naturally, but these may have 
been allowed to remain through late maturing or illness. 

The food of the Otter is supposed by many to be only fish, 
and tbat of the choicest kind ; but this is a mistake, except in 
the case of Eels, which have been proved to be inveterate 
poachers of fish, particularly the spawn, and in these circum- 
stances many of our rivers containing Salmon and Trout, or even 
coarse fish, would now be destitute of fish-life — or perhaps I had 
better say nearly so — had it not been for the Otter. Frogs 
inhabit the greater number of our rivers, and it has been proved 
they will devour more fish in the ova stage in a few moments 
than an Otter would kill in a year. Now, it has also been proved 
that there are no creatures of which Otters are fonder than 
Frogs, and for which they will travel many miles. From my 
own knowledge of the fact I could quote many instances, but 
one will answer the purpose of a dozen. Once early one morn- 
ing I was passing through a wood standing on a hill to get 
some fishing on a river other than that I generally fished. As I 
approached the top of it I thought for a moment I saw a Fox 
creep across the path I was travelling, and at once the cry 
"Tally ho!" rose to my lips. But as the creature I had 
" gazed " came through the bushes out into the open space 
beyond, I saw it was an Otter. Immediately my curiosity was 
aroused as to what had brought it thus far from a river, nearly 
two miles, and on looking round saw there was a moderate-sized 
pond about fifty yards away. Going to the edge of the pool of 
water, I looked carefully round it, and within a few feet of me 
were the remains of a Frog, from which no doubt my approach 
had frightened it. This and other incidents seen by myself, and 
also those related to me by others, whose word was beyond doubt, 
have led me to know that where Frogs abound the Otter is the 
greatest protector the fish preservers can have. 

And again, as I have said, Eels are desperate poachers, not 
only of ova but even of the fry of fish, and of the truth of this I 
have had many optical lessons. It was one of these which first 
brought to my knowledge what a friend Otters were to the angler. 



96 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

While I sat one summer's afternoon over a large, clear, crystal 
pool, watching the fly-life float down — being at the time particu- 
larly interested in the matter of fly-tying — I suddenly heard a 
splash in the water near at hand, and looking down I saw an 
animal travelling up on the bottom of the river, which I at once 
knew to be an Otter. But what surprised me most — my first 
surprise was that it had not detected me before it took the water, 
knowing how keen they are — was that, instead of tackling several 
Trout which lay lazily in its path, it contented itself with turning 
up stone after stone with its snout in search of food of some kind, 
which it evidently hoped to find beneath them, as from several 
I saw it grab something, and then go on to the next. All at 
once, however, it made a great rush forward, and I saw it catch 
an Eel, which evidently had heard it coming and tried to slip 
away. The Eel was about a foot long, and with this it seemed 
content, for coming to the surface it began to go gently down the 
stream, but, catching sight of me, it again dived and hurried off 
under water at a pace it would seem almost impossible for it to 
attain. This instance, as I have already said, was my first 
authority for saying that Otters were the friends of the angler, if 
kept, however, to a proper level, and this has now been done nearly 
all over England by the institution of Otter hunts, which in them- 
selves have increased wonderfully in the last ten years. 

As to the size of the Otter, I believe twenty-nine pounds is 
the heaviest yet scaled, though of course there are unauthenti- 
cated reports of great weight ; and as to their age, if the teeth 
are any guide, it may be assumed they live about as long as a 
Dog, but this is a matter on which I have no evidence. 

However, if these brief notes do not explain the whole matter, 
still I hope they will throw some little light beyond that which 
has already been published on the history of what I have called, 
as an angler, "my friend the Otter." 



( 97 ) 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORT FOR NORTH DEVON 

FOR 1907. 

By Bruce F. Cummings. 

The following natural history notes on the occurrences of 
different species of animals in North Devon during the past 
twelve months, or so, are chiefly the result of my own observations 
made at different times, and also of the notes of other observers 
who have been kind enough to communicate them to me. I am 
especially indebted to Mr. H. H. Hamling for help and observa- 
tions on the birds. 

Mammals. 

Stoats and Weasels are very numerous here. During January, 
1907, it is said that the keepers of Sir John Amory had nearly 
one thousand Stoats alone hung up on the keepers' trees. In 
spite of the large numbers of these vermin they do not appreci- 
ably diminish the quantity of Rabbits. 

At the beginning of last year a large number of the Rabbits 
caught in North Devon were found to be affected with large 
hydatid cysts, caused by the first stage of a Tapeworm 
(Tania coenurus, Cobbold). In order that the worm may reach 
maturity and complete its metamorphosis, the Rabbit which it 
affects must be eaten by the Dog. One of these Rabbits which I 
examined showed, on being skinned, a large watery swelling on 
the rump, about the size of a plum. Inside were a number of 
round " white heads." These vesicles contained the microscopic 
embryos which are provided with a useful set of paired hooklets 
on the anterior side. The probable cause of this widespread 
malady was no doubt the very wet weather, which would favour 
the prolonged existence of the ejected ova until cropped up by 
some unfortunate nibbling Rabbit. 

In May last year a Polecat (Putorius foetid us) was reported to 
have been caught in a Rabbit-trap at Combemartin. I made 
inquiries, and have come to the conclusion that the report is 

Zool 4th ser vol. XII., March, 190S. I 



98 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

correct. The specimen was not preserved. It seems that 
Mr. K. Adams found the animal, and he described it some time 
afterwards to Mr. W. H. Loosemore. Mr. Loosemore writes to 
me saying that the specimen was a male, two feet long from 
head to tip of tail, of a dark grey colour, white breast ; tail 
about six inches, slightly bushy ; it stood seven or eight inches 
high ; and he remarks in conclusion : — " Mr. Adams says it was 
the size of three Ferrets." This is not very exact evidence, and 
it is a thousand pities that the animal was not preserved. Mr. 
Loosemore himself has seen three Polecats alive in the High 
Bray district, but not within recent years. The last specimen 
caught here was, I think, in the Taw Valley in 1887, by Messrs. 
J. D. Prickham and Williams (' Victoria County History '). A 
trustworthy Parracombe gamekeeper reported seeing a Pine 
Marten (Mustela martes) in the woods at Hunter's Inn a dozen 
years ago, but the last caught is in the possession of Mr. C. 
Bailey, of Ley Abbey. It was caught fifty years ago. A tenant 
of Mr. Bailey tells him that he caught another in the woods at 
Lee about forty-two years ago. 

Four white Moles {Talpa europcea) have been captured : one 
at Arlington, two at Bishopstawton, and one at Swymbridge. 
Two more were reported captured at Combemartin. 

On Jan. 28th this year the Hamburg- American liner ' Fuerst 
Bismarck,' when steaming at full speed near Corunna, was 
charged by a Whale. The Whale became disabled. On Feb. 2nd 
the captain of the steamer ' Peggio,' on arriving at Plymouth, 
reported sighting a dead Whale drifting towards the Bristol 
Channel. A little later the Whale was stranded at Hartland 
Point. The exact locality where it is now lying is on the rocks 
at Cow and Calf Point, near the Hartland Lighthouse. When 
the coastguardsmen first saw it floating on the water they 
thought it was a capsized yacht. The trouble is how to dispose 
of the Whale, as it is making its presence felt by its horrible 
effluvium. This Whale is evidently a Rorqual, and I believe it 
can be no other than the Common Rorqual (Balce?ioptera muscu- 
lus), but I have not seen it. It measured in length over sixty feet, 
and was ten feet across the lobes of the tail ; a male, with long 
and distinct throat-folds ; the baleen was " over two feet long "; 
its colour was pure white underneath and black above ; the flipper 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORT FOR N. DEVON. 99 

measured " over five feet." I am indebted to Mr. T. C. Burrow 
for most of this information, and several other sightseers have 
borne witness to its length, most of them saying that it was over 
seventy feet in length, which it very probably was. Hundreds 
of people from all parts have gone to see it. The rocks for 
many hundreds of yards are white with the fat rubbed off as it 
was washed along by the current before being stranded. 

Dolphins and Porpoises are common. One of the latter was 
found sporting in the Eiver Taw, only two miles below Barn- 
staple. 

Birds. 

Dec. 27th, 1906. — This afternoon I saw a pair of Green 
Sandpipers on the Taw near Tawstock Woods. They occur here 
all through the winter months. The severe frost and fall of 
snow have sent into the valley numbers of Wild Geese. Wild 
Swans have also been seen in the estuary. A longshoreman got 
close to two Swans which were engaged in a fight. Five Swans 
were observed frequenting the Braunton Duck-ponds, and two 
were shot. They proved to be Whoopers (Cygnus musicus). 
Others, again, were seen in the marshes opposite the Barnstaple 
Town Station. A flock of fifteen were observed at Bude. I found 
seven Little Grebes in a flock on the river at Wrafton. 

Jan. 1st, 1907. — I received a Golden-eye duck shot on the 
Taw. 

18th. — A White-fronted Goose in a Barnstaple poulterer's 
shop-window. On inquiry I found that it had been shot at 
Bideford. 

Feb. 7th. — Examined an immature Smew (Mergus albellus) 
shot on the Taw. Several Tufted Scaup on the Duck-ponds at 
Wrafton. Ever since the snow the Peewits have been in enor- 
mous numbers. 

10th. — Watched a Dipper feeding. It flew out from the side 
of the river, and hovered over the water like a Kingfisher, and 
then it dived in. I waited for it to reappear, but it did not rise 
to the surface of the water like a Duck, but on reaching the bed 
of the river it must have got a hold on the little stones in spite 
of the current, and then walked along the bottom to the shore, 
where the first thing I noticed was its white breast. Later in the 
afternoon I saw this same bird swimming on the surface of the 

i2 



100 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

water. It concluded a very interesting performance by first 
hopping on to an overhanging bough ; then, having turned him- 
self round to face me, it began its beautiful song. 

March 9th. — " An albino Linnet caught at Swymbridge " 
('North Devon Herald'). 

April 1st. — The Ravens are nesting at Baggy Point. In the 
Rabbits' holes in the cliffs near Vention cottages several pairs of 
Stock-Pigeons are nesting. 

May 8th. — A Tree-Creeper's nest behind the bark of a 
Mazzard tree. Nothing can be more fascinating than to watch 
the home affairs of these delicately built and confiding birds. 
The male feeds the female as she sits. 

14th. — Dipper's nest on River Yeo, placed on flat top of a 
three-cornered buttress of a bridge over a waterfall. Three eggs 
in it. A couple of feet away a Grey Wagtail was feeding her 
young in a nest among the ivy of the bridge. Both species are 
very common breeding birds in North Devon. 

18th. — In a field, among coarse sunburnt grass surrounding 
the Duck-ponds at the mouth of the Taw, was a Common Duck 
sitting on eight eggs. Nearer the water was another nest, which 
had evidently been marauded, as some eggs were broken, and 
others lying outside the nest. In the same field, in the middle 
of a clump of coarse grass, was a Teal's nest. The eggs were 
hidden by a screen of dry grass, for the old bird was not sitting. 
There were eight eggs. The Teal has not been recorded as a 
North Devon breeder hitherto, although it breeds on Slapton 
Ley, in South Devon. I noticed a Teal on the Wrafton Duck- 
ponds, which evidently had a nest not far away. The game- 
keeper (J. Petherick) told me that he had seen the female Teal 
on this nest, and had flushed her from it several times. A Red- 
start on Braunton Burrows. 

20th.— I watched a Peregrine Falcon sitting on three eggs 
for a greater part of the afternoon. The eyrie was situated in a 
cleft of rock half-way up an almost sheer piece of cliff. She 
could not be got to move, although we threw stones against the 
rock, hallooed, and, generally speaking, made a pretty frantic 
row amid the stillness of the Falcon's sanctuary. On a previous 
occasion she was found to be off the eggs ; then, after screaming 
and flying in and out of the bay, she at length pitched on 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORT FOR N. DEVON. 101 

a pinnacle of rock near the eyrie, and afterwards flew into the 
cleft and walked on to the eggs. The pair of Lesser Black- 
backed Gulls are breeding in the middle of the Herring-Gull 
colony again this season at Baggy Point. 

22nd. — I saw a great number of Curlews on Exmoor to-day. 
The majority appeared to be breeding. Also a large number of 
Black Grouse. The stronghold of the Grouse in these parts is 
Exmoor, but they are to be found in small numbers on all the 
commons and heaths neighbouring on the moors. They used 
to be seen plentifully on Codden Hill, near Barnstaple, but I 
believe they have been held to be extinct in that district for 
some years. It was therefore with some pleasure that I dis- 
turbed a Greyhen from among the heath on Codden Hill last 
winter. This spring Mr. Hamling struck across a Greyhen with 
a brood of youngsters, which could scarcely fly, on this same 
hill, near Bishopstawton. Evidently, then, one pair bred there 
this season. I noticed a Cirl-Bunting at Bratton Fleming. 

25th. — A Sparrow-Hawk's nest in a poplar tree at Santon, 
containing five eggs, and lined with bark. Somebody removed 
these eggs to-day. However, by June 28th apparently the same 
pair of Hawks had utilized another nest in a poplar about three 
yards off. This nest was also lined with bark, and contained 
three eggs (hard sat), and with very little dark pigment on them. 
The old bird returned to her nest after a few minutes, first 
pitching on a twig near, and then bounding in handsome style 
on to the rim of the nest, when she slowly walked in and covered 
the eggs, leaving to view no more of her handsome form and 
bold colouring than a long barred tail which protruded over the 
edge of the nest. 

25th. — A Burrow- duck sitting on six eggs in a round chamber 
seven feet down a Babbit's burrow on Braunton Burrows. It is 
always an easy matter to find a Burrow-duck's nesting-hole by 
observing the scraps of down and footmarks at its entrance. 
Otherwise the great secretiveness of this bird with regard to the 
nesting-site shows a very perfected instinct. But the whole of 
her vigilant care is thrown away and at once counteracted by the 
leaving of down at the mouth of the hole. 

June 5th. — By kind permission of Lady Chichester, of Arling- 
ton Court, I visited the heronry situated in the Arlington grounds. 



102 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

It is one of our two small North Devon heronries. The nests 
are built on firs and other trees on an island in the middle of a 
lake. Three Buzzards were circling over this lake as I arrived. 
The Herons seemed alarmed, and replied to the cries of the 
Buzzards with dismal croaks. Of the dozen nests or so only- 
three were being used. The young birds were well-grown and 
making themselves heard. The gamekeeper told me that twenty- 
five years ago the Herons were far more numerous. At that 
time they used to nest not only on the island but in the trees up 
the hillside. He also said that he had recently shot a " horned 
Owl " in the woods. I have seen the Long-eared Owl in fir- 
woods near Codden Hill, and I expect it is more or less common 
among our large tracts of larch and fir, though not often seen. 

7th. — A Spotted Flycatcher nesting in Venn Bridge for the 
third consecutive year. Watched a male Stonechat violently 
chasing a small Tortoiseshell Butterffy. 

8th. — A brood of little Burrow-ducks trotting at a big pace 
over Braunton Burrows towards the water. The parent showed 
great agitation. It was a very funny thing to watch this little 
crowd toddling over the sand. Here was the struggle for exist- 
ence brought clearly before me in practical working order. 
Those that could not keep up were hustled by the stronger ones, 
and gradually left behind. 

28th. — A white Lapwing shot at Braunton. A Bed -backed 
Shrike feeding fledged young on Braunton Great Field. Saw a 
pair of Beed-Buntings on Braunton Marshes. They are excep- 
tionally uncommon in the Barnstaple district. The Yellow 
Bunting is easily the commonest. Then comes the Cirl-Bunting 
which, though not common, is somewhat widely distributed ; 
while the Corn-Bunting is very numerous, but local, as it is only 
found near the coast. 

August 28th. — Considerable numbers of Sanderlings (Calidris 
arenaria) on the Biver Taw. They remained for about a week. 

October 8th. — A Quail shot at Harberton, South Devon. 

January 5th, 1908. — After some hard weather I saw a Grey 
Phalarope and three Bar-tailed Godwits on the mud-flats of the 
Taw. 

10th. — While in some woods at Bideford with Mr. A. J. B. 
Roberts, we both noticed how common the Bullfinches were. 



GAP TUBES AND FIELD REPORT FOR N. DEVON. 103 

Coal-Tits, too, seemed far more plentiful than I have ever seen 
them at Barnstaple. 

Fishes. 

Barnstaple is not a good centre for an ichthyologist. It is too 
far from the coast. Hence I feel sure that a large number of 
interesting captures escape me, especially those that occur at 
Clovelly, for example, which is almost as secluded and inaccessible 
as Lundy Island. I have not been able to do any dredging for 
myself. 

On May 23rd, 1907, an Opah (Lampris luna) was discovered 
on the shore at Woolacombe Sands. Mr. E. Hadden, a visitor, 
noticed what he thought was a red flag standing in about a foot 
of water, but on approaching he saw that it was the dorsal fin of 
a dead or dying fish. He pulled it ashore, and it was taken to 
the railway station. On its way to the Eoyal Albert Memorial 
Museum at Exeter it was stopped at Barnstaple, where I saw it. 
Its length was 3 ft. 2 in., and it was said to weigh 140 lb. The 
colour of the flesh was yellow, and it was badly rubbed on one 
side ; otherwise it still retained to a certain extent its glittering 
colours — red fins, round light spots, and sheens of purple and 
silver. Nothing was found in its stomach except a quantity of 
green slime. The last taken in Devon was, I think, in 1772, at 
Brixham ; it weighed 140 lb., and measured as much as 4 ft. 5 in. 
long. 

Numbers of Thickbacks (Solea variegata) in the Exeter market 
during May last year, taken on the south coast. 

The Clovelly Mackerel fishing last season was considered 
worse than in the previous year. Their Herring season was 
very poor, as it was at all the fishing ports — Combemartin, Lyn- 
mouth, and Ilfracombe. This makes the third season in which 
the famous " Clovelly Herrings " have fallen off. A slight im- 
provement, not maintained, set in during the early part of 
November, the boats averaging one hundred and twenty each, 
while one man secured a "mease" (six hundred and twelve). 
The fish taken were of very good quality. 

The Eiver Taw Salmon fishing was a very distinct improve- 
ment. About the beginning of last September some very fine 
catches of coarse fish — Bass, Mullet, and Flounders — were taken 
in the Taw. About this time there were shoals of small Grey 



104 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Mullet from one to three or four inches in the rock-pools and 
pools on the banks of the Taw. They disappeared later in the 
autumn. One shoal lived in a pit covered every day by the tide 
for about a fortnight. They were always to be found at low tide 
floating in this pool, with their snouts well above water, like 
half-submerged submarines, facing the mouth of a gully which 
was emptying itself into the pool. 

A small Sunfish (Orthagoriscus mola) was captured this sum- 
mer at Ilfracombe. The steamer ' Torrington,' which unloaded 
at Bideford on September 16th, had on board another Sunfish 
measuring roughly 4 ft. by 3 ft. 6 in. This fish had followed the 
vessel into the estuary. When off Greysands it got entangled in 
the anchor-chain, and was hauled aboard. I caught a Shanny 
(Blennius pholis) of a length of five inches. Numerous young 
ones in the pools on same date (Oct. 11th), but Montagu's Blenny 
has completely disappeared, though numerous last year. A 
gentleman, while prawning at Instow, caught a sleepy Sole of 
,3 lb. 6 oz. 

On Oct. 17th a Porbeagle (Lamna cornubica) was captured at 
Ilfracombe, in the inner harbour. After providing an exciting 
chase to the fishermen it was landed, and found to be 7 ft. 5 in. 
in length, with a girth of 3 ft. 7| in. The men had struck it 
with a gaff and an oar, but the latter snapped. The fish became 
disabled, and a noose was slipped round its tail, but it suddenly 
made a tremendous leap and got free, and swam for the inner 
harbour. Here it once again got free from a rope placed round 
the tail, but it eventually ran ashore on the beach. It was then 
lifted into a handcart, and a crowd quickly gathered to see the 
creature ; when suddenly it opened its mouth quickly, and made 
a big lurch with its tail. The consequence was that the hand- 
cart upset, and the crowd, of course, fled in all directions ! This 
was its last effort. A Whale-thresher (Alopecias vulpes) was 
caught at Plymouth this year, and it occurs fairly common on 
that coast. It is seldom seen on the north coast. One was taken 
at Ilfracombe many years ago, but has not occurred since. Con- 1 
gers have been in great force, specimens of 51 lb. and 60 lb. having 
been landed. They rarely get beyond this size with us. 

The Horse-Mackerel (Caranx trachurus) occurs erratically, 
generally with any abnormally large shoals of ordinary Mackerel. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORT FOR N. DEVON. 105 

This was the case some few years ago, when Caranx Was picked 
up commonly on the beach, where they had precipitated them- 
selves. 

Parnell's Goby (Gobius parnelU) is to be taken in the River 
Taw; the Spotted Goby (G. minutus) is, however, quite the com- 
monest species on the sandy shores at Santon and Woolacombe. 

Mr. W. H. Rogers wrote me on Nov. 4th : While fishing in 
the Taw, at Southmolton Road, for Dace, he caught two Roach 
(Leuciscus rutilus), one weighing 16 oz. and the other 13 oz. The 
Roach is an exceptionally rare fish in the Taw. I have taken it 
commonly in the Exeter Canal, and it is to be found at Slapton 
Ley, in the River Axe, and in the railway ponds at Exeter. The 
•' Victoria County History of Devon ' states that the Perch 
(Perca fluviatilis) is common in Devon, but, as Mr. Rogers 
can testify, it is unknown in the Taw above Brightley Weir, 
and I have never heard of its being taken below. It is found 
in Venn Pool, but has probably been introduced there. Mr. 
Rogers has taken a few Gudgeon in the station pool at Lapford, 
and fewer still of the Loach. "Girt Jan Ridd," Blackmore 
tells us, captured a Loach of a quarter of a pound in Lowmans 
Water, Exmoor, but I have not succeeded in discovering whether 
this fish still lives in that river and in the Lyn, as it most 
assuredly did in former times. 

Haddock (Gadus ceglefinus) turned up at the beginning of this 
year in quite large numbers. They have not been known, except 
as comparatively rare visitants in Bideford Bay, for forty years 
past. Pollack, Power Cod, and Bib all in round numbers. In 
working the shore and in the rock-pools I have not yet come 
across the Fifteen-spined Stickleback {Gasterosteus spinachia), 
though I have taken it at Exmouth, in South Devon. 



106 THE ZOOLOGIST 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH KENT: AUTUMN 
PASSENGERS. 

By Thomas Hepburn. 

To the observer of bird-life the early autumn has almost as 
many interests as the early spring. Summer visitors are de- 
parting, winter visitors are arriving, and there are also many 
birds to be seen which are only passers-by on the road from 
countries north to countries south. You may sometimes read 
about this time in the daily papers of enormous nights of 
waders and other birds passing over cities at night, being noticed 
and identified simply by their whistling notes and cries. And if 
you are of an imaginative turn of mind you may, perhaps, do as 
the writer did a short time back— stand in your back garden 
fancying to distinguish winged travellers innumerable flying far 
out of sight in the night by a subdued murmuring whistle — to 
be rudely awakened to the fact that the whistling proceeds from 
a neighbour's Ducks as they whisper to each other in their 
nocturnal search for worms. 

But the unmistakable whistle of a Curlew flying overhead in 
the darkness of a September night which lies over the lights of 
a town is a reminder that these mysterious movements of travel, 
which waning summer and incipient autumn induce amongst 
bird-life year after year, have again commenced. Several times 
during the evening the same plaintive sound is heard, and at a 
late hour of the night there comes through the open window the 
subdued call-note and reply of a flock of the same birds resting 
in afield near the houses for a few hours before making a further 
move in their journey. 

After many years of records from lightships and lighthouses, 
and of persevering observations carried on at various points 
along our coast, there is still almost as much mystery as ever, 
both as to motive and manner, attached to these annual migra- 
tions ; and the difficulty of solving the mystery is intensified by 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH KENT. 107 

the fact that most of the actual movements take place at night. 
To the man who is an ornithologist, but most of whose time is 
tied to other matters, it is hardly possible to give that consecutive 
attention which is required to add further definite knowledge as 
to the how or the why of the movements of these bird travellers. 
But if he can find a day to spare during September or October 
he may at least manage to get a sight of some of the pas- 
sengers, although he has to draw his bow at a venture, and to 
depend to a great extent on his good luck as to what species he 
may see. 

The best part of England for observing these passages of 
birds seems to be the north or north-east coast of Norfolk, 
evidently because it lies close to the line of flight taken by many 
of the travellers who, if they meet with a check from adverse 
winds or any other cause, alight on the land nearest them, where 
the morning light reveals them to dwellers in the neighbourhood. 
But there are other parts where to a certain extent, though in a 
lesser degree, the same thing takes place, and one such spot is 
that part of the coast of Kent which borders the estuary of the 
Thames, more especially the easterly and most seaward portion 
of it. The place generally chosen by the writer is an exposed 
spit of land near the mouth of the Thames, whence you may 
look, if you are so inclined, right away to the hazy distances 
of the German Ocean. At this spot small parties of dallying 
travellers often stop for a day's rest before continuing their 
journey to the south. The flat meadow land stretches back to 
the rounded Kentish uplands. The last ricks of corn are being 
thatched. In places mysterious looking crops of plants grown 
for seed are still being harvested. And the newly thatched stacks 
standing in rows around every homestead appear to tell a tale of 
a good harvest having been garnered. 

On the borders of the upland you have already come across 
a sign of autumn in a large flock of some two hundred Einged 
Plovers (Mgialitis hiaticola) gathered on a fallow. By contrast 
with the brown of the soil the backs of these little birds look 
almost blue-grey. When they rise and fly their note and the 
black band across the white breasts distinguish them. The flight 
of a serried phalanx of small waders is a difficult thing to 
describe. The eye follows them, held by the momentary expecta- 



108 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

tion of seeing them turn in the sunlight so as to show their 
white under sides, so dazzlingly white in the glare that the rest of 
the bird is unseen, and two hundred flakes of bright silver 
flash back the rays of the sun. There can be no doubt in your 
mind, as you watch them, that, whatever philosophers may say 
to the contrary, these birds are taking conscious pride and 
pleasure in the varied but accurate evolutions of their flight. 
These are travellers, for, although the bird nests in the neigh- 
bourhood, they are not resident in sufficient numbers to gather 
into such a large mob as this. It is, however, quite possible 
that this party may have now arrived at the end of their 
journey, and may be going to spend the winter months on the 
happy hunting 1 grounds of the mud-flats and saltings of the 
Thames and Medway. 

There is more than one route by which you may find your 
way down to the beach, which is your destination. You choose 
that which leads you along the edge of a shallow tidal creek, 
now empty of water. With the embankment as a shelter, you 
are able to watch a stately and sedate gathering of some ten or a 
dozen Herons (Ardea cinerea), rather an unusually large number 
of these birds to be assembled together feeding in one spot. 
They soon sight you, and flap away upon their broad, loosely 
feathered wings. But there still remain on the ooze and short 
turf of the bank some less conspicuous birds — a number of Cur- 
lews (Numenius arquata) and Eedshanks (Totanus calidris), and 
a few Peewits (Vcmellus vulgaris), who, although alert and ready 
for departure, do not move, and after a moment's quiet return 
to their feeding. You notice among the Eedshanks several 
waders which seem to differ from them. When you finally 
disturb the mob these birds separate from the others, and by 
their alarm-note, their dark upper plumage, and more especi- 
ally by the striking patch of white tail- coverts, you distinguish 
them as Green Sandpipers {Totanus ochropus), birds that are on 
their way — possibly from the Arctic Circle — to the warmer skies 
of Africa. 

Moving on to the river-wall, and viewing from its shelter the 
widening expanse of mud-flat laid bare by the falling tide, the 
whole of it, from the sandy beach to the distant breakers, is 
dotted with white flecks, which resolve themselves, through the 



TEE BIBDS OF NORTH KENT. 109 

glasses, into hundreds of Gulls, invariably with their beaks 
pointed to the quarter from which a strong boisterous wind is 
blowing. You recognize them by their size as being chiefly 
Black-headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus), now without their black 
— or to be more accurate, chocolate-coloured — faces. Amongst 
them, standing out conspicuously like so many giants, are 
several Great Black-backed Gulls (L. marinus), the black backs 
showing in striking contrast against the pure white breasts. 
Probably there are other species amongst these numbers, but 
they are too far off to be identified, although in several places 
there are groups of year-old birds in brown plumage of varying 
shade. 

Your observation of the Gulls is suddenly broken by a sharp 
vibrating whistle, which might be syllabled as " terrett-terrett- 
terrett," quickly repeated, and you are just in time to catch 
sight of and identify some half-dozen Turnstones (Strepsilas 
interpres), flying from the sandy beach and winging their way 
over the ooze. As they pass along they disturb a small mob of 
Binged Plovers, which join them in their hasty flight, and can 
be identified more by their plaintive whistle than by anything 
else. Very difficult they are to follow in their movements, the 
colour of their backs and upper wing surfaces being almost 
exactly similar to the light brown mud. The Turnstone is a 
passing visitor. Its plumage is striking, the upper parts of the 
adult being barred with black and white ; but you were able to 
distinguish from the brown faces of these few birds that they 
were the young of this year. 

And then you are surprised to hear close to you a " chitter- 
ing " phrase, which carries you back in a moment to the rocky 
bed of the Biver Lune in Westmorland, where the same note was 
last heard — the first phrase of the wild little song uttered by the 
Sandpiper {Totanus hypoleucus), as with a twisting flight it 
flutters over the broken water and settles on some mossy foam- 
splashed rock, with a flirt and jerk of its tail, and a final shrill 
" cheap." An inconspicuous little bird of brown and white, it 
may have laid and hatched its four sandy-buff eggs close to the 
edge of that stream under a bush or tussock of grass, and 
is now, like its cousin the Turnstone, seeking change in the 
south. 



110 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Further on, in a little shingly bay of the clay cliff of the 
salting, you disturb a solitary Dotterel (Eudromias morinellus) on 
its way to Palestine or Egypt or North Africa, after having 
nested on some lonely mountain top in the remote Highlands, or 
possibly in the Lake District, under all the difficulties that come 
of too much notoriety. A handsome little Plover is the Dotterel, 
its head black with white touches, and the ash-brown of its back 
setting off the warm chestnut colour of its lower breast and 
flanks. 

In a more distant part of the beach you happen upon one of 
those sights which warm the bird-lover's heart — some hundreds of 
Lesser Terns (Sterna minuta), a score of Common Terns (S. fluvia- 
tills), a dozen or more Turnstones, and large numbers of Einged 
Plovers and Dunlins (Tringa alpina), all sitting on a ridge of 
sand just above the wrack left by the tide. Careful manoeuvring 
enables you to get a good view with the glasses without disturbing 
them. It is easy to distinguish the flecked plumage of the 
Lesser Terns of this year ; amongst the Ringed Plovers the pale 
brown, broken, pectoral band marks out the youngsters of that 
species ; and the Dunlins have still the dark patch on the lower 
breast which forms their summer decoration. The Turnstones 
run restlessly along the edge of the debris which marks the limit 
of the tide, and one, with a sidelong turn of its head, tips over a 
fairly large flat pebble with its beak in its search after insects 
or Crustacea. But a careless movement causes the whole mixed 
mob to rise in a cloud, filling the air with cries. The long 
drawn-out " scree " of the Common Tern, the chattering 
"skerrek" of the Lesser Tern, the sad, soft whistle of the 
Ringed Plover, the " purre " of the Dunlin, and the twittering 
whistle of the Turnstone, form a chorus of sounds which is 
music to the ears of the man lying half-hidden in the long grass, 
recalling as it does memories of the wild moorland, of pebble 
ridges with great waves of the ocean breaking on them, and of 
many a happy day spent without a care in the freshness and 
freedom of the open air. 

A reply comes ringing from the sky in response to the babel 
on the beach — a shrill, whistling call, like " tetty-tetty-tetty " — 
and far overhead in the sky a string of small dots can be dis- 
tinguished as a dozen birds, which we know from their note to 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH KENT. Ill 

be Whimbrel (Numenius phceopus) ; veritable travellers these, 
not to be turned from their purpose as they drive along on their 
journey to the summer days beyond the Equator. A shrill echo 
of their cry is heard close at hand, as a solitary straggler of the 
species rises from the salt-marsh, and with hurried wing-beat 
hastens in its attempt to overtake its comrades overhead. A 
" wisp " of a dozen birds flying swiftly past catches your eye as 
being in part strangers. Half of them you define quickly as 
Einged Plover ; the others, about the same size, you see to be 
a pale grey above, pure white underneath, with white tips to the 
secondaries, and blackish primaries. As the party settles in a 
little bay of fine sand it divides into two clusters, and by means 
of glasses you are able to add to your description of the strangers 
a black bill, and a shade of darkness around the eyes. They are 
without doubt Grey Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius), already 
in winter plumage. This sight is already sufficient reward for 
your day's outing, because it adds a new record to your list of 
birds observed in the district. 

You have had time to partly conceal yourself behind a sloping 
bank of sand, half overgrown with vegetation, whence you make 
notes on the disturbed parties of birds coming and going. 
Turnstones are present in somewhat larger numbers than usual. 
A flight of various small waders comes over a creek, headed by 
five or six comparatively large black and white birds, which pass 
quite close to you, so that you see clearly the piebald plumage 
and long bright red bill of the Oystercatcher (Hamatopus ostra- 
legus). With a shrill piping whistle they pass out of sight. 

During a moment of quiet you find that there are two small 
birds running over the beach near the water, within ten paces of 
where you lie. A careless glance would dispose of them as 
Ringed Plover. But as they are so close, you look at them 
somewhat critically, and find that there is no continuous band 
of black across the chest, only small patches on each side. The 
young Ptinged Plover of the first year has markings of somewhat 
the same description ; it does not get a strong black band until 
the second year. But these birds have not the markings about 
the head of the young of the Ptinged Plover, and their general 
sandy tinge of plumage determines them as being a pair of 
Kentish Plovers (ffigialitis cantiana), birds whose only remain- 



112 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

ing English nesting haunt is on the pebbly beaches of the south 
coast of Kent. Its presence here excites some speculation in 
your mind as to why it should have worked up north from its 
usual summer haunts. 

The Lesser and Common Tern are fishing all the time along 
in front of you, and you can notice the brownish tints of the 
feathers of the young birds of the year of each species. But a 
scattered party of birds coming towards you over the water with 
a Tern- like flight arrests your attention at once, because their 
leader is black, and his followers are black and white. The one 
is a Black Tern (Hydrochelidon nigra) in mature plumage ; the 
followers — although the disposition of the white and black of 
their plumage and a seeming difference in their style of flight 
brings the name of Sooty Tern (Stei-na fuliginosa) to your mind 
— are probably young Black Terns of the year. The Black Tern 
used to nest in the Fen country years ago. It is said not to have 
done so for the last fifty years. Where, then, do these birds 
come from ? For you have seen them before at the same time 
of the year. 

You turn back across the marsh with a sense of satisfaction 
in the results of your day's outing. As you pass through the 
hedgerows of the upland the wind has dropped, and the day 
seems to be merging into a warm summer evening. Yet the 
clear piping song of a Robin in a cottage-garden is a certain sign 
that summer has gone. 



( 113 ) 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



AVES. 



Variety of Great Titmouse. — An interesting and beautiful variety 
of Varus major was procured in the neighbourhood of Tetbury on 
Feb. 6th last, and has been mounted by Mr. Jefferies of that town, 
at whose house I have been able to examine the specimen. A striking 
feature about this bird is that where yellow occurs in the typical 
plumage the coloration is almost normal, although the other mark- 
ings are but faintly indicated. For example, in the ordinary bird the 
dark olive-green mantle contrasts distinctly with the much lighter 
yellow of the breast, but in the variety under notice the back (a faint 
yellowish green) is paler if anything than the under parts, which 
have retained their normal sulphur-yellow colour. The tail and 
wings are almost white, but there is a greyish tint on the former and 
on the lesser wing-coverts. The normal bluish black of the head 
and the streak down the centre of the breast are replaced by a delicate 
mouse-grey. Does the retention of yellow in this bird's plumage 
indicate that in P. major this colour is due to the structure of the 
feathers and not to a pigment ? A Little Owl [Athene noctua) has 
also been sent to Mr. Jefferies. This bird seemingly met with a very 
peculiar ending, for it was found dead near Fairford on Feb. 20th, in 
the spout of a shepherd's water-cart. The bird had probably entered 
the narrow mouth of the spout during the night, and had been 
unable to escape. — Collingwood Ingram (Long Newnton, Tetbury, 
Gloucestershire) . 

Glossy Ibis in Aberdeenshire. — During the harvest-time of 1907 
an immature example of this species (Plegadis falcinellus) was shot in 
the miU-pond at Watermill, Fraserburgh, by Mr. Adam Brown. It is 
now in the possession of Dr. Galloway, Aberdeen. Since 1844 this is 
the fourth recorded occurrence of the species within our county. — 
George Sim (52, Castle Street. Aberdeen). 

Ptarmigan reported near Trondhjem, Norway. — Probably several 
correspondents will call attention to what appears to be an obvious 
case of mistaken identity in the Eev. W. Serle's article on " Birds of 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII.. March, 1908. K 



114 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Graakallen Mountain, Norway " (ante, p. 67). From the entire con- 
text there can surely be no doubt that the Lagopus your correspondent 
found " abundant all over the mountain " was L. albus (Dal Eype), 
the Willow-Grouse, not L. mutus (Fjeld Eype, or Fjeld Skarv), the 
Ptarmigan. Perhaps the mistake arose from Mr. Serle hearing the 
birds spoken of by an English-speaking Norwegian as " Ptarmigans," 
as is so commonly done. Trondhjem can hardly be considered as in 
"North Norway," being very considerably less than half-way up the 
country. — Alfred H. Cocks (Poynetts, Skirmett, near Henley-on- 
Thames). 

Little Auk captured Alive near Yarmouth. — On Dec, 15th, 1907, a 
small black and white bird was observed by a lad on the beach. He 
threw a stone at it, and seeing it did not fly ran after it. Another 
lad joined in the pursuit, and an exciting chase ensued, the bird 
dodging the lads many times. It was at last captured by the former, 
who received a sharp nip on the hand with its mandibles. He took 
it home and placed it in an unused fowl's-run. It was fed on Sprats 
and pieces of Herring, on which it lived for five days. It was then 
brought to me, and proved to be a Little Auk (Mergulus cclle). It was 
well advanced in its winter plumage, the white line of the occiput 
being almost completed. These markings I pointed out to Mr. Gurney 
in February, 1901, and were recorded in his Notes for Norfolk (Zool. 
1902, p. 87). Up to the present time, as far as I am aware, this 
species has not yet been figured in its real winter plumage. — B. Dye 
(Eow 60, Great Yarmouth). 

Wildfowl on Blagdon Reservoir, Somerset. — Since writing the notes 
published in the last number of ' The Zoologist ' (ante, p. 73) on the 
wildfowl which I noticed during a short visit to Blagdon Eeservoir, I 
have received an interesting letter from Mr. Donald Carr, the keeper 
and ranger of the lake, and have also seen a list, drawn up by him, of 
the birds he has observed on and about the water. Mr. Carr writes 
that on Jan. 4th of this year the lake was shot over, and the following 
bag obtained : — Mallard, eleven ; Teal, eight ; Tufted Duck, sixteen ; 
Pochard, eighteen ; Wigeon, six ; Golden-eye, four ; Smew, one 
Scaup Duck, one ; Coot, sixty-nine. The letter continues : — " Tufted 
Duck and Pochard are always in evidence ; they visit the lake in 
large numbers from autumn till spring. The Tufted Duck once 
nested here in 1906, but owing to an accident the nest was forsaken ; 
the nest contained a clutch of ten eggs. The Teal are more in 
evidence during December ; I have only known of one nest here. 
Wigeon also visit the lake during the winter in considerable numbers, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 115 

but return to the north in spring. The Mallard and Shoveler are 
resident, and breed in abundance on the meadows around the lake. 
The Golden-eye visit the lake in considerable numbers, but are more 
erratic in their movements, as also are the Smew. I have only seen 
a few pairs of the latter on the lake this season." Mr. Carr has also 
noticed the White-fronted Goose, Scoter, and Garganey Teal upon the 
water, and states that the Sheld-Duck has once nested by the reser- 
voir ; while among spring and autumn visitors he includes the 
Common and Black Terns. I consider that these notes contain in- 
teresting additions to our knowledge of the county avifauna. — F. L. 
Blathwayt (Lincoln). 

PISCES. 
Black Sea-Bream at Yarmouth. — On Jan. 23rd my attention was 
accidentally drawn to a Sea-Bream thrown out with a number of 
common trawl-fish on a fried-fish shop slab. On pulling it out from 
the heap I was gratified to see a species hitherto unknown to me, 
and had no difficulty, on comparing it with the excellent plate in 
Day's 'British Fishes' (vol. i. p. 26, pi. 9), in deciding its identity as 
the Black Sea-Bream (Cantharus lineatus), or "Old Wife" of Couch. 
I had seen two or three Sea-Bream the previous day on another fish- 
slab, but being in a great hurry could not stay to examine them. I 
have since satisfied myself that they were of the same species ; they 
were of the same size, somewhere about fourteen inches in length. I 
made further inquiries with a view to finding out where they were 
taken, and my information, which was hardly satisfactory to myself, 
seemed to point to their having been caught by the trawl near 
Cromer Knowle, and as local boats have only just gone out to join 
the western fleet, I have some reason in suggesting that they were 
captured off the East Coast. I cannot, however, on such flimsy and 
unsatisfactory evidence include the species on my Norfolk list. The 
" Old Wife " has not yet, I believe, been recognized in local waters. 
The flesh of this species is stated to be soft and poor eating, at its 
best only in August and September ; yet, strangely enough, notwith- 
standing the local reluctance to experimenting on unusual species, 
these Sea-Bream were very smartly disposed of, and I considered 
myself fortunate in obtaining one for the Norwich Museum, whither 
I dispatched it. — Akthur H. Patterson (Ibis House, Great Yar- 
mouth). 

Lesser Forkbeard at Yarmouth. — My first find from the shrimpers, 
who, in spite of the inclement season, have started shrimping much 
earlier than usual, is a very small example of the Lesser Forkbeard 



116 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

(Raniceps trifurcus), measuring barely 2 \ in. in length. The little 
fellow was brought to me by a shrimp-lad, whom I had commissioned 
to bring some clear sea-water from outside in a big beer-bottle. 
The boy knew the fish as a " Toad-fish," a by no means inappropriate 
nickname, for it is a thick-set, blackish, ugly creature. I have before 
received examples of this species (cf. Zool. 1897, p. 554). — Arthur 
H. Patterson (Ibis House, Great Yarmouth). 

INSECTA. 

Introduced Orthoptera. — The Orthoptera and Neuroptera are the 
least numerous of the principal orders of insects, but while the latter 
are fairly well represented in Britain, the poverty of our orthopterous 
fauna is quite astounding. In 1882 Brunner von Wattenwyl pub- 
lished his Prodromus of European Orthoptera, in which he enume- 
rated four hundred and sixty-three species ; but Mr. Malcolm Burr, in 
his useful little book on British Orthoptera, enumerates only fifty- 
three, of which at least seventeen must be regarded as either natura- 
lized species or merely casual visitors, thus reducing the total of our 
actually indigenous species to less than forty. However, Orthoptera 
are hardy creatures, not always very particular about their food, and 
are easily carried from one country to another with merchandise, and 
consequently may be carried to and even naturalised in countries very 
distant from their original locality. Not only South European, but 
African, Oriental, and American species are frequently found in 
England, sometimes in houses in the heart of London, and some- 
times in gardens, especially Kew Gardens. This applies specially to 
Blattida (Cockroaches), of which we have probably only three in- 
digenous species, though the German, Oriental, American, and 
Australian Cockroach are all now thoroughly naturalized, and the 
Madeiran, Surinam, and Drummer Cockroaches are occasionally met 
with in single specimens. Two of the prettiest of these casual 
visitors are the bright green species of the genus Panchlora, which 
are often brought over among bananas, and a black species with 
yellow markings (Dorylcea rhombifolia), common in Africa and the 
East Indies, which has lately been taken in one or two places in 
London. Other interesting imported species are Acridium cegyptium, 
a very large Locust with transparent hind wings, marked with a 
broad curved black band, which is often brought with fruits and vege- 
tables from the shores of the Mediterranean ; a very curious brown 
Japanese Grasshopper, resembling a Cricket, with legs with very long 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 117 

spurs, and a long spine sticking out of each knee, and the hind wings 
banded with pale yellow (this was found in a house at Chelsea) ; and 
Copiophora brevicomis, a green insect not unlike our common Great 
Green Grasshopper, but with a long pointed snout like a triangular 
spear-head, and a long straight ovipositor twice as long as the body. 
It is a South American insect, but is sometimes found in England 
in botanic gardens. — W. F. Kieby (British Museum). 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



A Monograph of the British Annelids. Polychceta (Vol. II. pt. 1). 
Nephthydidce to Syllidce. By William Carmichael McIntosh, 
M.D. Edin., &c. Bay Society. 1908. 

This beautiful monograph is a worthy example of the good 
work of Prof. Mcintosh, and may be accepted as the type of 
what the Bay Society can and do publish. British Annelids are 
again enumerated and described by one who knows his subject 
and loves the work, and British zoology becomes a larger subject 
to many who scarcely realize, as they may from the gorgeous 
plates in this volume, that, in the words of the author, not a 
few — for example, in the Phyllodocidce, Ilesionidce, and Syllidce — 
are amongst the most beautifully ornamented invertebrates ; 
" indeed, many vie with the gaudy tints of butterflies and birds, 
or the burnished splendour of beetles." 

As regards classification, Prof. Mcintosh is one who thinks 
for himself, and does not consider himself bound to follow the 
classificatory propositions of others. As he writes: — "The 
Polychseta, indeed, do not lend themselves readily to the syste- 
matise and it is safer at present to place the families in series 
according to their natural and structural relationships, reserving 
further consideration of the subject for the summary." How 
many a monographer of other animals has acquired this experi- 
ence ! He often commences with a classification generally not 
his own, and finds it wither and perish as his work progresses ; 
an alternative scheme is then too late, and he must struggle on 



118 THE ZOOLOGIST 

in taxonoinic shackles which he has not had the temerity to 
refuse to wear. It is often only when we have finished our 
monographic work that the dawn of a workable classificatory 
system arises. 

The descriptions are ample, the synonymy extensive, and 
the distribution of the species fully recorded ; the illustrations 
comprise eight coloured and fourteen uncoloured plates, with 
occasional figures in the text. We have thus a pleasant duty in 
bringing this publication to the attention of all shore naturalists, 
and we do so with a conviction that the result will soon appear 
in bionomical notes on the Polycheta in the pages of ' The 
Zoologist.' 



The Work of John Samuel Budgett, Balfour Student of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. Edited by J. Graham Kerr. Cam- 
bridge University Press. 

The memory of John Samuel Budgett is one which Cambridge 
hath delighted to honour, and rightly so. A life of promise 
prematurely closed, a character which endeared its owner to 
many friends, combined with a love of real zoology which 
carried him more than once to the Tropics and eventually cost 
him his life, are features of a personality which could not fail 
to leave its mark. His principal achievement was the discovery 
of the life-history of Polypterus senegalus. As his biographer, 
Mr. A. E. Shipley, remarks: — "After years of patience, after 
three unsuccessful journeys into the heart of Africa, he had at 
last succeeded where all others had failed, and as he watched 
under the microscope the gradual unfolding of the ovum, the 
formation of the layers, the building up of the organs, he must 
have experienced a joy peculiar to men of science, and experi- 
enced by but few of them." Dr. Boulenger's testimony sum- 
marizes the whole business : — " Collectors of zoological speci- 
mens there are in plenty, but they are seldom in a position to 
make observations on the breeding habits of the lower verte- 
brates. Several attempts had been made with the object of 
procuring the developmental stages of the African fishes Poly- 
pterus and Protopterus, but in vain. Budgett determined not to 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 119 

rest until he had attained the long-sought prize ; he succeeded, 
but for this success he paid with his life." 

The volume contains an elaborate memoir by Mr. J. Graham 
Kerr on " The Development of Polypterus senegalus," and another 
by Mr. Eichard Assheton on " The Development of Gymnarchus 
niloticus ; Mr. Edward T. Browne writes on " The Freshwater 
Medusa Limnocnida tanganicce discovered by Budgett in the Biver 
Niger," and Mr. Edward J. Bles on " Anuran Development." 
The various scientific papers of the deceased biologist are also 
reprinted, and a beautifully illustrated volume constitutes both 
a personal testimonial and a no mean contribution to biological 
science. 



A Guide to the Study of Australian Butterflies. By W. J. 
Kainbow, F.L.S., &c. T. C. Lothian, Melbourne. 

This book is an introduction to a knowledge of the Australian 
Bhopalocera, and is confined to those species " of which some- 
thing is known of their life-history." It is therefore biological 
and bionomical so far as it goes, and " no previous knowledge on 
the part of the reader has been presupposed." As an intro- 
duction to a most interesting lepidopterous fauna, Mr. Rainbow 
has achieved success — he has created an interest in these butter- 
flies, and in giving the life-histories of a number of species he 
has disclosed the method to be pursued in investigating those of 
the many species untouched in his volume. It is thus an incite- 
ment for future work beyond the mere accumulation and naming 
of species for cabinet adornment. Typical species of the principal 
families and subfamilies are well figured, and, what is more, 
many ova, larvae, and pupae. 

As regards the terminology used, some criticism is allowable. 
Thus Mr. Rainbow prefers the generic name Danaus to that of 
Danais, but still retains the name Danainm for the subfamily. 
As this is founded on Danais, one change must necessitate a 
constructive change in the other. Again in chap, v., devoted to 
the " Blues and Coppers," he has substituted the name Lycinidce 
for Lyccenidce, but in previous pages and on five occasions he 
has referred to the family as Lyccenidce, a course likely to pro- 



120 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

duce confusion in the mind of an inexperienced lepidopterist. 
We think also that the definitions of protective resemblance and 
mimicry are insufficiently illuminative. The first Mr. Eainbow 
considers as simply meaning " that an animal may resemble in 
colour or tint the bark or leaf on which it rests," and that this 
process is an unconscious one on the part of an insect ; while by 
mimicry he understands " that an animal which in itself is 
either harmless or edible has assumed a close resemblance either 
in form or colour to those commonly regarded with fear or 
repugnance." We would rather regard the first as the least 
unconscious, and as disclosing an effort for concealment ; while 
the second process is less to be realized by the term assumed 
than by the unconscious action of natural selection. 

But these suggestions in no way depreciate the value of 
an excellent introduction to a knowledge of the Butterflies of 
Australia. 



The following have been elected by the Council of the British Asso- 
ciation to be Presidents of Sections at the meeting of the Association 
to be held in Dublin in September next under the general presidency of 
Mr. Eeancis Daewin, F.B.S. : — Section C. (Geology) : Prof. J. Joly, 
B.B.S., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of 
Dublin. Section D. (Zoology): Dr. S. P. Harmee, Superintendent of 
the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge. Section H. (Anthro- 
pology) : Prof. W. Bidgeway, Professor of Archaeology in Cambridge 
University. 



irth Series. 
.XII-. No. 136. 



April 15th, 1908. 



No. 802. 



^ 




J\ (Rontbly Journal 

OF 

^dited by W. Li Distant. 



DndorL . 

West, Newman ^C? 5^ Hattor? Garden. 

Simpkin, Marshall * o? Limited. 




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Bird Collector's Medley 

BY 

E. C. ARNOLD, M.A. 

Crown 4to, Cloth, gilt, extra. Pp. 144. Price iOs. 

^ With Twelve full-page Coloured Illustrations and Eight Un- 
coloured, from the Author's Drawings. Illustrated in the Text 
by Twenty Process Blocks. 

^ A Book for Amateur Collectors and Shore- Shooters. 

" Mr. Arnold handles his narrative in a brisk, lively style, which captivates the 
reader quite apart from the interesting things he has to tell. The chapter entitled 
' From the Point of View of a Dunlin ' is charmingly written, and may be recom- 
mended to the indiscriminate butchers who go out with the intention of killing as 
many birds as they can." — Tribune. 

" There is a delightful freshness and originality with this book which at once, 
demands the reader's attention. . . . He deals largely with shore birds, and gives 
many interesting narratives about them." — Naturalist. 

" This is a book written by an enthusiastic bird collector, who shoots and sets 

up his own specimens, and is his own artist It is living again the old life to 

read these interesting pages." — The Zoologist. 



THE INSECT HUNTER'S COMPANION. Instruc- 
tions for collecting and preserving Butterflies and Moths, Beetles, Bees, 
Flies, &c. By the Rev. Joseph Greene, M.A. — Fourth Edition, revised and 
extended by A. B. Farn. The Chapter on Coleoptera by Edward Newman; on 
Hymenoptera by Frederick Smith ; on Breeding Gall-flies by Edward A. Fitch. 
Where to find moths and butterflies; how to catch; how to bring home without 
injury; how to kill; how to set; how to find the caterpillars; how to manage; 
how to feed ; how to breed the perfect insects ; and numerous similar subjects. 
Price Is. 

A LIST OF BRITISH BIRDS. For label and refer- 
ence. By Henry T. Wharton. Price 6d. post free. 



EHRDSNESTING & BIRD=SKINNING. A Complete 

*~" Description of the Nests and Eggs of Birds which Breed in Britain, 
by Edward Newman. — Second Edition, with Directions for Collecting and 
Preservation ; a Chapter on Bird-skinning ; and Description and Woodcuts of 
the Instruments necessary to the Collector. By Miller Christy. Cloth extra, 
Fcap 8vo. Price Is. Postage 2d. 

An excellent Supplement to Elrns's ' Pocket-Book of British Birds.' 
"Very good indeed, and can be thoroughly recommended." — Athenceum. 



London: WEST, NEWMAN dc CO., 54, Hatton Garden, E.C. 



Zool. 1908. 



Plate 




THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 802.— April. 1908. 



OENITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK (1907). 

By J. H. Gurney, F.Z.S. 

(Plate I.) 

The year 1907 has added the Desert Wheatear to the Norfolk 
list, and also, through the discrimination of Mr. F. Coburn, the 
Black Brent, though the latter had really been obtained once 
before in Norfolk, bringing up our list to three hundred and 
seventeen ; but what attracted most attention were the luminous 
Barn-Owls, which, received at first with incredulity, were soon 
proved to be an attested reality, and they are flying about in the 
county still. That luminous Barn-Owls have been seen before 
in the same part of Norfolk is certain, and therefore there need 
not have been so much scepticism about them. We have it on 
the best authority — namely, from the man himself — that some 
years ago Frederick Rolfe, a gamekeeper now retired, saw what 
could have been nothing else when stopping Fox-earths at West 
Bilney. A few nights afterwards he saw the same shining bird 
again, subsequently shot it, and found that it was a Barn-Owl. 
He has a perfect recollection of all the circumstances, and de- 
scribes the Owl as emitting a very bright light when near him, and 
that it even continued to give out a slight glow for some hours 
after it was dead. Other stories are also told of moving lights at 
night, now believed to have been birds, and there can be little 
Zool. itli ser. vol. XII , April, 1908. L 



122 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

doubt that they were Barn-Owls, though that was not suspected 
at the time. As long ago as 1866 Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown met with 
an instance of it in the Barn-Owl in Cambridgeshire, which was 
never recorded, and other cases might be cited which for various 
reasons did not find their way into print. 

With regard to what causes the luminosity, the general idea 
in Norfolk is to ascribe it to the luminous touchwood which is 
occasionally to be seen in trees, more particularly in the ash. 
At a meeting of the Norwich Naturalists' Society, when the 
luminosity of Owls was made the subject of discussion, Mr. S. H. 
Long stated that this luminous touchwood was due to the 
presence of certain mycelium forming Fungi, which is also what 
Mr. M. C. Cooke says. In his ' Introduction to the Study of 
Fungi,' p. 89, Mr. M. C. Cooke says : — " Several Agarics have 
this property, of which the largest number for any locality have 
been met with in Australia. All of them are species found grow- 
ing upon dead wood, and all have white spores. Nearly the same 
story is related of all of them — to the effect that they emit a 
light sufficiently powerful to enable the time on a watch to be seen 
by it." In this way bacteria may have been imparted to the 
feathers of the Owls by contact, supposing that they inhabited a 
luminous hollow in some tree. 

Another theory has been put forward by Mr. W. P. Pycraft, 
viz. that this luminosity may possibly be really due to some 
species of feather fungus new to science, for, he adds, it is known 
that feather fungi do exist, and he cites the case of a Goose thus 
affected. It would be a great pity to shoot these Owls, I think, 
but if their lair could be discovered we should at any rate see if 
it was a luminous hole, which would advance us one step in the 
inquiry. 

The Vernal and Autumnal Migrations. — Nothing uncommon 
characterized the vernal migration, except it be worth mentioning 
that there was rather a late passage of Fieldfares. The Sociable 
Plovers and other rare birds which showed themselves in the 
county of Kent sent no contingent, as far as we know, to Norfolk 
or Suffolk. Neither was the autumnal migration marked by the 
rushes which sometimes characterize that season of the year. 
Except for an inrush of Eooks on the Suffolk coast on Oct. 26th, 
there were no real congregations of Corvidce seen, and nothing 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 123 

stamps the character of October and November more than the 
arrival of the Corvidce on the East Coast. It is evident from 
the observations of Mr. Boyes, of Beverley, that the bulk of the 
Fieldfares, Eedwings, Blackbirds, Bramblings, Tree-Sparrows, 
&c, made land further north.* There certainly was a passage 
of small birds of considerable strength registered by that expe- 
rienced observer Mr. H. N. Pashley on the night of Oct. 9th — fully 
accounted for by the south-east gale — but this movement did not 
synchronise with the great flight in the North of Denmark on 
the 11th. 

As usual, my best thanks are due to many correspondents for 
their co-operation, without which this Annual Report could hardly 
be carried on, and especially to the Rev. M. C. Bird, of Brunstead, 
and Mr. H. N. Pashley. 

The rainfall for the year was 25*13 in. 

Januakv. 

1st. — When last year's Report left off, the cold weather, 
which for a period had been almost Siberian in its intensity, 
was beginning to break up. Nevertheless, the unfortunate 
Coots, whose sufferings were described in your pages last year 
(Zool. 1907, pp. 85, 138), continued to have a bad time of it on 
our great tidal Broad at Breydon. Nor were they much better 
off on the fresh-water Broads now frozen over, and the Rev. M. C. 
Bird writes of a good many being skated down on the ice at 
Hickling, one man getting thirty as his share. 

2nd. — A Goosander at Eye, and on the 4th Mr. W. Lowne 
received one from Buckenham, and another from Somerleyton ; 
on the 6th there was one at Hickling Broad (Rev. M. C. Bird), 
and the next day Mr. Lowne had as many as four from Brundall, 
shot on the Yare ; and about the same time one or two were 
reported to Mr. H. N. Pashley. Some of the above were good 
males, I believe. At the same time several Goosanders visited 
Yorkshire. 

15th. — The Wash " deeps " and their attendant shoals have 
always been a resort of Brent Geese, though not so abundant on 
any part of our coast as formerly. On the 15th, I learn from 
Mr. F. Coburn, of Birmingham, that an example of the Pacific 

* See the 'Field,' Nov. 17th, 1907. 

1.2 



124 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Brent — or Black Brent, as it is termed in American works 
{Bernicla nigricans) — was shot by a wildfowler named Bichard- 
son, who devotes his attentions especially to these fowl. Mr. 
Goburn, who has paid particular attention to Geese, after ob- 
serving that the present example is an adult female, and that an 
adult male of the same species (B. nigricans) had also been shot 
by the same wildfowler on Feb. 14th, 1902, near Lynn, con- 
tinues : — " On the Pacific side of America they never see any- 
thing but the black race of the Brent Goose, and its plumage is 
always of the same brownish black colour on the under parts 
both summer and winter. ... In addition to the larger amount 
and different distribution of white on the neck, I have found 
another character which is constant ; this is that the central 
under tail-coverts project considerably over the end of the tail — 
in some cases nearly one inch — so that when the tail is closed 
the end appears to be white instead of black." This feature of 
the tail-coverts is well shown in the photograph which Mr. 
Coburn has obliged me with, taken from the Lynn bird of 
1902, which is rather a better example than the one sent him 
in 1907, and it also shows the white neck marks almost meeting 
in front — a very important character. The validity of Bernicla 
nigricans, which has also been recently admitted into the Italian 
avifauna (Atti Soc. It. Sc. Nat. xlvi.), is now fully recognized. 
Mr. Coburn observes that it must not be confused with the dark- 
bellied examples of B. brenta which have been obtained in Norfolk 
on different occasions, and which are considered by Mr. Coburn 
to be all males, a sexual difference which my limited observations 
confirm. Dresser, who gives specific rank to B. nigricans in his 
1 Manual of Palsearctic Birds,' defines its habitat as Western 
North America, from the high north in summer to Lower Cali- 
fornia in winter, and east coasts of Asia from Kamchatka to 
Japan. 

21st. — Sheld-Duck seen at Fritton by Mr. Buxton ; very un- 
usual on that lake. 

27th. — More snow and hard frost ; thermometer down to ten 
degrees. Two Smews on Breydon yesterday (B. Dye). 

29th. — A drake Shoveler seen on the river at Eaton by Mr. 
Knight, its presence no doubt due to the return of the frost. A 
number of Tufted Ducks on the river and meadows at Postwick* 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 125 

several of which t were shot. Subsequently Mr. Barclay and 
myself saw about a hundred Tufted Ducks t on Hoveton Broad, 
where on that wide sheet of water they were safe. 

30th. — A Smew on Breydon Broad (A. Patterson), and shortly 
afterwards one on Hickling (M. C. Bird). 

31st. — A Great Crested Grebe on the Kiver Yare, at Eaton — 
not shot at, I am glad to say (B. Moore) ; I never heard of one 
there before. 

February. 

3rd. — A luminous Barn-Owl, emitting such brilliancy as to 
resemble a distant carriage-lamp, was seen at Twyford by Mr. 
Pi. J. Purdy and other persons. It was, however, not until 
December that the existence of a pair of these luminous birds 
attracted general notice, attention being first directed to this 
phenomenon by Sir T. Digby Pigott in '-The Times.' 

March. 

20th. — A Black Ptedstart caught by Mr. Wyrley Birch in a 
glass porch at West Bilney Lodge, into which it may have been 
tempted to enter in search of flies. 

21st. — A Bed-legged Partridge picked up by George Jary, 
watcher to the Bird Protection Society, in Breydon Channel, 
after a gale from N. W., and a few days afterwards another caught 
in the heart of Yarmouth (Patterson), a repetition of what hap- 
pened in April, 1905. 

28th. — An early Coot's nest with five eggs (Bird). 

April. 

14th. —Thirteen Little Grebes counted by Mr. L. C. Farman at 
Haddiscoe, where they breed — perhaps a company just arrived. 
It is a bird of double passage, but it is not likely that those 
which breed with us are the same individuals which we have on 
our streams in winter. Rose Pastor at Toftrees (d.u.). 

21st. — S.W. The 21st saw the annual return of the Spoon- 
bill to Breydon Broad, where it was carefully watched by G. Jary 
until the 24th, when it departed. Last year it was first seen on 
the 28th. It is generally in the latter part of the month that the 
watcher expects to see it. 

28th. — Mr. Farman saw a pair of Garganey Teal on the 
Waveney — summer migrants, probably just arrived. 



126 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

May. 

3rd.— One of the unpinioned Gannets on my ponds escaped 
in a high wind, and as all inquiries failed to learn its where- 
abouts, there can be little doubt that it succeeded in reaching 
the sea. 

4th. — Hoopoe seen at Lammas by Mr. Walter Rye. 

8th.— S.W. A handsome Pied Flycatcher! in the garden at 
Northrepps, and another Spoonbill on Breydon Broad, where on 
the following day it was seen by Mr. Jary to have been joined by 
a mate. 

11th. — One of the Spoonbills seen by Mr. Farman as high 
up the River Waveney as Haddiscoe, where fortunately no one 
was tempted to break the law by shooting it. Sketches of it in 
various attitudes were taken by Mr. Patterson, and exhibited at a 
meeting of the Norwich Naturalists' Society. 

13th.— My nephew tells me of there again being an Oyster- 
catcher's nest with four eggs at Blakeney, the site chosen being 
within forty yards of the nest examined last year by the Duchess 
of Bedford, and no doubt the property of the same pair of birds. 
In the absence of the watcher the eggs were taken (d.u.), but the 
depredator was found out, prosecuted, and fined. The photo- 
graph of the eggs had been done by Mr. Edward Corder before 
this happened, but I doubt their being in the position in which 
the Oystercatcher left them. (See illustration on opposite 
page.) 

15th. — A large "trip" of thirty Dotterel on the grass-lands 
indicated to Mr. Pashley the usual passage of these handsome 
spring Plovers, and a day or two afterwards Mr. Dack saw 
another on Kelling Heath, besides which a "trip" of ten were 
seen near Yarmouth (E. Saunders). 

25th. — A Gannet taken in a Mackerel-net at sea, and brought 
by the captor to Mr. Patterson, is in the adult plumage except 
for the two middle tail-feathers, which are black, and there is 
also a little black on the posterior secondaries. Eye white, and 
round the eye the usual circle of blue skin. Placed on my pond 
this bird remained there in excellent health for seven months 
and then died from a slightly salt Herring given when no fresh 
fish was obtainable. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 



127 



June. 

4th. — W. A Spoonbill on Breydon Broad which had no 
crest was joined on the 6th by another, and the pair, which both 
Mr. Patterson and Mr. Jary described as very young ones, 
remained until the 18th. If they were birds of this summer 
they were uncommonly early ones. 

9th. — Utility of the Barn-Owl. — Climbed to a Barn-Owl's 
nest in a pollard-oak ; contents of the nest five young Owls (as 
usual of very different ages), two eggs (but these may have been 
rotten ones), a young rat, three or four fresh mice, and some 




Oystercatcher's Nest and Eggs. 



pellets. No luminosity visible in the hollow, nor any game or 
feathers of any birds. What a pity it is that so many good 
gamekeepers will not allow themselves to be convinced by their 
own senses that the Barn-Owl is a friend ! If this bird caught 
its food by day instead of by night they would have ocular 
demonstration of its utility. I have known a single keeper to 
destroy fourteen of these useful birds under the impression that 
he was doing his master a good service ! One of my Barn-Owl's 
trees, a noble elm, was blown down this winter, giving me another 



128 THE ZOOLOGIST, 

good opportunity for observations. In addition to the pellets 
in a tub put up for Owls, its hollow trunk contained a congeries 
of remains which, when I saw them, I directed my man to 
collect and soak in water, that we might have still more evi- 
dence wherewith to refute the gamekeepers. After throwing 
away the fur and all the lesser bones there remained over one 
hundred and twenty skulls, which consisted of eighty-six Long- 
and Short-tailed Field-Mice, twenty-six Eats (some of them very 
small), nineteen Shrew-Mice, and the skulls of two birds which 
appeared to belong to a Sparrow and a very small chicken. 
After they were thrown away I regretted I had not had them all 
photographed spread out on a board. 

13th. — A Reeve's nest with four eggs on the Broads, of which 
Miss Turner has already published an excellent account in 
1 British Birds,' p. 66. 

21st.— N.W. A very good adult Spoonbill, probably a new 
arrival, on Breydon Broad, but, though protected, it only stayed 
two days (Jary). 

23rd. — Caught an old hen Hawfinch and four young ones 
under our pea-net, implying a nest not far off, which may have 
been the case, as we also saw two here in April, and later in 
June three more came. 

25th. — Hawfinches taking peas badly at Westwick (M. C. 
Bird). A Grasshopper-Warbler's nest with eggs near Fakenham 
(Q. E. Gurney). 

27th. — A fairly good number of Bearded Tits reported to be 
breeding on the Broads (Miss Turner). A young Redshankt 
hatched in an incubator by Mr. H. Wormald is now eight 

weeks old. 

July. 

6th. — A Quail's nest with nine eggsf in it mown over by hay- 
makers at Ingham (R. Gurney). At Haddiscoe a pair of Black- 
birds developed a mania for nest-building, completing, I am 
informed by Mr. L. C. Farman, twelve nests but laying no eggs. 
One nest which they built on the top of a paled gate was taken 
possession of by a pair of Pied Wagtails. The Blackbirds 
finished off their operations with a twin nest of two cups joined 
together, after which the female broke her wing against a wire 
linen-line (Favman). There was not a single Heron's nest at 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 129 

Earlham, and no Black-headed Gulls' nests at Hoveton Broad 
this summer, as I learn from Mr. Barclay they have moved to 
Alderfen, more to their liking, and a few miles off. 

16th. — Chiffchaff in full song still at Twyford, and Chiffchaffs 
and Willow- Warblers were heard there at intervals throughout 
the autumn (C. Hamond). 

August. 

5th. — W. A Spoonbill on Breydon (Jary), but it had gone 
next day, and no more were seen this year. 

8th. — Young Cuckoo being fed by Willow-Warblers at Brun- 
stead (Bird). Both ours at Keswick were this year in Wagtails' 
nests, t one nestling being about five days in advance of the 
other. 

19th. — Gadwall (immature) at Potter Heigham (W. Lowne), 
not likely to have been bred there. 

26th. — An Osprey seen at Smallburgh (M. Bird), and two 
days afterwards the same or another seen on the Broads by 
Miss Turner. 

September. 

5th. — S.W. 4. It was not until September that the coast 
migration proper set in. I was in Scotland, but several rare birds 
seem to have been passing. As stated by Dr. F. G. Penrose in 
'British Birds,' a Yellow-breasted Bunting! was shot near Wells 
by a son of one of the Earl of Leicester's gamewatchers ; the wind 
the preceding evening had been S. 4, but in the morning N.W. 3. 
Eussia is the country it would be expected to have come from, 
but it goes as far as Syria, according to authors. I am indebted 
to Mr. A. Napier for a sight of this Bunting, which is to be added 
to Lord Leicester's collection. 

11th.— N.E. 2. Mr. E. C. Arnold, who was staying on the 
coast, saw a Bed-breasted Flycatcher, but adds that it was not 
identified with certainty. It is probably an annual visitor to our 
coast, though overlooked until of late years. 

18th. — S.W. variable to N.E., 1. Seven Grey Geese seen by 
Mr. Arnold in Blakeney Estuary, where a day or two afterwards 
I heard of a Long-tailed Duck, a female Eider Duck, and two 
young Gannets. 

26th. — Bing-Ouzel at Northrepps, where my gardener says it 
remained three days close to a large elder-bush, which I believe 



130 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

they visit for the berries every year (c/. Zool. 1903, p. 134). 
Several others seen along our coast about this time, as well as 
by Mr. Caton Haigh in Lincolnshire. 

October. 

9th. — S.E. 4 (rising in the evening). October was on the 
whole a fine month, with winds light in force except for the gale 
on the 9th and 10th. It must have been impelled by this wind 
that a young Purple Heron t crossed the sea, and, attracted by 
the lights of Lowestoft, settled in the populous suburb of Kirkley, 
where it was made captive by a tram-conductor, and taken to 
the house of Mr. H. Bunn, one of whose customers kept it alive 
for six weeks, and it was then killed and stuffed. It is in the 
red plumage which led to its being mistaken at first for a 
Bittern. 

10th. — S. S.E. 6. News was brought to Mr. Pashley by 
those who had been down to the shore that the bushes of 
scrubby saltwort along the coast were full of the usual small 
migrants, and at least one observer identified a Black Eedstart. 
Perhaps there was a movement of Black Kedstarts on the Con- 
tinent, for between this date and the 26th Mr. Pashley knew for 
certain of eight of these birds coming to his portion of the coast, 
and Mr. Lowne, of Yarmouth, had another, which indicates 
rather a strong movement for the East Coast. On the evening 
of the 9th the wind was S.E. 6, which it continued to be through- 
out the 10th, rising to a high gale, force 7, in the evening. The 
first Bluethroat was seen yesterday. 

11th. — [On the night of the 11th a great migratory move- 
ment must have been in progress on the north coast of Denmark, 
no fewer than a thousand birds being taken at the Skaw Light- 
house (cf. ' Field ' of Nov. 2nd, 1907). No list of the species has 
yet been published, but Mr. Winge, of Copenhagen, writes me 
that there was neither a Black Eedstart nor a Kichard's Pipit 
among them. The wind at the Skaw was W.S.W. 4, but in the 
morning it had been E.] 

12th. — During the recent S.E. gale a little flock of Eichard's 
Pipits would seem to have been blown to the coast of Norfolk. 
On the 12th, the day that the first was seen, the Eev. M. C. 
Bird speaks of " trips " of Larks passing, and both they and the 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 131 

Pipits may have come from the north of Denmark, and been 
part of the passage which was observed there, but in that case 
they were not flying with the wind. The first one! was brought 
to Mr. Pashley's house on the 12th (S.W. 4), and another! 
during the high wind on the 14th (S. 6) ; these two were ascer- 
tained by Mr. Pashley to be male and female, and I should say 
one was in active moult, the other through it. On Nov. 15th, 
wind W. 2, another was identified in the same locality on or near 
the shore, and on the 21st another [on which day one was also 
taken in Co. Dublin {ante, p. 32), the first for Ireland]. Their 
loud call-note in the air sometimes betrays their presence, even 
when the bird itself is still far away, as Gatke remarks, and the 
same has been observed in England. In Heligoland fifty can 
be sometimes seen in a day (' Birds of Heligoland,' p. 348). 

17th. — [Eagle at Sea. — Capt. Allenby informs me that a 
Spotted Eagle, apparently dazzled by the lights on board ship, 
alighted on the deck of one of the Cruiser Squadron in lat. 54° N. 
long. 3° E., the wind being S., force 3, and being captured was 
subsequently forwarded to the Zoological Gardens, where its 
identity as Aquila maculata was ascertained. Capt. Allenby 
adds that a large number of other migratory birds were seen in 
the North Sea about that time, the distance from the coast of 
Norfolk being about one hundred and forty miles. It would 
have been interesting to have ascertained what they were. Up 
to 1895 the Spotted Eagle had been obtained in Heligoland twice 
(' Birds of Heligoland,' p. 179), but it has never paid us a visit 
nearer than Southwold.] 

19th. — Mr. Pashley hears that there are a number of Gannets 
off the coast, both young and old ; no piebald ones have been 
noticed. Pomatorhine Skua brought in by a " lugger " (Patter- 
son). 

22nd. — S.W. 3. A Pilchard's Pipit taken by a birdcatcher 
on Yarmouth denes, being taken to Mr. Lowne, at once began 
to feed on mealworms offered to it. Mr. Lowne describes it as 
being not yet through its moult, stumps of feathers showing on 
the sides and head. 

23rd. — S.W. 1. Many strings of Gulls going west at Over- 
strand. Two Velvet Scoters in Blakeney Estuary. 

24th. — Weighed a young Gannet at Mr. Pashley's house 



132 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

(5-| lb.), but this is a good deal less than two I weighed last 
year. 

29th. — S.E. 5. A Yellow-browed Warbler shot at Cley 
(H. Pashley) ; the other Norfolk example was obtained on 
Oct. 1st, 1894. The following day (S.S.E. 4) a Eed-breasted 
Flycatcher was identified, and a Spotted Crake occurred at 
Wiveton (Pashley), not a common bird at any time. 

31st. — S.W. 2. The Desert-Wheatear is a bird which we 
have been expecting for some time, but it does not appear to 
have been identified in Norfolk or Suffolk until to-day, when I 
am informed of one being shot near the sea. This is a large 
example,! a male bird, and apparently an old one from its 
plumage, measuring, after it was stuffed, 6*3 in. from tip of tail 
to tip of beak ; throat richly mottled with black, on the back a 
delicate buff tint. This is only the second occurrence of the 
Desert-Wheatear in England. The first one, obtained in York- 
shire in October, 1885, was a young female, not so large a bird 
as the present example ; it has appeared oftener in Scotland 
and Heligoland. On the same day a male Fire-crested Wren, 
which had quite lost its way, was caught in the town of 
Yarmouth and taken to Mr. J. E. Knights, to whom I am in- 
debted for a painting of it ; so possibly the two birds came over 
in company. The wind the day before had been S. 4, from which 
quarter it had been blowing strong since the 28th. 

November. 

3rd. — A Great Grey Shrike at Yarmouth (Patterson), and 
about this time (d. u.) the same or another was seen at Westacre 
by Mr. Birkbeck. 

7th. — A Gadwall shot on Hoveton Broad by Mr. Barclay, and 
the following month another on Hickling Broad (Bird). Their 
presence on the eastern side of the county was until recently 
quite exceptional. 

j. 14th. — Ninety-six Scoter Ducks shot to wooden decoys off 
Hunstanton (• Eastern Daily Press '), where this form of sport is 
in great request, but such a large bag is unusual. The following 
day seventy-eight more were killed. 

16th. — Mr. Farman saw a Waxwing — the only one, I think, 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 133 

reported this year — feeding on haws at Haddiscoe Dam. Last 
year only one was noted, and I think one the year before. 

17th. — Over five hundred Pochards on Hickling Broad 
(Bird). 

19th. — That Barn-Owls are erratic in their time of breeding 
is well known, and therefore it was not surprising to find that an 
old elm-tree at Keswick contained young ones. Not many weeks 
after they had flown the bough snapped off, when it was found 
to be hollow for fifteen feet, the aperture being packed from end 




Little Auk (Mergulus alle). 



to end with old Jackdaws' and Owls' nests. It was also during 
this month (d.u.) that a young Barn-Owl was brought to Mr. 
Guun, with a message that the hole it came from contained 
three dead nestlings. $ 

22nd. — A White-fronted Goose shot at East Euston (M. Bird), 
and two days before one was brought down at Morston. 

26th.— A late Whimbrel still at Wells (P. Hamond). 

28th. — S.W. 4. A Nutcracker seen at Gunton, near Lowestoft, 



134 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

and again on the 30th, when it was very exhausted (E. Fowler), 
and probably did not survive very long. 

Decembeb. 

1st. — The Luminous Owl. — The luminous Barn-Owl, which, 
except for one appearance to Mr. Spencer in October, had not 
been seen since February, was again observed by Mr. E. J. Purdy, 
his son, and other persons, shining brightly in the same locality 
as before. 

15th. — Mr. Dye, in recording a Little Auk (ante, p. 114), 
expresses an opinion that there is no figure of this bird which 
shows a complete white occipital line. I have not seen his bird, 
but I give a drawing by Mr. Patterson of a Little Auk taken at 
Yarmouth six years ago, which shows this character very strongly. 
(See illustration on p. 133.) 

22nd. — Again the luminous Owl showed itself to Mr. Purdy, 
and between this date and the 29th it was seen by several 
people, and by many others subsequently. On the 29th its 
luminosity appears to have been at its maximum, the branches 
of trees being even lighted up as it flew amongst them. It 
was presently joined by a companion, also luminous, but not so 
bright as its mate, and I am assured by Mr. Purdy that on diffe- 
rent occasions one or other of them was seen in six contiguous 
parishes. The nightly rounds of a Barn-Owl, which are often 
much the same in line of flight, would not be expected to extend 
further than that under any circumstances. The light is de- 
scribed by those who saw it best as pale yellow with a reddish 
tinge ; at its brightest it was about as brilliant as the light of 
a bicycle lamp some three or four hundred yards away, and 
that was what Mr. Purdy at first mistook it for. Anyhow, 
the light does not seem to have had the effect of giving warning 
to Eats and Mice, for Mr. Hamond's bailiff saw it drop on one, 
and heard the little animal shriek. On one occasion the shining 
bird was quietly seated on a gate, and another time on the 
ground, having probably just dropped in pursuit of a Mouse. 
Those who saw it best agree that it was much brighter when 
coming towards the observer, and especially when rising in the 
air, but so much did the light pale as it flew away in the contrary 
direction that it is certain that little, if any, of the glow proceeded 



ORNITHOLOGICAL REPORT FOR NORFOLK. 135 

from the back of the bird. I tried my best, in Mr. Hamond's 
company, to see this ornithological phenomenon, but with no 
success ; though we were rewarded by a gentleman resident in the 
parish showing us a luminous tree. It was the stump of an 
ash which, when he found it, had a phosphorescent superficies of 
several feet on the decayed side, but the glow was not very bright, 
and there certainly was no hole which could have held an Owl. 

25th. — Another luminous Barn-Owl seen in Haddiscoe 
marshes by Mr. L. C. Farman, an observer not likely to be mis- 
taken, flitting across the marshes near Haddiscoe Dam at about 
six paces from the ground. It showed very bright at times, and 
then frequently vanished, no doubt as its breast and head turned 
away from the observer ; but soon it was seen to appear again in 
the distance, sometimes showing up exceedingly bright. On 
two subsequent nights Mr. Farman had opportunities of watch- 
ing it, and one or two other persons also saw it. As Haddiscoe 
is thirty miles from where the other luminous pair were seen, it 
could not have been one of them, though the same causes, what- 
ever they were, may have operated to produce it. 

27th. — A flock of five White-eyed Pochards reported to Mr. 
Bird to be on Hickling Broad, and about the same time a Gadwall 
and some Wild Swans. Mr. Bird does not say that any of the 
Pochards were shot, so that their identity is hardly established. 

Varieties of Plumage. 

January 11th. — Cream-coloured Fieldfare seen at Smallburgh 
(Bird). 14th. Keported melanism of the Water-Kail at Horsey 
Broad [for a similar instance, in Hampshire, cf. Zool. 1891, p. 67]. 
31st. Cinnamon Bed wing at Gorleston (E. C. Saunders), and 
another at Cromer (Pashley). 

February 1st.— Pied Blackbird! at Mr. Roberts's, and a few 
days afterwards a silver-grey one at Martham, as I am informed 
by Mr. Saunders. 18th. Mr. Saunders received a Blackbird! 
which exhibited a narrow transverse bar, or " hunger trace " as 
I believe this appearance is sometimes termed, on nearly every 
feather of the body, but especially on the tail. 

June 1st. — At the beginning of June (d.u.) Mr. H. Wormald 
saw one of the brown race of Partridges (Perdix montana) in a 
field near Dereham, which he believes it had been frequenting 



136 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

since Christmas, and not far from where a good unrecorded ex- 
amplet of the same erythrism was shot by Mr. McLean in the 
autumn of 1906. It is twelve years since this spangled variety 
(which is figured in ' The Zoologist' for 1900, pi. ii.) first appeared 
in Norfolk, and if so many had not been shot there would have 
been a chance of perpetuating a very handsome addition to the 
English sportsman's bag. 

September 1st. — A beautiful variety of the Lesser Tern,t 
nearly white and apparently adult, shot somewhere between 
Wells and Cromer, was received by Mr. Pashley, who was told 
that it had been seen about for some weeks. The primary quills 
are distinctly tinted with brown, and the dark occiput is quite 
apparent on close examination. On the same day another 
variety, also much too remarkable to be allowed to live, was 
shot at Brancaster, a sight of which I owe to Mr. Pashley, viz. 
a white or rather much pied Einged Plover, t its plumage 
chequered with pale brown in patches — not such a striking 
albinism as the one shot in 1886. 

October 23rd. — A white Dabchickf shot in Blakeney Channel, 
and subsequently disposed of to Mr. Cormop, who was good 
enough to show me this albino in the flesh, whilst its legs still 
retained a bright lemon hue, the eyes, now somewhat sunken, 
being apparently pale brown. As none of the shooters had seen 
it about the harbour they believed that it had only just come 
over. 



( 137 ) 



THE BIRDS OF THE DISTRICT OP STAINES. 
By Graham W. Kerr. 

It is two years ago since I wrote in ' The Zoologist ' under 
the above heading, and although during this time I have 
removed from Staines to Datchet, the distance is only a matter 
of eight miles, and has made no difference to the ground I work 
over ; so that I shall continue to use the same title for these 
further notes. 

During the two years fifteen new birds have been added to the 
local list, bringing the total to one hundred and twenty-six. 

The reservoirs at Staines attract an ever-increasing number 
of birds, and from an ornithological point of view are well worth 
a visit at any time of the year, while during severe weather in 
winter the number of fowl on the waters is quite remarkable ; 
but it is difficult to make accurate observations of them on so 
large a piece of water. 

The breeding of the Pochard in Berkshire and of the Marsh- 
Warbler in Surrey are the two chief items I have to record. 

Ring-Ouzel (Turdus torquatus). — A fine bird seen in a meadow 
near Stanwell, April 1st, 1907. 

Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus rufus). — Is locally distributed ; most 
plentiful in Windsor Park, but nowhere as common as the Willow- 
Wren. 

Wood- Wren (P. sibilatrix). — After my last notes in ' The 
Zoologist,' Mr. A. Holte Macpherson kindly wrote to tell me 
that he had found this bird very common on the east side of 
Windsor Park. 

Marsh-Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris). — This is a bird I 
had long hoped to meet in the district, and I was therefore 
extremely pleased when on June 14th, 1907, I found a nest with 
four eggs in an osier-plantation in the parish of Thorpe, Surrey. 
This is the first known instance of the bird breeding in the 
Zool.dthser vol. XII., April, 1908. M 



138 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

county. I was examining a small densely overgrown osier- 
plantation fronting on to the Thames ; the plantation had not 
been cleared for several years, and the undergrowth was exceed- 
ingly thick. There were several Eeed- and Sedge-Warbler's 
nests, one of the former containing two eggs and one Cuckoo's. 
Some twenty yards back from the river I flushed a bird from a 
nest which after some searching I found placed low down in the 
fork of a small osier-bush almost completely covered with a mass 
of tall grasses and nettles. In the nest were four splendidly 
marked eggs of the Marsh-Warbler. The bird was very shy, and 
although I waited for a long time I could get no good view of it, 
though all the time it was hopping about near by in the under- 
growth. On June 25th I again visited the plantation, and found 
another nest placed two or three feet from the ground in a thick 
clump of tall grass, three or four stems of which were woven 
into the sides of the nest, which again held four finely marked 
eggs. Once more I had great difficulty in getting even a glimpse 
of the bird. I wrote to Mr. L. B. Mouritz, who is interested in 
Surrey ornithology, and together we visited the spot on July 
13th. The result was disappointing, as we found the nest 
empty, and could see no sign of the birds ; nor was I any more 
successful on two subsequent visits. The chances of the birds 
returning to the plantation are, I am sorry to say, not very 
bright, for the area is very small and has been partially cleared 
for the erection of bungalows. A mile or so distant there is 
another dense and much more secluded osier-bed, and I expect 
that it will be here, if anywhere, that I shall meet the birds this 
spring. 

Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) . — Mr. E. Pettitt, a keen 
and capable ornithologist, writes me that he saw two birds near 
the Staines Beservoirs on Jan. 12th, 1908, and later in the month 
one bird near the same spot. 

Hooded Crow (Corvas comix). — On Oct. 28th, 1905, I saw 
one feeding with Books and Jackdaws in a newly ploughed field 
at Datchet. On Jan. 27th, 1907, I saw one standing on the ice 
at Virginia Water, trying to dig out some prey that was frozen 
into the ice, which was not very strong. I spent the morning of 
March 3rd at Virginia Water, and saw several of the birds. I 
did not see more than one at a time, so it may have been the 



BIRDS OF THE DISTRICT OF STAINES. 139 

same bird, but I am strongly of the opinion that there was 
a small party of them. It is probable that in some years small 
parties winter in the Park, though this year I have not been able 
to locate them. 

Common Sheld-drake (Tadoma comuta). — A flight of six 
were seen on the Staines Keservoirs in severe weather, Dec. 31st, 
1906. 

Golden-eye (Clangula glaucion). — On Dec. 29th, 1906, I 
found quite a number of Golden-eye on the Staines Reservoirs, 
and I think it may now be said to be a regular winter visitor, 
though not to be looked for until hard weather sets in. Christ- 
mas, 1906, was an old-fashioned one, with plenty of snow and 
frost. There were a great number of Duck on the reservoirs ; 
several I knew to be strangers, but as I was unable to identify 
them with certainty they must be omitted from these notes. It 
is exceedingly difficult to make sure of birds on these reservoirs ; 
usually they keep well out in the middle, and even with good 
glasses the distance is too great for accurate identification. The 
slightest breeze ruffles the water into a sea and increases the 
difficulties. This January the frost was severe enough to cover 
the waters with a thin coating of ice, and I had great hopes of 
seeing two or three new birds. When I arrived there early in 
the morning a fog prevented me seeing more than fifty or sixty 
yards ; the sun was shining overhead, and looked as though it 
might break through at any moment. Occasionally a shaft of 
light would struggle through for a minute, and show the ice in 
the centre black with Duck sitting and standing about. I 
remained until evening, but had no luck, though out of the fog 
came a very medley of bird-calls. The next day I had a similar 
experience, and on the following day the weather became mild, 
with high wind and rain. It was bad luck to lose such a chance, 
especially after two very cold days of watching. 

Pochard (Fuligula ferina) . — I cannot find that there is any 
record of the Pochard having bred in Berkshire, but I can now 
record that at least six pairs nested on a certain pond in Windsor 
Park last year (1907). I expected to find the Tufted Duck doing 
so at the same spot, but after much searching I failed to find any 
nest, though I think it very likely that I shall do so within the 
next few years. 

m2 



140 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

{From my Note-book.) 

May 5th, 1907. — On one of the ponds in Windsor Park one 
pair of Tufted Duck and six pair of Pochard still remain, and 
spring is now so far advanced that it is reasonable to suppose 
that both birds may breed here ; whether it is possible to wade 
through the thick belt of reeds in order to make sure of this 
remains to be seen. 

19th. — To-day Mr. Pettitt and I succeeded in wading out to 
one section of the reeds round the pond in Windsor Park. It 
was difficult work, but we were well rewarded in finding two 
nests of Pochard with eight and nine eggs ; in the smaller clutch 
the young were just chipping through the shell, while the nine 
eggs appeared quite fresh. The eggs are somewhat larger and 
of a deeper colour than those of the Mallard. There were several 
male and female Pochard on the water, though not in company. 
We saw no Tufted Duck. 

June 9th. — I do not know when I have spent a more un- 
comfortable morning. Mr. Pettitt and I waded right round the 
pond in Windsor Park. It was desperately hard work flounder- 
ing about up to our waists in mud and water, the perspiration 
streamed down our faces, and swarms of midges, disturbed by 
our progress through the reeds, buzzed around our heads, while 
every step brought up great bubbles of foul-smelling gas. After 
four hours in the water we were heartily glad to get ashore 
again. The result of the morning's work was fifteen Eeed- 
Warbler's nests, one with a young Cuckoo a few days old, and 
another with a Cuckoo's egg ; three nests of Pochard with 
seven, seven, and eight eggs (tested in the water all these 
clutches showed signs of being much ineubated). The other 
nests met with were Coot, Moorhen, Mallard, Great Crested 
Grebe, and Keed-Bunting. 

Pettitt and I were both scared several times by some bird (?) 
that we could not get a glimpse of ; right under our feet there 
would suddenly be a great commotion in the water, and some- 
thing was rushing about and splashing below the surface. It 
happened to me first, and when I told Pettitt about it he 
laughingly said, "Mind you are not grabbed by a Crocodile." 
Later on the same thing happened to him, and he admitted that 
it was much too like the swirling of a Crocodile to be pleasant, 



BIRDS OF THE DISTRICT OF STAINES. 141 

and, as he has had experience of Crocodiles on the West 
Coast of Africa, he knows something about them. We never 
decided what caused the commotion ; it may have been large 
Pike we disturbed, but I fancy it was some bird, probably Great 
Crested Grebes. I remember disturbing a Coot from her nest 
once ; she remained on the surface calling loudly, and wildly 
throwing the water about. 

20th. — Paid another visit to the pond in Windsor Park, and 
found another nest of Pochard with eight eggs, and also saw a 
brood of six swimming on the water. We found a vast number 
of Eeed-Warbler's nests, three of which contained Cuckoo's eggs, 
and under three other nests we saw fully-grown young Cuckoos 
that had fallen out of the nests and been drowned. This points 
to a heavy death-rate among them when the eggs are placed in 
nests over water. We again met with several " Crocodiles," but 
got no nearer to solving the mystery. 

October 27th. — Some fifty Mallard, about twelve pairs of both 
Pochard and Tufted Duck, three or four Teal, and one Snipe 
were seen at the pond in Windsor Park to-day. Several Great 
Crested Grebe were swimming with half-grown young ; they kept 
close company, and the young were uttering a squeaking cry 
which sounded from the distance like the twitter of some Finch. 
The curious striped markings of the young were clearly dis- 
cernible. They must have been rather late broods. One Swallow 
was seen. 

Piinged Plover (Mgialitis hiaticola). — Mr. L. B. Mouritz in- 
forms me that he saw a Ptinged Plover at the Staines Pieservoirs 
on Aug. 18th, 1907. 

Woodcock (Scolopax rusticula). — One was shot at Wraysbury 
by Mr. W. Broughton, Sept. 29th, 1906. 

Common Eedshank (Totanus calidris). — Mr. Mouritz saw two 
at the Staines Keservoirs, July 18th, 1907. 

Black Tern (Hydrochelidon nigra). — An immature bird flying 
over Virginia Water lake, Oct. 13th, 1907. (Another of Mr. 
Mouritz' s notes.) 

Common Tern (Sterna fluviatilis) .—On May 12th, 1906, I saw 
a flock of quite a hundred Common Tern on the river at Old 
Windsor ; they were beating up and down stream in search of 
fish, and many of them passed within a few yards of me. Time 



142 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

after time they dived into the water and brought out fish the 
size of Bleak or small Eoach, which they swallowed head first 
while still on the wing. The next day I could find no sign of 
the birds. It is not uncommon for one or two Terns to come up 
the Thames in the autumn, but I do not think I have any note 
of their occurrence in spring, and I have certainly never seen 
such a large flock. 

Eared Grebe (Podicipes nigricollis). — There were not many 
birds on the waters when I visited the Staines Eeservoirs on 
Oct. 13th, 1907, but a small Grebe at once attracted my atten- 
tion, and there is no doubt that it was an Eared Grebe in winter 
plumage. It was very tame, swimming quite close in to the side 
and moving at a great pace. On Oct. 26th the Eared Grebe was 
still in the same corner of the reservoirs, and I watched it for a 
long while ; the beak is curved slightly upwards, which I do not 
remember to have noticed with any other Grebe. After diving 
it came to the surface with a fish, and then brought one foot out 
of the water to help it get the fish into the right position for 
swallowing. 

The most important of my other notes is perhaps the occur- 
rence of the Great Northern Diver, being the third appearance 
of the bird since 1881. It seems curious that it should have so 
often visited such an inland district. 

On Christmas Day, 1905, I visited the Staines Eeservoirs, 
and almost immediately sighted a Great Northern Diver swim- 
ming at one hundred to one hundred and fifty yards from the 
side. The bird was not alarmed at my presence, and I watched 
it for a long time. It dived and came up with quite a large fish, 
which it swallowed ; it also scratched its head with its foot, 
showing its under parts nicely. The next day the bird was 
further out, and I could not see it so well. On Jan. 1st, 1906, I 
had only just located the Diver when it rose and flew for some 
distance, passing quite close to where I was standing. The 
flight was high and powerful, the neck being stretched out in 
front and the legs behind. I did not see the bird after Jan. 28th ; 
it then seemed to be quite at home, and to find plenty of fish. I 
tried to time the length of its dives, but was not very successful, 
as the bird pops up suddenly, and so far away from the spot it 
went down at that it is very hard to see it directly it comes up. 



BIRDS OF THE DISTRICT OF STAINES. 143 

I see that in my last notes I described the Corn-Bunting as 
resident. This was a mistake ; the bird is migratory, arriving 
early in April and remaining until about the end of September. 
I felt sure that it bred at Staines, though I have never found the 
nest. This year, after a whole morning's watching, I found a 
young bird just able to fly which was being fed by its parent. 

Instances of birds sharing the same nest are uncommon, but 
I met with two cases last year. A Yellow Bunting I flushed from 
a small bush at the side of a ditch was sitting on two of her own 
eggs and two Whitethroat's. I think the nest was built by the 
Whitethroat, but could not be sure. Another similar case was a 
Beed-Warbler's nest built in nettles which held three Beed- 
Warbler's eggs and one Sedge-Warbler's. Four days later the 
Sedge-Warbler's egg had vanished, and the Beed-Warbler was 
sitting on her own three eggs. A Hedge- Sparrow built a nest in 
the head of a sprouting broccoli in the garden, but the wind blew 
the nest and eggs to the ground. A still more extraordinary 
Hedge- Sparrow's nest was built in an osier-bed, entirely sus- 
pended in giant nettles; the nettles were very dense and tall, and 
several stems were woven into the nest after the Beed-Warbler's 
style ; yet the nest was undoubtedly built by the Hedge- Sparrow, 
and the bird was sitting on five eggs. I twice found two Cuckoo's 
eggs in the same nest, but I think my notes on the Cuckoo must 
be dealt with later on in an article to themselves. 

The movements of the Stonechat in this district have been 
very peculiar. Formerly it was a local resident, and I regarded 
it as an increasing species. In 1906 I know that at least three 
families were reared, but that autumn the birds entirely dis- 
appeared, and none were seen for more than twelve months. In 
November, 1907, two were seen back in their old haunts, but 
since then they have again entirely left the neighbourhood. I 
happened to mention this to Mr. Mouritz, and he said that it 
was certainly curious, as he had a note that the Stonechat had 
not been seen in Bichmond Park for over a year. 

During the last two winters a flock of some fifty Black-headed 
Gulls have frequented the river and Eton Playing Fields; they 
may often be seen far away from the river, following the plough 
in company with Books and Jackdaws. 



144 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES FROM LAKELAND, CUMBERLAND AND 
WESTMORLAND, 1905. 

By T. C. Parker. 

The following notes are derived largely from the Tullie 
House (Carlisle) Museum's Records, kept by Messrs. D. L. 
Thorpe and L. Hope, but whatever is placed in brackets thus [] 
has been collected from other sources. 

The records were published in a local newspaper early in 
1906, and may be of interest to readers of ' The Zoologist,' as, 
since the lamented death of the Rev. H. A. Macpherson in 1902, 
Lakeland has not had a regular correspondent to this Journal. 

"The mild and open spring of 1905 was no doubt greatly 
responsible for the early arrival of many of our summer visitants, 
and the slight frosts in January and February were probably 
partly responsible for the presence of numbers of wildfowl on 
our inland waters during those months, inasmuch as these con- 
ditions have the effect of hastening or retarding migration, and 
when met by a retarding influence the birds will congregate in 
large numbers in suitable feeding places. 

A remarkable assemblage of wildfowl was observed on Talkin 
Tarn during January, when it was estimated that there were not 
less than five hundred waterfowl belonging to seven different 
species, including a pair of Smews, a rare species of the Anatidce, 
possessing a beautiful silvery-white plumage with black mark- 
ings, and only recorded about twenty times or so previously for 
Lakeland ; several Goosanders, four of them old males, with 
rich salmon-pink coloured breasts ; some Golden-eyes, with the 
handsome black and white plumage of the adult male, and the 
sober brown and white of the female ; Tufted Ducks, with their 
conspicuous white flank-feathers and erectile crest ; several 
Mallards or common Wild Ducks ; and lastly a large gathering 
of Ducks, which on close examination proved to be Pochards. 
These were roughly counted to two hundred and fifty birds, 



NOTES FROM LAKELAND. 145 

which seems to be a record number for Lakeland, as the late 
Eev. H. A. Macpherson, in his ' Fauna,' says that he never saw 
or heard of a party of more than twenty in that area. Dr. 
Heysham considered it a scarce bird in his day. 

The Grey Geese were again numerous on the Solway Marshes, 
and the Grey-Lag now appears to be the predominating species, 
although five or sis years ago the Pink-footed Goose was by far 
the most plentiful species. 

The Bernacle Geese lingered in the district until May 6th, 
when a flock of about fifty to sixty birds were seen on Rockliffe 
Marsh." 

[Macpherson, in his ' Fauna of Lakeland,' p. 251, says the 
Bernacle Geese generally leave the Solway in March and April, 
but sometimes a few linger into May.] 

" One or two notable occurrences of rare birds have taken 
place, the one which more particularly came under our notice 
being the visitation of an Iceland Gull to the Eden. This species 
has only been recorded four times previously for Lakeland. The 
example mentioned spent several weeks during January and 
February about the junction of the River Caldew and River 
Eden, and was seen repeatedly during that time. 

One of the most interesting occurrences in the ornithological 
annals of this county is the fact that a young Whooper Swan* 
(the larger of the two species of Wild Swans which visit this 
country) took up his quarters during the winter on the Eden, in 
association with the herd of Mute Swans belonging to the Cor- 
poration of Carlisle. On its arrival it was in immature dress of 
the first year, but assumed the white dress and yellow cere of 
maturity during its stay. It lived upon the most amiable terms 
with its tame relations, and whenever the herd was annoyed by 
dogs, or other trouble threatened, constituted itself their pro- 
tector. Such an occurrence appears to be without parallel, and 
Prof. A. Newton says that the Mute Swan generally evinces 
hostility rather than friendship to his wild relations. As the 
time of migration drew near curiosity was felt as to how the 
Whooper would act — whether he would be content to remain in 
his comfortable quarters or to return to his Arctic home — and on 
May 12th we were grieved, but not surprised, to hear that the 
* Cf. Zool. 1906, p. 193. 



146 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

keeper had seen him flighting towards the Solway in company 
with two of his companions. 

Several species of birds ^appear to be on the increase in the 
area covered by our notes. The Hawfinch has bred in Westmor- 
land for several years past, and is steadily extending its range 
northwards. It has been observed at several different places in 
Cumberland during the past summer, and will probably soon 
become a well-known bird to the kitchen gardener, amongst 
whose pea-crop it plays havoc with its strong stout beak. 

The Greater Spotted Woodpecker is becoming decidedly more 
numerous, a fact which should give dissatisfaction to no one, as 
the species feeds largely on insects and larvae which are harmful 
to forest-trees. The Black Grouse appears to be on the increase 
in Westmorland, perhaps also in Cumberland, as also are the 
Lapwing,* Common Wild Duck, and several other less note- 
worthy species. On the other hand, one or two of our resident 
birds are alas ! yearly becoming scarcer. In spite of its great 
adaptability, the Common Buzzard will soon become, like the 
Hen-Harrier and the Kite, a memory of the past. Where the 
Baven and Peregrine Falcon hold their own, the Buzzard, 
perhaps owing to her nest being more accessible, is becoming 
yearly less numerous." [Macpherson, in his ' Fauna,' mentions 
a nest of the Buzzard in Westmorland on a certain low face of 
rock, " which is so easy of access that even a child could reach 
it without incurring any risks, and yet the Buzzard has nested 
there on two occasions within the last decade." It is to be much 
regretted that these noble birds are not allowed to nest and rear 
their young in peace, and add further beauty to their sur- 
roundings.] 

" The Starling is a model of adaptability and perseverance 
among the birds. Sixty years ago he was scarcely known amongst 
us ; now he is everywhere, and, not satisfied with a normal 
nesting-time, actually makes a nest and hatches a brood of 
young in December. 

An extremely early nest of the Dipper, locally known as the 
Water-Ouzel or Bessie Dooker [I have heard also Peggie White- 
throat] was recorded from Holme Head, the young birds being 

* Their eggs are protected from April 15th to July 1st by a Cumberland 
County Council bye-law. 



NOTES FROM LAKELAND. 147 

hatched about March 13th. The same pair of birds had another 
nest and eggs before the first brood had got well on to the 
wing." 

The following are the chief notes of interest sent in during 
the past year : — 

January, 1905. 

1st. — Great Spotted Woodpecker seen at Salkeld (H. Britten). 
[Also on several other occasions during the month.] Great 
Northern Diver seen on Windermere (W. E. B. Dunlop). 

18th. — Vast assemblage of waterfowl, including Pochards 
(about two hundred), Tufted Ducks, Golden-eye, Mallard, Coot, 
Goosander (four), and Smews (two), seen on Talkin Tarn (D. L. 
Thorpe and L. E. Hope). 

21st. — A Bed-breasted Merganser and Smews seen at Talkin 
Tarn (T. L. Johnston). 

26th. — Iceland Gull in the dress of second or third year seen 
on the Willow Holme opposite Etterby Scaur (D. L. Thorpe). 

28th. — Six Bewick Swans seen to alight on Skinburness 
Marsh (W. Nichol). 

30th.— Mistle-Thrush in song at Great Salkeld (H. Britten). 

February. 

4th. — Iceland Gull again observed (D. L. Thorpe). 

6th. — Chaffinch in song at Great Salkeld (H. Britten). 
[7th. — Song-Thrush commenced to sing at Salkeld; also 
Wood-Pigeons and Stock-Doves heard cooing (H. Britten).] 

10th. — Green Sandpiper seen, which had frequented Skin- 
burness Marsh for two or three months (W. Nichol). 

[11th. — A Jack-Snipe seen at Salkeld. This is the only 
occasion on which this bird has been seen during the present 
winter. This bird used to visit the area around Salkeld in num- 
bers, arriving at the end of October or in early November, and 
leaving again in March ; but on referring to my notes I find that 
this species has been visiting this part of the Eden Valley in 
gradually decreasing numbers for several years past. In 1904 
its first appearance for the winter was Jan. 2nd, and a pair were 
seen on Feb. 26th near Lazonby Fell. These were the only 
occurrences during that year (H. Britten).] 



148 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

13th. — Peewits mating atNunwick, Great Salkeld (H. Britten). 

16th. — Rooks building nests at Horsegills, Kirklinton (T. W. 
Sharp). 

23rd. — A Black-headed Gull at Stanwix assuming nuptial 
dress ; head nearly all dark brown (L. E. Hope). 

26th. — Hawfinch seen at Rickerby (W. H. Little). 

[A large flock of Golden Plover have been seen on two different 
occasions during the present month near Great Salkeld. Flocks 
of these birds seldom visit this part of the county, and when 
they do never make a long stay, though usually plentiful nearer 
the Pennines. Macpherson says : — " Within the last days of 
February many parties of Golden Plover usually make their 
appearance in the fields in the neighbourhood of the English 
Solway. These immigrants, most of which are beginning to 
assume the black breast, only stay with us a few days, and then 
depart in an easterly direction." No doubt these are of the 
same flocks from the Solway, making their way gradually up to 
their moorland nesting haunts (H. Britten).] 

[The Blackbird began to sing during the last few days of the 
month at Great Salkeld (H. Britten).] 

March. 

13th. — Dipper's nest with four young hatched at Holme Head 
— a very early nest (R. Leighton). [Also cf. T. L. Johnston, 
Zool. 1905, p. 179.] 

19th. — Ravens nesting ; nest with eggs near Windermere 
(W. E. B. Dunlop). 

24th. — Wheatear seen at Whinfell, Penrith; an early arrival 
(Charles Britten). 

27th. — Sand-Martins seen at Langwathby (H. Britten). 

29th.— Single Swallow seen at Windermere ; an early arrival 
(A. E. Rawson). 

April. 

2nd. — Sand-Martins flying over Siddick Ponds, Workington 
(C. J. Phillips). [Swallow seen at Salkeld. This bird, like the 
Sand-Martins, would be seen one day and then disappear for 
several days, while it was the 14th before these two species rightly 
came to stay (H. Britten).] 



NOTES FRO LAKELAND. 149 

5th. — Ring-Ouzel arrived in Lake District, Windermere 
(W. E. B. Dunlop). 

6th. — Herons near Carlisle have young (J. B. Cairns). 

7th.— Swallows arrived at West Seaton, near Workington 
(C. J. Phillips). [An Oystercatcher in Salkeld district (H. 
Britten).] 

9th. — Willow-Wren seen at Monkhill (B. Johnston). 

11th. — Brood of young Woodcocks at Castletown (J. B. Cairns). 

[12th. — Common Sandpiper seen at Nunwick (H. Britten).] 

14th. — Cuckoo heard near Floriston (J. B. Cairns). 

15th. — Male and female Pied Flycatchers seen at Wetheral 
(T. L. Johnston). Large numbers of Ked-throated Divers on the 
Solway (W. Nichol). 

17th. — Blackcap seen at Wetheral (W. H. Little). Redstart 
seen at Nunwick (H. Britten). 

21st. — Hawfinch, Spotted Flycatcher, and Redstart seen at 
Newby Grange (E. Hodgson). Common Sandpiper at Linstock 
(W. H. Little). 

24th. — Grasshopper-Warbler heard at Todhill's Moss, and a 
Starling's nest amongst the branches in a Scotch fir-tree (J. B. 
Cairns). Whinchat seen at Salkeld (H. Britten). 

[25th. — Sedge-Warbler seen on banks of River Eden at Great 
Salkeld (H. Britten).] 

29th. — Sedge- Warbler and Pied Flycatcher arrived at Winder- 
mere (W. E. B. Dunlop). Three Swifts at Loshville, Etterby Scaur 
(D. L. Thorpe). Spotted Flycatcher at Rickerby (W. H. Little). 

[30th.— Cuckoo first heard near Salkeld (H. Britten).] 

May. 

1st.— Red Bank- Vole sent to Carlisle Museum from Nunwick 
(R. Hey wood Thompson). [House-Martins arrived at Salkeld; 
a number seen hawking for insects over the river (H. Britten).] 

3rd.— One or two Shoveler Ducks and Black-tailed Godwits 
seen on Salta Moss (R. Mann and R. Williamson). 

4th. — Cuckoo and Sedge-Warbler at Holme Eden (W. H. 
Little). Cuckoo heard at Windermere (W. E. B. Dunlop). 

5th. — Curlew's nest, one egg, found at Windermere (W. E. B. 
Dunlop). 

6th.-- Flock of fifty or sixty Bernacle Geese still on Rockliffe 



150 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Marsh (L. E. Hope). A Song-Thrush's nest, built in ivy, covered 
and protected by a leaf, which had been evidently intentionally 
introduced by the bird ; Windermere (W. E. B. Dunlop). 

7th. — Corn-Crake heard at Linstock (W.H. Little). Buzzard's 
nest with three eggs, Lake District (W. E. B. Dunlop). 

[9th.— Whitethroat seen at Salkeld (H. Britten).] 

[10th. — Swift and Spotted Flycatcher arrived at Nunwick 
(H. Britten).] 

13th. — Seven Whimbrel seen on Bockliffe Marsh (R. Graham). 
Four Bernacle Geese seen on Rockliffe Marsh (T. L. Johnston). 
Peregrine's nest, three eggs, Lake Listrict, Windermere (W. E. B. 
Dunlop). 

[14th. — A pair of Pied Flycatchers observed carrying materials 
for their nest at Edenhall (H. Britten).] 

[15th. — Corn-Crake first heard — very scarce so far — Great 
Salkeld (H. Britten).] 

20th. — An instance reported of a Waterhen hatching her eggs 
after her nest had been bodily removed from its original site on 
Tarn Lodge (G. B. Boutledge). [A pair of Blackcap Warblers 
on roadside near Edenhall. A bird rarely seen in this district 
(H. Britten).] 

26th — An instance of a Song-Thrush laying her eggs on the 
bare ground, under a bramble-bush, at Horsegills, Kirklinton 
(T. W. Sharp). 

(To be continued.) 



( 151 ) 



NEWFOUNDLAND SEALING, 1907. 
By Thomas Southwell, F.Z.S. 

Owing to the lamented death of my valued correspondent, 
the late Sir Eobert Thorburn, I had contemplated discontinuing 
these Newfoundland Notes, but such readers as have followed me 
hitherto may perhaps like to be furnished with the statistics for 
the season of 1907. I therefore send a summary of the results, 
for which I am mainly indebted to Mr. L. G. Chafe's Annual 
Circular. 

The fleet of twenty-four vessels sailed as usual on Monday, 
March 11th, encountering terrible weather from the commence- 
ment. The 'Leopard,' which left St. John's on March 6th for 
Channel, which was to have been her port of departure, during a 
desperate snowstorm next day ran on the rocks near Eenews, 
and became a total wreck ; happily her crew, after much suffer- 
ing, effected a landing in safety. Later on the ' Greenland ' with 
a broken shaft was driven seaward in a blizzard, leaking badly, 
and had to be abandoned one hundred and twenty-five miles 
E.S.E. of Bonavista, her crew being rescued by the other 
steamers. Thus the severity of the weather and the heaviness 
of the ice-pack combined to render the season, with the exception 
of 1905, the worst since 1898. 

Deducting the two wrecked steamers, the remaining twenty- 
two vessels secured 245,051 pelts, being 96,785 less than in the 
previous year, the money value of which showed a decrease of 
£30,467. The first vessel to return was the ' Grand Lake,' on 
March 27th, with 10,739 Seals. The « Neptune ' headed the list 
with 30,985 Seals, only five vessels having above 15,000 ; seven 
others had above 10,000, and ten others below that number ; the 
average of the twenty-two vessels was 11,139, ten vessels being 
above that number and twelve below it. Thus there were very 
few which made a paying voyage. Of the 245,051 Seals killed, 
222,713 were young and 4490 old Harps, 14,869 Bedlamers, 
2913 young and 66 old Hooded Seals. The market price for 
young pelts was 4'20 dols. and for old ones 3 dols. per cwt. 



152 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



ON ARMADILLIDIUM ALBUM, Dollfus, A BARE 
WOODLOUSE NEW TO THE FAUNA OP GREAT 
BRITAIN. 

By Richard S. Bagnall, F.E.S. 

In a recent issue of 'The Zoologist' (1907, pp. 465-470), 
Mr. Bruce F. Cummings contributed an interesting paper on 
some Woodlice recently taken by himself in the neighbourhood 
of Barnstaple, and mentioned a small white species of Arma- 
dillidium which he was unable to identify. At my request 
Mr. Cummings kindly submitted examples to me, and I at once 
recognized them as being referable to Armadillidium album, 
described by M. Dollfus in 1887 as follows : — 

Armadillidium album, n. sp.* 
Corpus valde convexum, crebre granulatum et minute hirsu- 
tum. Frons antice subrecta, medio nee depressa nee foveata. 
Oculi nigri, ocellis circiter 12. Epistoma scutello lineam fronta- 
lem vix superante eamque valde adpresso. Tubercula anten- 
naria parva, rotundate quadrangula. Antennae hirsutae ; flagelli 
articulus prior altero triplo vel quadruplo brevior. Segmentum 
caudale latius quam longius et fere semisirculum. Articulus 
basalis pedum caudalium magnus ; ramus exterior parvus, multo 
brevior quam latior, ramus interior parvus, truncatus. Album, 
uniforme. Long. 6 millim., lat. 2§-3 millim. Plage d'Arcachon. 

In the same publication M. Dollfus adds : — '•' 18. A, album, 
A. D. — Plages de sable du Sud-Ouest, sous les pierres et les pieces 
de bois. Arcachon (Gaillard, A. D.), in coll. A. D." 

In 1892 Dollfus published his " Tableaux Synoptiques de la 
Faune Francaise : Le Genre Armadillidium," t a paper which 
should be in the hands of all naturalists interested in the 

* " Diagnoses d'Especes Nouvelles de la Tribu des Avmadilliens " (' Bul- 
letin dela Societe d'Etudes Scientifiques de Paris,' 1887, p. 4) {separatum). 

\ " Catalogue des Especes Francaises de la Tribu des Armadilliens," 
loc. cit, p. 7 (separatum). 



ARMADILLIDIUM ALBUM: RARE WOODLOUSE. 153 

Terrestrial Isopod Crustacea. Figures are there given of the 
different species, and show at once how very distinct this 
creature is from all other European species of the genus. It 
will therefore be better to briefly mention a few of its chief 
characteristics rather than make difficult comparisons, as a 
comparison with another species always suggests — to me, at least 
— a closer affinity than is very often the case. The body is 
strongly convex, dull, and has the dorsal surface closely granular 
and sparsely set with minute hairs. The frontal cephalic lobe is 
low, narrowly extended and very broad, the side lobes being 
comparatively small. The antenna is short, covered with hairs, 
and has the last joint of the flagellum more than three times the 
length of the basal joint. The first segment of the mesosome 
does not extend laterally beyond the head. The last segment of 
the metasome is much broader than long, and has the extremity 
broadly rounded ; the outer ramus, too, is much broader than 
long, and is armed ivith a distinct tooth at the outer apical corner, 
whilst the inner ramus is very short, comparatively broad, and 
truncate. The colour, according to Dollfus, is of a uniform 
white,* but one or two of Mr. Cummings's specimens have the 
segments of the mesosome partially shaded with grey. 

I am told that a specimen of this species, taken by Mr. C. A. 
Briggs, of Tynmouth, was sent to Mr. A. M. Webb for identifica- 
tion, and returned as the common A. vulgare. If no mistake has 
been made in my information, I am compelled, with all due 
respect to Mr. Webb, to differ. In size, colour, character of 
dorsal surface, and structure the two species — album and vulgare 
— have absolutely no conceivable point in common which could 
lead to the one being mistaken for the other. 

In his paper last cited, Dollfus writes : — " Cette petite espece, 
si singuliere, m'a ete par M. Gaillard, qui l'avait regue d'Arca- 
chon, en Mars 1886, sans designation sp6ciale d'habitat. Au 
mois d'Octobre de la meme ann6e, j'en ai trouve" moi-meme 
trois exemplaires, sur la plage d'Arcachon, sous une planche 
echouee devant Saint-Ferdinand; depuis et malgre des recherches 
repetees il m'a ete impossible d'en retrouver un seul echan- 
tillon. Peut-etre s'agit-il d'une espece introduite et qui ne si 
sera pas acclimated. " 

* ' Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes,' ser. iii. 1892. 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., April, 1908. N 



154 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The English specimens, on the capture of which Mr. Cum- 
mings is to be congratulated, were taken on the sands under 
seaweed, &c, at the estuary of the Taw and Torridge, Devon- 
shire, and the fact that they occurred in Devonshire (in which 
county we find the South European forms — Philoscia couchii, 
Kin., Metoponorthus cingendus, Kin., and Armaditlidium nasatum, 
B.-L.), and in a precisely similar habitat as the French ex- 
amples, goes to prove, I think, that A. album is an indigenous 
form, and not, as Dollfus suggests, a species probably intro- 
duced. A systematic search in the south-western counties of 
England, after a study of the distribution of species such as 
those just mentioned, will almost certainly bring further inte- 
resting Woodlice to light, and add considerably to our knowledge 
of the British Terrestrial Isopoda, in which group a large amount 
of work has already been achieved since the publication of Messrs. 
Webb and Sillem's ' British Woodlice ' in 1906. So far as I am 
aware there are no further records of A. album to be noted. 



( 155 ) 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



AVES. 



Tits feeding on Maize. — On the 15th inst. I was watching three 
species of Tits — Blue, Great, and Cole— in Bingley Wood, all feeding 
greedily on maize, or at least the softer portions of the grain — perhaps 
the germs only. Their usual method was to take each grain into the 
nearest tree, and peck away until they secured the desired morsel, 
which process occupied but a few moments, after which they allowed 
the residue to fall to the ground, the rejected matter beneath the 
trees forming quite a litter for a considerable area. Formerly the 
Cole-Tit did not take to Indian corn so freely as the Blue Tit, the 
latter having been fond of this food ever since it was first largely used 
in feeding poultry and Pheasants ; but at present, even in mild winter 
when other and more natural food is readily procurable, maize must 
constitute a by no means unimportant part in the bill of fare of three 
species of Titmice which frequent our woods in winter. Whilst 
watching the Titmice a Redbreast came within a few feet from where 
a gamekeeper's son and I were standing, and bolted several pieces of 
Indian corn. I thought I had seen it previously doing so when it was 
about fifteen yards distant, but was hardly prepared to believe this to 
be possible until it came close to us. — E. P. Butterfield (Bank 
House, Wilsden). 

Rough-legged Buzzard in Hants. — A female of this grand winter 
visitor was killed a few miles from Ringwood on Feb. 8th, and I saw 
it soon after it was shot. It measured just over twenty-three inches 
in length, was forty-eight inches across its expanded wings, and 
weighed exactly three pounds. Though of course destitute of the 
Owl-like disk of feathers about the face, the softness of its plumage, 
reminded one very forcibly of the Strigidce (even more than the 
plumage of the closer allied Harriers), and the form of the eyes, so 
enlarged in the socket behind the eyelid, increases the similarity, 
indicating, I suppose, that Buteo lagopus often seeks its prey far into 
the dusk. In the stomach I found what I think were the remains of 
a Rabbit, from the length and quantity of fur mixed therewith, but if 



156 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

this supposition be correct, another rodent must have been its last 
meal anticipated, as in its throat the hind leg of a Eat was unmis- 
takable. The toes and claws of the bird were very dirty, as if it had 
been " scratching," of which their robust form seemed quite capable, 
but the feathers of the legs were both long and graceful, of a buff 
colour streaked with dusky arrow-headed markings. The head was 
hoary, with small dark streaks, from each feather having a dark 
central area ; the rest of the body was of various shades of dark 
brown, mottled here and there with whitish, the most conspicuous 
being a light patch in the middle of the breast. The eyes were 
brown. I heard of two other specimens in distant parts of the 
county, but let us hope their lives are still intact. I have but three 
previous records of the species in this immediate neighbourhood, so 
its occurrence is interesting to me. — G. B. Coebin (Ring wood). 

Honey-Buzzard in North Wales. — I have in my possession a fine 
male Honey-Buzzard (Pernis apivorus), which was shot at Abergele, 
North Wales, Oct. 15th, 1907.— Charles D. Head (2, Mount Vernon, 
Dollymount, Dublin). 

Variety of Wigeon (Mareca penelope?). — On March 20th, whilst 
in Brighton, I saw exposed for sale in a fishmonger's shop a number 
of Wigeon. One bird in particular attracted my attention, as it had 
a broad band of metallic green running from the eye on each side of 
the head such as one sees in the Common Teal. Would this be the 
American Wigeon (M. americana) ? I was in a great hurry at the 
time to catch a train, so could not stop to make inquiries as from 
whence the bird came. It was, however, in very poor condition, and 
had apparently been dead several days. — Gordon Dalgliesh (Brook, 
Witley, Surrey). 

Notes from South-western Hants. — The past winter, although so 
keen for a time, was rather unproductive of rarities. A vast quantity 
of wildfowl frequented the river from time to time, but mostly of the 
ordinary kinds, the Wild Duck (Anas boscas), as usual, predomi- 
nating, and on account of the changing weather most of the birds 
were very unsettled, shifting from place to place in a most remarkable 
and somewhat unusual manner. Wigeon and Teal were in consider- 
able numbers, over one hundred of the latter having been killed at 
one " shoot," but generally they were not so abundant as they are 
some winters. Pochard and Tufted Duck appear to be increasing, 
the latter especially ; as to the former, it was a comparatively common 
winter visitor many years ago, and well known to the sporting 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 157 

community by the name of Eed-headed Ker, or "Polka Duck," but 
for a considerable time it almost failed to visit this neighbourhood, 
some winters not one occurring, so I am glad to record its reappear- 
ance in some numbers. I cannot, however, do the same with regard 
to the Goosander or Bed-breasted Merganser, which seem to have left 
us entirely — the latter was always the rarest — but last season there 
were at least two male Smews in fully adult plumage seen upon the 
water, one of which was shot, and no doubt they were accompanied 
by females and immature specimens. I also knew of three or four 
Gadwall, all immature except one — an old male in fine feather, but so 
badly mutilated as to be unfit for preservation. A few Shovelers and 
one or two Golden-eyes, all young birds, were also met with, and I 
heard of one Pintail, but did not see it. Several " skeins " of Wild 
Geese were seen, numbering from five to fifteen, but they were very 
wary, and did not frequent the vicinity of the river where most of the 
shooting took place, and I knew of only two being killed, although 
they were about the neighbourhood for several weeks. I saw the 
head and feet of one of the slaughtered, and it was of the Pink- 
footed species ; whether all were of the same kind I know not. On 
previous occasions when any of the Anseres visited us it was gener- 
ally the White-fronted (A. albifrons), although A. brachyrhynchus has 
been met with previously more than once. Two or three Bitterns 
frequented the reed-beds near the river, and one was killed at the end 
of February, but I am glad to say a more humane feeling seems to 
have sprung up towards this handsome bird, and if seen during a 
fusillade it is allowed to wing its lazy flight to some place of safety. 
Some time after the shooting had ceased (on March 1st) a man who 
often attends the Salmon fishers, and to whom a Bittern is not a 
stranger, brought me word that he had seen a bird or two on three 
occasions in the reed-beds, appearing " very tame," standing quietly 
amongst the "dead spear," with its neck straight and beak pointing 
upwards ; and, he added, " I should have thought it was a Bittern, 
but it was not half the size of one — in fact, no larger, if as large, as a 
Peewit." Could this have been Ardetta minuta ? The man's descrip- 
tion was given in good faith ; he had nothing to gain by it, and I 
think he was ignorant of such a bird as the Little Bittern, but the 
time of year seems a little out of place, as the few recorded specimens 
of this species in Hampshire were, I believe, in the summer or 
autumn months. Still, I could believe in its occurrence here in the 
second or third week of March much better than the reported notes 
of the Cuckoo in February, or even earlier in the year. 



158 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

In connection with the notes (ante, pp. 33 and 73) respecting the 
occurrence of the American Wood Duck (Mx sponsa) in this country, 
I may mention that in November last I knew of a male of this very 
beautiful species having been killed not far from here, and on 
Feb. 13th a most superb specimen (male) of what I suppose is the 
Asiatic representative of this lovely group, viz. the Mandarin Duck 
(JEx galerita), with its bantam-like neck, blue and white crested head, 
beautifully barred and variegated body, feathers, and the large fan- 
like scapulars standing over its back, was killed a few miles away, 
and although I am not aware that either species is semi-domesticated 
upon any private water near here, I do not suppose they were 
"British" in the general acceptation of the term, and I should not 
have recorded their occurrence except in connection with the above- 
mentioned notes ; and I suppose in such a catalogue of " escapes " 
should be chronicled a fine Canada Goose, shot during the winter or 
early spring. Of the smaller birds, Eedwings and Bramblings were 
at times abundant, but Fieldfares, Siskins, and Lesser Bedpolls do 
not visit this part of the county— the forest especially — in anything 
like the numbers they formerly did. Last autumn an unusual number 
of Kestrels were observed, and during the whole winter several Pere- 
grine Falcons frequented the valley of the Avon, and, strange to say, 
I did not hear of a single specimen of this noble bird being shot, 
although on several occasions information was brought to me of a 
"swoop " amongst a flock of Teal, or, singling out a Peewit from its 
companions, the Falcon made short work of the screaming Plover. 
One or more of the H en-Harriers were seen from time to time, both 
in meadow and field, and, if taking toll of a crippled bird, kept well 
out of shot itself, and so, let us hope, escaped. The Merlin, as usual, 
appeared in limited numbers, but I did not hear of one being killed. 

At the end of January a fine female Badger weighing twenty-five 
pounds was trapped on an estate on the western side of the river 
where the existence of such an animal was entirely repudiated by the 
gamekeepers, whose experience and knowledge of all wild creatures — 
according to their own estimation — -were beyond dispute; but from 
the appearance I should say she was not a solitary representative of 
her kind in the locality where she was found. I knew of four Otters, 
weighing respectively sixteen, eighteen, twenty-two, and twenty-four 
pounds, which were either trapped or shot, and several seen within a 
radius of a few miles, during the first three months of the year, and 
most probably there were others of which I have no record ; but their 
destruction needs little comment when one sees advertisements for 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 159 

the skins, offering good prices, in almost every local newspaper, and 
thus the poor Otter has to die because it wears a fur undercoat, and 
this same is considered an important and aristocratic decoration for 
the neck and wrists of his arch-enemy, man ! 

I understand an unusual number of Salmon have been netted in 
"the run" at the outflow of the river, and on account of the flooded 
condition of the stream during the winter a considerable quantity of 
fish were able to ascend for spawning purposes, as testified by the 
number of "kelts" that take the fly, but of course are returned to the 
water ; yet a good number of "clean-run" fish — nearly thirty I have 
heard — have been taken within a few miles with rod and line, several 
of them scaling over thirty pounds each — one of thirty-nine pounds 
— and if the river was as clean and suitable as formerly a good hatch- 
ing should be the result ; but I hear that desirable condition is not 
attainable, and I suppose the natural enemies of the young fry are 
rather increased than otherwise in the increasing numbers of the 
Chub, which is not spoken of very favourably in some quarters. — 
G. B. Corbin (Kingwood). 

AMPHIBIA. 

Common Newt (Molge vulgaris) in Carnarvonshire. — Up to the 
time when my ' Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales ' went to press I 
had no actual evidence of the occurrence of the Common Newt in 
Carnarvonshire or Anglesey, although both the other species are 
common there. Last summer, however, Mr. D. Witty, of Colwyn 
Bay, sent me an adult male Molge vulgaris which he had taken along 
with others from a small pond on the Little Orme's Head. The 
neighbouring ponds contained none of this species, but numbers of 
Palmated and Great Warty Newts. — H. E. Forrest (Hillside, Bayston 
Hill, Shrewsbury). 

ARACHNIDA. 

Curious Habits of Chelifers. — With regard to the Editor's note in 
' The Zoologist ' (ante, p. 77) on the occurrence of a species of 
Chelifer on the wings of a Longicorn beetle in Natal, and his 
further reference to a similar record from Kilimanjaro, it may be of 
interest to add an instance from Ceylon. I have on more than one 
occasion taken Chelifers (in one instance as many as seven) from 
beneath the elytra of one of our largest Longicorn beetles. Chelifers 
— probably of several species — are quite common under the loose 
bark of various trees in the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. 
They construct small circular retreats of fine silky web. On prizing 



160 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

off a large piece of loose bark groups of twenty or more of these 
small nests may be revealed, each containing a single occupant. 
The eggs of the Ghelifer are carried at the base of the abdomen, on 
the under surface, and are arranged in a regular rosette-shaped mass 
(see fig.). The stems of our trees are frequented by gangs of the 
large and ferocious ant (CEcophylla smaragdina). Occasionally one 
of these ants may be found struggling vainly to extricate its foot 

from some crevice in the bark. Investiga- 
tion will show that the foot is firmly held 
in the chela of a small Chelifer safely 
ensconced beneath the bark. And there 
it may be held day after day until it dies 
of starvation. I have found the ants 
hanging dead still in the grasp of their 
captor. I do not think that the Chelifer 
has any special purpose in the capture. 
I have never seen one feeding upon the 
ant. The probability is that the little animal instinctively grasps 
the intruding foot, and holds on pertinaciously as long as it feels any 
resistance. — E. Eenbst Green (Peradeniya, Ceylon). 




OBITUARY. 
John Thomas Carrington. 



Many will regret to learn that this naturalist — for he was more 
than an entomologist — passed away on March 5th last at the age of 
sixty-two. Mr. Carrington was born on March 21st, 1846, and 
originally studied for the medical profession, but after travelling in 
America and Africa he may be said to have almost settled down to 
journalism as a profession. He edited the ' Entomologist ' for some 
years after the death of Edward Newman, and until a change took 
place in the proprietorship of that magazine. His editorship was 
marked by tact and discretion, for apart from the knowledge of his 
subject he possessed broad views, and was actuated by a genial dis- 
position. Eor many years he was on the editorial staff of the 'Eield,' 
and also, in 1893, became proprietor of 'Science Gossip,' which he 
edited until that journal predeceased him in 1902. He was of a 
kindly and pleasant nature, and did much good work in his own way 
for the cause he had at heart. 



urth Series. 
I. XII., No. 137. 



May 15th, 1908. 



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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 803.— May, 1908. 



FIELD-NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF THE RAVEN- 
GLASS GULLERY. 

By Charles Oldham, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

The little village of Ravenglass on the Cumberland coast was 
in Roman and mediaeval times a port of considerable importance, 
but the silting up of the bar long ago made it impracticable for 
shipping, and its traffic is now limited to a single fishing-boat. 
Its great, shallow, land-locked harbour, formed by the con- 
junction of the estuaries of three rivers, the Esk, Mite, and Irt, 
is to-day at low tide a waste of sand and mud, the haunt during 
the winter months of innumerable wildfowl, and in spring and 
summer a favourite spot for studying the habits of the birds 
which breed on the extensive stretch of sand-dunes that shelters 
the harbour on its seaward side. To most people Ravenglass is 
known merely as the junction on the Furness Railway for the 
primitive toy line which affords access to the beauties of Eskdale 
and some of the most romantic scenery of the western fells of 
the Lake District ; but the village is the Mecca of many an 
ornithological pilgrimage, for the sandhills are the breeding-place 
of, among other species, the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridi- 
bundus), the Common Tern (Sterna fluviatilis) , and, more especi- 
ally, of the Sandwich Tern (Sterna cantiaca), which nests there 
in greater numbers than in any other of its very few English 
stations. During the summer of 1906 I was at Ravenglass from 
June 21st to July 13th, and, as I was on the sandhills nearly 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., May, 1908. o 



162 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

every day, was able to make consecutive observations on the 
nesting habits of the birds. This advantage over anyone paying 
but a brief visit to the place may make my notes of some interest, 
and justify this paper. 

The great nursery of the Terns and Black-headed Gulls, 
which it is convenient to refer to by the comprehensive term 
" gullery," is situate at the southern end of the sandhills which 
extend from Seascale south-eastward to the Eavenglass Estuary, 
where they terminate at Drigg Point. The belt of dunes is at 
that place about half a mile wide, and is bounded by the sea on 
the west, the estuary of the Irt on the east, and on the south by 
the channel which carries the combined waters of the three 
rivers to the sea. The nesting area extends for about a mile 
from Drigg Point in the direction of Seascale. The Black- 
headed Gulls nest over the whole area, but are congregated 
most thickly on the dunes near Drigg Point. The Terns breed 
as a rule in colonies, but nests of the Common Tern may be 
found all over the gullery, sometimes far from the chief colonies 
of the species. The dunes reach in places a height of from fifty 
to sixty, and, at one spot, of seventy feet. They are clothed 
with marram-grass, but between the hills are many bare, wind- 
swept stretches of sand, sometimes of an acre or more in extent. 
In places, particularly where the Gulls congregate most thickly, 
there are dense, rank growths of thistles and nettles, whose 
luxuriance in what is naturally so poor a soil is probably due to 
the droppings of the vast hordes of birds."* Here and there are 

* A radical change in the flora of other gulleries has been commented 
on. Of Pilling Moss, near Fleetwood, J. D. Banister wrote (Zool. vol. hi. 
1845, pp. 881-882) : — " For several years past it has been remarked by per- 
sons visiting and working on Pilling Moss that the herbage of a certain por- 
tion of it, much frequented by Sea-gulls in the breeding season, had recently 
undergone, and more of it was yearly undergoing, a great and wonderful 

change The place chosen by these birds for their nidification is the 

most swampy that could be selected, and in its undrained state produces the 
least and poorest vegetation. Previous to its being selected by these birds 
for their breeding-ground it produced scarcely anything but a miserably 
stunted, unhealthy heath. This poor heath in the immediate vicinity of 
these birds has been almost entirely annihilated by their excrement, and in 
its place has sprung up a rich and varied vegetation, surpassing in verdure 
and luxuriance much of the cultivated land around and adjoining the Moss. 
The following are a few of the plants which have been introduced on this 



BIRDS OF THE BAVENGLASS GULLEBY. 163 

flat grassy spaces among the dunes, where the turf is gay with 
patches of flowers of the common storksbill, a blue heartsease, 
restharrow, yellow sedum, centaury, and other plants. The 
Gulls, old and young, affect these open flats, where they collect 
in parties to rest or preen their feathers, and the Common Tern 
nests on them in some numbers. The birds are strictly pro- 
tected, but the gullery may, by the courtesy of the owner, Lord 
Muncaster, be visited under certain conditions. It may be 
approached by a rather toilsome walk over the sandhills from 
Seascale or Drigg, or more conveniently from Eavenglass, 
whence, on production of the necessary permit, one can be ferried 
across the harbour. 

The Black-headed Gull, the Sandwich and the Common Terns, 
are the dominant birds of the gullery, but many pairs of Sheld- 
Duck (Tadorna cornuta) nest in rabbit-burrows on the dunes. 
These Ducks, less shy than in places where they are persecuted, 
are often to be seen feeding in the harbour within a few yards of 
the village. On June 23rd some tell-tale down at the mouth of 
a rabbit-burrow in one of the colonies of Common Terns guided 
me to a clutch of eggs, but by that date the majority of the young 
birds had been hatched. Many broods were feeding on the mud- 
flats at low water, and when the tide was in followed the old 
birds in a straggling line as they swam from place to place. On 
one occasion I saw two old birds in attendance on seventeen 
ducklings ; these belonged to two broods at least, for they were 

Moss by this novel system of husbandry, and which I collected when visiting 
the place during the summer of 1843 : — 1. The meadow soft grass (Holcus 
lanatus). 2. The smooth-stalked meadow-grass (Poa pratensis). 3. The 
sweet-scented vernal grass (Anthocanthum odoratum). 4. The broad 
smooth-leaved willow-herb (Epilobium montanum). 5. The buttercup 

(Banunculus ?). 6. The sorrel-dock (Bumex acetosa). 7. The ragged 

robin (Lychnis Flos-cuculi). Besides these I may also particularize the 
common rush, which now prevails so extensively on the breeding-ground as 
to assume the appearance of a young plantation. ... To these I may add 
that nettles extensively abound, and also that the common fern is to be met 
with here, which latter plant is almost peculiar to a dry soil. . . . No one 
who formerly knew this Moss, and has witnessed the recent remarkable 
change, doubts for a moment that it has all been entirely effected by the 
dung of these birds deposited on the Moss during the breeding season ; for 
as far as the nests of these birds have extended, and even somewhat further, 
the change in the herbage may be distinctly traced." . . . 

02 



164 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

not all of the same size. A few pairs of Stock-Doves (Columba 
cenas) and Wheatears (Saxicola oenanthe) nest in the Babbit- 
burrows, and the Sky-Lark (Alauda arvensis) and Meadow-Pipit 
(Anthus pratensis) are moderately common. Here and there a 
pair of Oystercatchers (Hcematopus ostralegus) nest in the gullery, 
and this bird is extremely plentiful on the sandhills from the 
confines of the gullery to Drigg. A few pairs nest on the 
shingle fringing the dunes, but the majority are on the dunes 
themselves. When walking across the warren I always had 
from six to a dozen Oystercatchers in clamorous attendance on 
me as I invaded their particular nesting-grounds, and at low 
tide the red-billed black and white birds were dotted conspicuously 
all over the mud-banks in the harbour. A few pairs of Lesser 
Terns (Sterna minuta) nest in company with Einged Plovers 
(jEgialitis hiaticola) on the shingle near Drigg Point, but neither 
species intrudes upon the gullery : and, indeed, with the excep- 
tion of foraging parties of Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Eooks 
(Corvus frugilegus) , and Jackdaws (C. monedula), I have already 
enumerated all the birds that I saw there. On some marshy 
ground between the sandhills and the Irt several pairs of Lap- 
wings (Vanellus vulgaris) and Eedshanks (Totanus calidris) had 
their quarters. On July 8th I saw young Eedshanks which were 
just able to fly. For some days a pair of Lapwings with a brood 
of downy chicks resorted to a patch of bladder-wrack many 
yards below high-water mark at the mouth of the Esk, whither 
it was obvious that the old birds must have led the young ones 
across the sand each day when the tide fell. 

In the latter part of June, Eavenglass is dominated by the 
Black-headed Gull. From the village one hears the day-long 
clamour of the birds on the sandhills, which, indeed, never ceases 
during the short midsummer nights. Old and young birds are 
spread all over the harbour at low water, and adults are con- 
stantly passing to and from the gullery on their expeditions 
inland for food. They are very tame, feeding at the cottage- 
doors and standing in rows on the ridge-tiles of the houses in the 
village.* The numbers decreased daily during my stay, and at 

* The familiarity of the Black-headed Gull when not molested is remark- 
able. During the past winter, on London Bridge, the Thames Embankment, 
and in St. James's Park, I have had no difficulty in inducing the birds to 



BIRDS OF THE BAVENGLASS GULLEBY. 165 

the end of the first week of July there was not a tithe of the 
Grulls that had been on the sandhills a fortnight before. The 
young were then scattered over the fields in all directions, and 
many, both old and young, had no doubt left the neighbourhood 
altogether.* 

My first visit to the gullery was on June 21st. Wherever I 
went there was a cloud of shrieking Gulls above me, and in 
whichever direction I looked the sandhills and shore were thickly 
dotted over with standing or brooding birds. The young ones — 
many thousands of them — were in all stages of growth, from 
those struggling to free themselves from the egg-shell to those 
which could fly well. In every bare sandy hollow there were 
scores of young in down, and the broad stretches of the beach 
were covered by them. As soon as they saw me, such as were 
unable to fly would scuttle away for shelter into the marram- 
grass and nettles, and crouch there. Nests still containing eggs 
— one, two, or three, principally three — were to be counted by 
the thousand. They were built in a variety of situations ; some 
among the nettles and coarser herbage, but most among the 
marram-grass, some on the flats between the dunes, and others 
on their crests. In favoured sites the nests were crowded so 
thickly as to overlap. Marram-grass was the chief nesting 
material, but straw, seaweed, sticks, and other jetsam from the 
beach had been used in some nests, especially those on the 
dunes fringing the shore. The mortality in gulleries is always 
great, and many dead adults and more young were scattered over 
the whole of the nesting area. 

The Sandwich Tern breeds at Eavenglass in steadily increasing 
numbers.! The keeper, who is constantly on the ground during 

take Sprats from my fingers or head, and this in mild open weather when 
they would not be feeling the pinch of hunger. 

" ;: The Black-headed Gull does not nest in the Isle of Man, and is practi- 
cally absent from the coast during the breeding season. By the end of June 
old birds— hailing perhaps from Eavenglass — had arrived in some numbers, 
and on the 30th I saw two birds of the year in Castletown Harbour. 

f The date of the founding of the Eavenglass colony is uncertain. The 
pioneers probably came from Walney Island, where there was at one time a 
flourishing colony. In 1885 there were about seventeen pairs at Eavenglass 
(Macpherson and Duckworth, ' Birds of Cumberland,' p. 166). 



166 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the breeding season, stated that at least two hundred pairs nested 
in 1906, and his estimate was probably well within the mark, 
for, although by the 21st of June many of the young birds were 
able to fly and had left the sandhills for the shore, I counted 
during my stay one hundred and nine nests with eggs or newly- 
hatched young. The fact that there were any eggs at all at the 
end of the month is probably due to many of the earlier layings 
having been destroyed, for, in spite of efforts to protect the 
birds, numbers of eggs are undoubtedly taken by collectors, 
whose cupidity constitutes at once a breach of the law and an 
ill return for Lord Muncaster's confidence in allowing access to 
the gullery. My friend Mr. J. J. Cash, who was at Eavenglass 
in May, tells me that the first eggs were seen on the 4th of that 
month, and that on the 9th he counted fifty from one spot. On 
June 21st and the two following days I saw a few young birds on 
the sandhills which were just able to fly, but I sought in vain for 
birds at this stage of growth on subsequent visits. These I took 
to be the latest hatched of the normal May layings ; they left 
the dunes as soon as they could fly and frequented the beach, 
where other young ones a few days older than they were being 
tended by the old birds. On July 11th I went over the whole 
gullery with Mr. T. A. Coward ; on that date most of the belated 
eggs which I had seen in the fourth week of June were either 
hatched or chipped for hatching. There were two eggs in the 
majority of the nests that I examined, but a large minority had 
only one. On June 21st I saw two eggs and a newly-hatched 
bird in a nest, the only clutch of three that I came across, but 
this number is probably more common in the earlier layings. 

The Sandwich Terns breed in colonies of from five or six to 
fifty pairs or more. These colonies, often at some distance from 
one another, are chiefly in the southern part of the gullery, and 
most frequently on the dunes nearest to the sea or the Irt 
Estuary. The nests are never on the flat areas affected by the 
Common Terns, but on the slopes and more often on the very 
summits of the dunes. In such situations they are grouped 
within a few inches of one another, and are sometimes in close 
proximity to nests of the Black-headed Gull and Common Tern. 
The nests are never in thick herbage, as the Gulls' nests often 
are, but are slight hollows in the sand among the sparse 



BIRDS OF THE BAVENGLASS GULLEBY. 167 

marram-grass. Often there is no nest at all apart from the 
shallow depression in the sand ; at times a slight nest has been 
sketched, so to speak, with dead bents of marram, and inter- 
mediate stages may be seen when perhaps half a dozen bents 
have been used. Where there are two eggs they point some- 
times in the same, sometimes in opposite, directions. The eggs 
may be a well-matched pair or widely different in colour. Their 
colour range altogether is very great. The majority have a 
white or cream ground-colour marked with large black and brown 
spots and blotches. One egg had a dark brown ground heavily 
marked with darker brown and black ; another had a pure white 
ground marked with fine black spots no larger than those on a 
Coot's egg. All the nests had excrement in their immediate 
vicinity ; the splashy liquid faeces were almost invariably at one 
side, and at a distance of a few inches from the nest, and 
suggested that the birds when brooding always face in one 
direction, and that they void their faeces whilst standing in the 
nest. An interval, apparently of three or four days, takes place 
between the deposition of the eggs, for whenever I found two 
young birds they exhibited a marked difference in size, and I 
often saw an egg in a nest, and at a distance of a few inches from 
it a young bird a day or two old at least. 

The young, as is the case with many species of Gulls and 
Terns, leave the nest soon after they are hatched and crouch 
near it. Even when very young — before the companion egg is 
hatched — a young bird is sometimes lying a couple of feet from 
the nest. At this tender age the bird makes a slight and barely 
noticeable depression in the sand, in which it crouches. At a 
latter stage of growth a narrow bed is excavated, wherein the 
young bird crouches with its back below the level of the sand. 
On June 21st I found two young birds not quite able to fly, but 
with the frosty grey primaries well developed. They were 
crouching some five or six yards apart, each in a little bed like 
a Babbit-scratching, into which its body exactly fitted, its back 
being below the level of the surrounding sand. At a distance of 
a few yards it was almost impossible to distinguish them from 
their surroundings. I subsequently found other young ones of 
this age similarly crouched. Young Black-headed Gulls which I 
used to surprise as they were walking about sedately in the 



168 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

sandy hollows always scuttled into cover, where they would 
crouch down, but I never saw one attempt to excavate a bed 
such as the young Sandwich Tern uses for concealment. 

A nestling Sandwich Tern, a day old — or two at the most — 
which was crouching just outside a nest on June 21st, had legs 
and feet liver-coloured, the down of the upper parts from bill to 
tail greyish buff, each plumule being tipped with black ; down on 
chin the same colour ; the rest of the under parts white. Nest- 
lings three or four days older than this had legs and toes 
greenish black, with dull vermilion webs ; bill dull vermilion, 
with blackish tip. A young bird which had acquired its first 
plumage, but was still unable to fly, had the feathers of the head 
from bill to nape greyish buff, finely barred with black, those 
of the mantle broadly barred with pale buff and black, a broad 
white collar on the neck ; the white breast and belly were 
suffused with a pale pink tinge ; the chin was white, but a trace 
of the greyish-buff colour of that region in the nestling persisted 
in the form of an ill-defined torque of grey down on the fore 
neck ; the primaries and wing-coverts were frosty grey, each 
primary being tipped and margined on the inner web with a 
narrow band of white ; the rump was white, a few of the feathers 
being barred with pale buff and black ; legs and feet dark lead- 
colour ; bill yellowish horn ; tongue and inside of mouth lemon- 
yellow. Two others, a little older than the one from which this 
description was taken, had lost all trace of the ill-defined torque 
on the fore neck, and had black bills which already showed signs 
of the yellow tip that characterises mature birds. 

When ejected from the little beds which they hollow in the 
sand young birds not quite able to fly ran along the ground with 
wings outstretched. Their wings, however, sooner or later 
caused them to get entangled in the marram-grass, where they 
were readily recaptured. The young Black-headed Gulls, though 
they sometimes raised their wings, never ran with them widely 
spread, and consequently got through the marram-grass and 
into cover much more quickly than the Terns. 

On the nesting-ground one has good opportunities of com- 
paring the appearance of the Common and Sandwich Terns as 
they fly overhead in a clamouring cloud with the Black-headed 
Gulls. The tail of the Sandwich is, compared with that of the 



BIBDS OF THE RAVENGLASS GULLEBY. 169 

Common Tern, very short, the wings are longer and narrower, 
and the bird of course appears much larger altogether. The 
rosy tinge on the under parts is only noticeable at all in a 
favourable light. By June 21st many of the birds were already 
losing their full nuptial plumage, and showed white feathers on 
the forehead, but the extent of the white differed with the in- 
dividual. The birds, calling excitedly, often dashed down to 
within a few inches of my head. The Common Terns never 
showed the same temerity, even when I was handling their 
young ones. 

At high water the Sandwich Terns were often to be seen 
fishing in the harbour, not in parties as the Common Terns 
frequently were, but singly or in twos and threes. They flew to 
and fro above the feeding-place at a height of from twenty to 
forty feet, but I never saw one hover as the Common Tern does. 
The tail is fanned out but not depressed. The wings are half- 
closed, and the body makes a half-turn during the oblique 
forward plunge to the water. Total submergence seems nearly 
always to take place, and the period of submergence is markedly 
longer than with the Common Tern ; occasionally, however, 
the wings show above the surface, and the body only is sub- 
merged. 

The call-note, audible at a considerable distance, is a loud, 
grating " kirr-whit." I often heard this note when the birds were 
fishing in the harbour, but never on the nesting-grounds. There 
I only heard the alarm-note, which was plainly distinguishable 
in the babel of the Black-headed Gulls' and Common Terns' 
voices. It varies from "gwit" to "gwut," a sharp note re- 
peated several times. The young in eggs which were chipping 
uttered a feeble " gwit," a mere whisper of the loud cry of the 
adults. 

The Sandwich Terns flying overhead at the nesting-ground 
often had a Sand-eel (Ammodytes) dangling from their bills. A 
young bird which I captured disgorged about three inches of the 
tail-end of one of these fishes, partly digested. On July 11th, at 
the side of a nest, I saw a Sand-eel, a Sprat (Clupea sprattus), 
and a small Weever (Trachinus). 

The Common Tern nests sporadically in all parts of the 
gullery, but congregates in large colonies on three flat areas 



170 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

among the sandhills, one of about fifteen, the other two of per- 
haps ten acres each. Here there were hundreds of nests on the 
short turf, often in close proximity to one another. On June 
22nd, the date of my first visit to these open plains, I found 
nests with one, two, or three eggs, the last number being the 
most usual. The eggs in the same nest generally, though not 
invariably, approximate in colour. The nests on the turf were 
fairly substantial structures of bents,* but on the tops of the 
dunes they were usually mere shallow depressions in the sand 
with a few bents laid across them, the eggs not necessarily being 
on these bents at all. When one invades their nesting-ground 
the birds fly overhead, calling plaintively "pierre" and " pee- 
rah," but they never dash down at the intruder's head as the 
Sandwich Terns do. The brooding birds rise from their nests 
and join their clamorous fellows ; they do not fly in an ordered 
flock, but drift to and fro at varying heights, each on its 
own course, the crowd being always densest just over the in- 
truder, and they settle down again on the nests as soon as he 
passes on. 

On June 28th I saw the first young one, in a nest with two 
unhatched eggs. By July 5th most of the eggs were hatched. 
They are hatched, apparently, at intervals, for in many instances 
I noticed a discrepancy in the size of the young, and in others 
that one young bird had been hatched whilst one or two eggs 
still remained in the nest unchipped. The young leave the nest 
soon after they are hatched, and squat on the turf or in the 
grass close by, but even when the nests were on the bare sand- 
hills I never saw any attempt on their part to hollow out a little 
bed such as the young Sandwich makes, though, it is true, I did 
not see any Common Terns of the same age as the Sandwich 
Terns which made the deepest excavations. 

The nestling Common Tern is clothed in soft down, golden- 
brown, spotted and streaked with black on the dorsal surface, 
pure white beneath ; the chin and sides of face below the bill 
are sooty-black ; legs and feet pink ; bill pink, with a brownish- 
black tip, at the extremity of which, in all the birds I saw, a 
white egg-tooth still persisted. 

■■'• The nesting material is, of course, to some extent dependent on local 
circumstance. In Anglesea I have seen nests made exclusively of rabbit- 
bones or crab-shells. 



BIRDS OF THE RAVENOLASS GULLERY. 171 

A high death-rate always obtains among young birds, but the 
Common Terns were subject to an extraordinary mortality. I 
saw many dead nestlings on the breeding-grounds prior to July 
11th, but on that date their bodies might have been counted by 
hundreds. I cannot account for this exceptional death-roll, but 
if it was caused by an epidemic the nestlings alone were affected, 
for no dead adults were to be seen. 

When visiting the chief breeding-grounds of the Common 
Tern a curious habit, which is common to other Terns, was 
frequently forced upon my notice. Suddenly, without apparent 
reason, the clamour of all the birds over a wide area would 
cease ; the babel of many voices was succeeded by an uncanny 
hush as those birds which were sitting or standing beside their 
brooding mates, actuated by a common impulse, rose, and, join- 
ing those which were hovering in the air above them, swept in a 
close grey mob low over the ground to the verge of the dunes. 
In a few seconds the birds returned and distributed themselves 
over the nesting-ground again, and the weird silence gave place 
once more to the customary hubbub.* 

Single birds often fished in the harbour, and as the tide was 
falling one or two were generally to be seen capturing Sprats in 
the pool of a fish-garth near the mouth of the Esk. At times 
the birds would pack in a close flock above a shoal of fish at the 
river mouth. Whenever a bird made a successful plunge and 
rose with what looked like a small Sprat m its bill, it would make 
off towards the sandhills, whence others were coming to join in 
the hunt. When fishing this bird often utters a sharp " kitt, 
kitt," and sometimes "kierie," notes very different from the 
"pierre" and "pee-rah" of alarm. In feeding the young bird 
the parent sometimes alights on the ground beside it, and at 
others hovers immediately above it, and puts the fish into its 
gaping mouth. 

When fishing the Common Tern hovers at a height of from 
ten to fifteen feet above the water, with rapidly vibrating wings, 
tail depressed and fanned out, and bill pointing downwards. 
Then it plunges obliquely forward, headlong to the water, some- 
times submerging itself entirely, sometimes all but the wings, 

:;: For an account of a similar habit in the Arctic Tern, see Zool. 1906, 
p. 96. 



172 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

and sometimes picking up food from the surface without sub- 
mergence. In the downward plunge the wings are half-closed, 
and the body makes a half-turn, but this twist is not so pro- 
nounced as that made by a diving Gannet.* 

The Common and Sandwich Terns share, with Gulls, a parti- 
ality for bathing in fresh water. In the harbour both species 
might be seen swimming and bathing in the fresh water which 
came down the rivers at low tide. 

The fishermen aver that the Common Terns often kill birds 
which trespass on their breeding-grounds. t I saw several young 
Black-headed Gulls — birds well able to fly — lying dead in places 
where the Terns' nests were numerous. One or two which I 
skinned had blood-stained spots on the occiput and hind neck 
such as might have been caused by strokes of the Terns' bills. 
Joseph Farren, the old boatman, assured me that he once saw a 
crowd of Terns mob and kill a pair of Partridges which with 
their brood had strayed into the Terns' nesting-ground. Dr. 
Cass, of Eavenglass, to whom he took the birds, told me that on 
skinning them he found blood-stained spots on the heads and 
necks, which appeared to confirm Farren's story. 

Lesser Terns — miracles of buoyant grace — resorted to the 
river-channels and the shallow water of the harbour to feed. 
When hovering this species has the tail widely spread and de- 
pressed ; the wings are vibrated much more rapidly than are 
those of the Common Tern, a character which is very striking 
when the two species are seen together. The young of the Lesser 
Tern are as precociously active as those of its congeners. I found 
a tiny nestling crouching on the shingle eighteen inches from a 
nest which held a chipped egg. The upper surface of the little 

* Other tactics are sometimes adopted. For an hour or more on July 
22nd, 1906, I watched a Common Tern feeding at Tatton Mere, Cheshire. 
The bird never plunged into the water, but beat up and down the mere, never 
rising more than five or six feet above the surface. It progressed in a series 
of long low curves, and when at the lowest suddenly bent its head and picked 
up something from the water with its bill, which during flight was carried in 
the same line as its body, and not at right angles to it as it is when a Tern 
hovers just before plunging into the water. 

f In Anglesea I have seen Common Terns combine to harry both Her- 
ring and Black-backed Gulls, and chase them discomfited from the vicinity 
of their nests. 



BIRDS OF THE BAVENGLASS GULLEBY. 173 

creature, yellowish buff with black spots and stripes, harmonized 
very closely with the shingle ; indeed, the young of this Tern 
are even more difficult to distinguish from their surroundings 
than are the eggs. The feet and legs of this nestling were of a 
delicate shrimp-pink colour. 

Apart from those that nest in the immediate vicinity, not 
many species of birds frequent the estuaries at midsummer. 
Herring-Gulls (Laras argentatus) — chiefly immature birds — were 
always about the harbour, and on June 23rd I saw an adult 
Lesser Black-back (L. fuscas). Two Greater Black-backs (L. 
marinus) — birds in immature dress, with black tail-bars — haunted 
the harbour, where they often associated with the Herring-Gulls. 
One morning I watched a Herring-Gull tearing at the entrails of 
a dead Dog on the shore. Within a foot or two of it stood an 
old Book and two young ones, obviously afraid to venture nearer, 
but as soon as the Gull flew away gorged they hurried to the 
feast. 

There is a heronry at Muncaster, and at low tide Herons fish 
in the shallow pools, sometimes close to the village. Of wading 
birds, which no doubt are plentiful at the seasons of migration, 
I saw, with the exception of an occasional Curlew (Numenius 
arquatus), almost nothing. On June 28th there was a single 
Dunlin (Tringa alpiria) — a black-bellied bird — feeding with three 
Binged Plovers. On July 8th I saw two, and on the 10th a flock 
of forty-one, mostly, at any rate, adult birds in summer dress. 
These were, doubtless, the vanguard of the birds which had 
nested on the fells, or possibly in some district further north. 
The Common Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus) was abundant on 
the rivers above the railway, where, judging from their noisy 
demonstrations, several pairs were nesting on the tidal portions 
of the streams. It was not, however, until July 4th that I saw 
a Sandpiper in the harbour ; from that date they became daily 
more numerous on the mud-flats and in the gutters. 



174 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AT AVIGNON (April 2nd-11th, 1908). 
Bx W. Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Avignon, being on the Lower Ehone and but a short distance 
from the apex of its delta, should be an excellent place for 
observing the passage of birds from the Mediterranean into 
France in early April : the more so, as the Ehone there flows in 
two channels enclosing a flat alluvial island at least two miles 
long, which is full of excellent cover, as well as of cultivated 
land. Unfortunately the place is liable to be continually swept 
from the north-west by that invigorating but uncomfortable 
wind, the Mistral, which blew with more or less violence the 
whole time I was there, and this may partly account for the 
curiously negative results of my daily investigations. " La 
chasse," the favourite amusement of the Provencal bourgeois, 
cannot explain this, for no one was shooting during my stay, 
though it doubtless explains tbe extraordinary paucity of resident 
birds, of which I saw no more than a few Crested Larks on the 
high ground, and here and there some Tits (Great and Marsh, 
for the most part), with one or two Creepers, a Kestrel, a Beed- 
Bunting, and a solitary Blackbird. 

As I was at Avignon and Nismes in 1895, from April 7th to 
12th, and have a diary of those days, I combine the two records 
in this brief paper. They tally almost exactly in every par- 
ticular, except that on the 12th in my earlier visit, which was a 
very hot day, there seemed to be distinct signs of a rush of 
migrants. On the whole it would seem that migration on the 
Lower Ehone is hardly more forward in early April than with us 
in England. 

On my arrival on the 2nd, as in 1895, I at once heard the 
Blackcap's song, and with this I had to be content during my 
whole stay, for no other bird sang either regularly or whole- 
heartedly. But the Blackcap was to be found in every bit of 
cover on the island, and also on the heights, and, as its numbers 



NOTES AT AVIGNON. 175 

seemed always about the same, I have no doubt that it should be 
classed as a resident. That it spends the winter in some parts 
of France seems to be certain, and it is of course the fact that it 
not unfrequently does so even in Britain. On the 10th a young 
Englishman, attached to the Lycee as teacher of English, 
showed me a deserted nest with one Blackcap's egg in it of the 
yellowish-brown type, built in a most conspicuous place close to 
a tennis-ground and a dusty high road. Two French boys who 
were with him did not seem to take much interest in it. The 
Avignonese do not seem devoted to natural history; their Museum, 
excellent in other ways, contains hardly any birds. I may just 
add that these Blackcaps would sing even in a violent Mistral, 
and that their song was of a slightly different type to that of 
our birds — less pure in tone, as I thought, and less sustained. 

A few Swallows were fighting their way up the river on the 
morning of the 2nd, and during my stay their numbers slowly 
increased ; before I left some seemed to have reached their 
summer quarters here, for they were flying about one or two 
houses on the west side of the Ehone. I saw no House-Martins 
or Sand-Martins. In 1895 I met with these two species for the 
first time at Bordighera on April 13th and 14th, respectively. 
The Common Swift, which I did not see this year at all, was in 
the former year passing eastwards along the coast of the Eiviera 
on April 14th at almost incredible speed. I saw it again at 
Milan on the 24th, and in Northern France on May 1st. 

On the 3rd I strolled to the southern end of the island, where 
the two branches of the river unite to form a truly magnificent 
stream. I saw nothing new except a party of Terns going 
northwards, and had (as often afterwards) to console myself with 
the butterflies, of which I will say a word when I have done with 
the birds. 

On the 4th we went to the historical town of Orange. Here, 
while I was examining the sculptures on the Boman arch through 
my binocular, I caught sight of a large Swift travelling north- 
wards, and as the glass was in position I was able to identify it 
as Cypselus melba by its white belly. In 1895 this fine bird was 
passing Avignon on the 8th. The next day I saw another party 
from the top of the amphitheatre at Nismes, and it would seem 
that this is its regular course of migration on its way to the 



176 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

mountains of Savoy, the Jura, and the Vosges. Whether those 
that breed in the Central Alps also come this way I cannot say. 
At Bordighera, in 1895, they were travelling eastwards along the 
coast on April 19th. This year, on the 8th, another party passed 
over us at Avignon. While almost all the smaller migrants 
seemed to be behind their time this year, the Swallows and Alpine 
Swifts were able to disregard the Mistral, which was not only 
strong but sometimes extremely cold. At Orange I saw no other 
migrants, and our zoological experience was limited to a dish of 
Eoman Snails {Helix pomatia), very appropriately offered us for 
lunch in this ancient Eoman town. Luckily they were not ^e 
only item on the menu. 

The 5th and 6th were extremely cold, with very strong wind, 
and I searched in vain for anything fresh. On the 7th I found 
a Willow-Wren at last in the island, and on the 8th I came on 
one or two more ; these were quite silent, and it was not till the 
10th that I heard the familiar song, only once or twice repeated. 
The silence of all the birds was most striking to an Englishman ; 
the Blackcap alone seemed quite at home and comfortable. I 
did not meet with the Chiffchaff until the 13th, when we had 
moved to Lausanne. The Nightingales began to arrive this week, 
the first appearing on the 4th, but all they did in the way of song 
was to break out now and again with a few harsh loud notes, as 
if the Mistral disagreed with their vocal organs. In 1895, on a 
hot day (the 11th), they were settling down to sing at leisure. 
The Garden-Warbler was here on the 10th, and in song, and on 
the 8th in 1895. An Acrocephalus of some kind seemed to be 
lurking in an osier-bed on the 8th, but slipped away silently 
before I could identify it. 

For the Yellow Wagtails I was a little too early, though I 
saw one with a very dark head by the Lake of Geneva on the 
13th. The various forms of this species seem to cross the 
Mediterranean for Central Europe in the second and third weeks 
of April ; at Gibraltar, as Colonel Irby tells us, their passage 
begins earlier, and lasts from Feb. 20th to April 20th. At 
Avignon, in 1895, they did not appear till the 12th, when 
M. flava was in considerable numbers in the island ; at Aigues 
Mortes, near the mouths of the Bhone, I had seen M. cinerei- 
capilla two days earlier, and at Bordighera on the 14th they 



NOTES AT AVIGNON. 177 

were arriving from the sea in great numbers, and in a variety of 
plumage that was quite bewildering. Again, in 1905, as I was 
crossing from Sicily to Greece in the ' Argonaut,' they were con- 
tinually dropping on the deck on April 16th, while on our return 
voyage at the end of the month only a single specimen visited us. 
I have now mentioned all the migrants I was able to see at 
Avignon this year ; on my former visit I was able to add, on the 
12th, the Common Sandpiper, a few Whitethroats, and a single 
Spotted Flycatcher. But this spring of 1908 seems to be every- 
where an exceptional one ; I have this afternoon (April 17th) had 
the unique experience of strolling for some three hours in fields 
±* woods of Oxfordshire without seeing or hearing a single 
summer migrant. 

I may just add that Avignon should be a good place for 
collectors of Lepidoptera. Among the butterflies I met with in 
sunny spots, chiefly on higher ground among olives and vines and 
on the walls of gardens, were the Camberwell Beauty, the larger 
Swallow-tail, Brimstones (all with the deep orange on the upper 
wings, which is characteristic in the South of Europe), the 
Clouded Yellow, Large Tortoiseshell, Green Hairstreak, Small 
Copper, Bedford Blue, Marbled White, and what appeared to me 
to be a Comma. Perhaps the most abundant insect was the 
Humming-bird Moth ; in fifty years in England I have not seen 
so many as I saw in five days at Avignon and Orange. When 
we see them in this country they are hovering about our garden 
flowers, but there they were in greatest numbers about sunny 
stone walls, where assuredly no nutriment was to be had. 
Whether they were simply enjoying the warmth, or what they 
were doing, I must leave to entomologists to decide. 



Zool. Un *er. vol. XI L. May, IMS. 



178 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



THE MAMMALS OF SURREY. 

By Gordon Dalgliesh. 

Before I wrote the following list of Surrey mammals I had 
the possibility in view of a county fauna. The birds have been 
well treated by Messrs. Bucknill, Bentham, and Mouritz, but the 
mammals have been somewhat neglected. The list may prove 
useful to any future worker on the county fauna, as the species 
are all collected in one paper, and references have been made to 
any important scattered notes treating of these in the back 
numbers of ' The Zoologist.' The mammals mentioned are 
those I have personally come across, with one exception, viz. 
the Pine Marten. 

Long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus). — This species is fairly 
common and well distributed throughout the county. I caught 
a specimen in my bedroom at Witley at 12 p.m. on Dec. 1st, 
1907. It showed no signs of torpidity, but on the contrary was 
very lively. It was a female of great beauty, the fur being 
exceedingly long and soft. One I watched on a summer's evening 
was flying round and round a hawthorn bush, catching large 
moths. It first hovered over its prey, then captured with a 
swift downward plunge. I have always found it a solitary 
species. 

Barbastelle (Synotus barbastellus). — Once seen by myself at 
Witley (Zool. 1907, p. 299). 

Noctule Bat (Pterygistes noctula). — Very common, and always 
makes its appearance during the first week in April. 

Pipistrelle (Vesperugo pipistrellus).—To be seen on the wing 
throughout the year except in very severe and cold weather. 

Daubenton's Bat (Myotis daubentoni) . — I have seen numbers 
of this species on the Thames by Richmond Bridge, and over the 
lakes in Lea Park at Witley. 



THE MAMMALS OF SURREY. 179 

Nattbrer's Bat (M. nattereri). — One taken by myself in a 
bedroom at Milford in July, 1902. 

Whiskered Bat (M. mystacinus). — On April 2nd this year 
(1908), at about 6.30 p.m., I saw a Bat fly from a farm-building 
in the village of Brook, near Witley. It at once aroused my 
attention as a species I was not familiar with, and every evening 
it made its appearance at the same time almost to the minute. 
On the evening of the 8th I shot it, and it proved to be the above 
species. This is as far as I know the first record for Surrey. 
Its flight closely resembled that of a Pipistrelle, only not so 
swift and without so much of the numerous twists and turnings 
peculiar to that species. It confined itself to a given area, flying 
round this with due regularity, and it frequently dipped on the 
surface of a duck-pond. The specimen was a male, and appa- 
rently the only one of its species about. It made a shrill and 
sharp squeak at intervals, which was audible some way off. 

Hedgehog (Erinaceus europceus). — Found in suitable places 
everywhere, approaching very close to the Metropolis, as I heard 
of one taken in a garden at Dulwich. 

Mole (Talpa europcea). — Abundant, especially so in the parish 
of Witley, occurring in such numbers that over a thousand were 
caught in a few months in a one-acre field. The question has 
often arisen : Are Moles beneficial to the agriculturist or not ? 
On my questioning a gentleman farmer on the subject he kindly 
gave me the following information : — " Moles come after the 
wireworm, and in themselves do good. In fields where this pest 
is not found Moles also are absent or very scarce. Did the Mole 
not raise heaps of earth it would unquestionably be of great 
service to the farmer, but the Mole-heaps damage the grass, and 
in some places kill it quite off. The question now arises : which 
is the more harmful, the Mole or the wireworm ? One spot I 
knew of, a road divided two fields ; in the one Moles and wire- 
worms were abundant, in the other neither were found. It 
would be interesting to know the reason of this. The two fields 
to all intents and purposes were identical, both producing grass- 
crops. A good dressing for a field infested with wireworms, I 
am told, is a mixture of basic slag and salt, destroying the wire- 
worms, and hence keeping the Mole away." Mr. Bentham 
kindly sent me the following note : — " During August last (1907), 



180 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



when with Mr. Mouritz, I detected a small black object running 
about close to the water's edge at Frensham Little Pond, and on 
examination with our glasses this proved to be a Mole. On 
arriving at the place we were greatly surprised to find that the 
Mole had taken to the water and was swimming about in quite 
an energetic manner. This continued for perhaps five or ten 
minutes, and I was just making ready to photograph the creature 
in the act of swimming when we discovered that it had drowned 
itself." I have frequently found living Moles above ground in- 
fested with blowfly eggs. These Moles were, I have no doubt, 
sickly, and would have died shortly. After a severe frost Moles 




Water, Common, and Lesser Shrews, to show Belative Sizes 
(reading from left to right). 

come to the surface more frequently than at any other time. I 
have seen a few white county examples, and have a specimen 
from Keigate. 

Common Shrew (Sorex araneus). — Abundant. During the 
rutting season in April the glands that secrete the strong musky 
odour are very conspicuous in the shape of stiff hairs on the 
sides of the body near the fore limbs. 

Lesser Shrew (S. minutus). — Eecorded from Puttenham and 



THE MAMMALS OF SURREY. 181 

Wifcley (Zool. 1906, p. 171), Elstead and Hindhead (L. B. Mouritz 
in lit.). On Jan. 20th this year (1908) I trapped a female on a 
night of severe frost. It is probably quite common throughout 
the county, but on account of its small size often escapes de- 
tection. 

Water Shrew (Neomys fodiens). — I have always found this 
species decidedly rare, and only know of two places where it is 
to be found in anything like abundance, namely, Esher and 
Milford. In the latter place I have frequently seen dead speci- 
mens on the road a long way from water, and it shares in the 
autumnal mortality with the Common Shrew. At Esher 
numbers took up their abode by a small and sluggish stream 
verging on the outskirts of a pine-wood, and here many were 
trapped. 

Fox (Canis vulpes). — Common in the south-west portion of 
the county, rarer towards the Metropolis, and is occasionally 
found within the confines of Richmond Park. 

Pine Marten (Mustela martes). — (Cf. Zool. ante, p. 5.) 

Polecat (Putorius fcetidus) . — As far as I am aware the Pole- 
cat has been completely exterminated in Surrey. I purchased 
a stuffed specimen from Braddon, the Guildford taxidermist, 
taken in the neighbourhood of Guildford sixteen years ago. I 
remember when I was quite a child in 1887, being shown 
two dead ones just killed by a gamekeeper in Milford. Of 
course there is just the probability of its turning up again in 
the wilder parts of the county. It is curious why the Polecat 
and Marten have been so completely exterminated from most 
English counties, and yet the Stoat and Weasel, in spite of 
the constant warfare waged against them by gamekeepers, run 
unchecked. 

Stoat (P. ermineus). — Abundant. I have seen several white 
and pied county specimens, and I once had a nearly pure 
white one from Pirbright. Last winter (1907), when out rabbit- 
shooting, and while waiting for the ferrets to work, I was 
surprised at a rabbit bolting from a hole almost under my feet 
some distance away from where the ferrets had been put in. I 
shot it, and just after out popped a second, and yet a third, both 
of which I secured ; and, lastly, out came a Stoat hot on the 
scent. I was in the hopes it would turn out more rabbits, but 



182 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

it ran off on catching sight of me, and I did not see it again. 
Ferrets when working a "bury" frequently kill a Stoat intent on 
the same purpose as themselves. 

Weasel (P. vulgaris).— As common as the last. I have found 
suckling young in June. 

Badger (Meles taxus). — In spite of persecution still holds its 
own in some of the wilder portions of the county, and a year 
seldom passes without one or more making their appearance in 
the county taxidermists' shops. 

Otter (Lutra vulgaris). — Found sparingly on the Eiver Wey, 
and occasionally putting in an appearance on Frensham Great 
Pond. 

Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). — Throughout the wooded districts 
right into the confines of the Metropolis itself. For the rearing 
of young Squirrels by hand I would recommend warm diluted 
milk, given in a fountain-pen "filler," with a short bit of bicycle 
rubber-tubing attached to the end. 

Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). — Decidedly on the de- 
crease, and only now found in the wilder parts of the county. I 
have met with many of their nests when out Pheasant-shooting 
in November and December. The Dormouse is an arrant robber 
of birds' eggs. 

Harvest Mouse {Mus minutus). — I only know of one place in 
the county where this pretty little Mouse may be found with any 
certainty, viz. the village of Eashing, near Godalming. 

Wood Mouse (M. sylvaticus). — Only too common, and a sad 
pest in gardens. I have seen whole beds of crocus-blooms com- 
pletely destroyed by this tiresome little rodent. I once trapped 
a specimen that was blind in both eyes. 

Yellow-necked Mouse (M. flavicollis). — Eecorded fromBich- 
mond and Witley (Dalgliesh), Churt (Dent), and I have seen a 
specimen taken at Kew. In the parish of Witley this fine Mouse 
is very common, and I have trapped numbers here in the 
garden at Brook. 

House Mouse {M. musculus). — I caught a very pretty cream 
variety of this species last August (1907) in a farm-building. 

Black Eat (M. rattus). — Personally, I have only seen one 
county specimen, which was formerly in my possession, from 
Oxtead. 



THE MAMMALS OF SURREY. 



183 



Brown Eat (M. decumanus). — A club has been formed at 
Witley for the destruction of this pest, a penny per tail of an 
adult Eat being paid. I have seen one or two melanic ex- 
amples. One in the Haslemere Museum is wrongly labelled 
" Black Eat." 

Common Field Vole {Microtus agrestis). — Common every- 
where. 




Yellow-necked Mouse and Wood Mouse, to show Relative Sizes 
(reading from left to right). 



Bank Vole (M. glareolus). — At one time this Vole was con- 
sidered something of a rarity, but it is in reality one of the 
commonest of mammals — at least as far as Surrey is concerned. 
There seems to exist a good deal of confusion in the discrimina- 
tion of this Vole and the above species, which has probably led 
to its being overlooked. A simple key to the two is as fol- 
lows : — Tail very short ; under parts grey = M. agrestis. Tail 



184 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

moderate, tipped white ; under parts suffused with faint yellow = 
M. glareolus. 

Watek Vole (M. amphibius) . — Common everywhere by side 
of pond, lake, and stream. A large male taken at Thursley 
measured, in millimetres : Head and body, 192 ; tail, 129 ; hind 
foot, 36 ; ear, 17. 

Common Haee (Lepus europceus). — Common in many parts. I 
once caught a leveret in the middle of some pine-woods. 

Babbit (L. cuniculus). — Only too common. Melanic speci- 
mens are not uncommon round Witley. I have seen a pure 
white county example on show in Mr. Braddon's shop in Guild- 
ford, which was captured near Godalming. Mr. Mouritz kindly 
gave me the skull of a Babbit with malformed incisors, the 
lower teeth being very long and growing upwards, the upper 
being bent towards the left. 



( 185 ) 



NOTES FROM LAKELAND, CUMBERLAND AND 
WESTMORLAND, 1905. 

By T. C. Parker. 

(Concluded from p. 150.) 

June. 

3rd. — Buzzard's nest, two young, Lake District (W. E. B. 
Dunlop) . 

5th. — Great Spotted Woodpecker's nest with young near 
Carlisle (J. B. Cairns). 

15th. — Single Wild Swan seen on the Solway (W. Nichol). 

[The arrival of the Nightjar in this district (Salkeld) seems to 
have been considerably delayed this season, though when they 
did come I think there was a greater influx than usual. A nest 
of this species was reported to me from near Lazonby during the 
last week of the month. The Land-Rail and Spotted Flycatcher 
have been very scarce, very few pairs having arrived. I have 
seen two batches of young Kingfishers on the Eden Bank. They 
were flying strongly by the middle of the month. This handsome 
bird does not seem to increase to any extent, notwithstanding 
the protection afforded it. Probably its pugnacious disposition 
has something to do with this (H. Britten).] 

July. 

[During the month the Rooks have been very troublesome 
among the turnips and potatoes ; also the Peewits have done 
some harm to the turnips, pecking in by the side of the plants, 
and have allowed the sun to get at the roots and dry them off. 
I have also seen where Blackbirds and Thrushes have done the 
same thing. This is the first time I have ever noticed these 
latter birds doing any damage to the turnip-crops (H. Britten).] 

August. 

11th. — A Water-Shrew seen at Rickerby (W. H. Little). 
[All the summer migrants are flocking ; Salkeld Dykes 
(H. Britten).] 



186 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

September. 

10th. — A Spotted Eedshank on Skinburness Marsh (W. 
Nichol). 

12th. — A Common Buzzard flying over Carlisle (T. L. John- 
ston). A Short-eared Owl in a clump of willow-bushes on Eiver 
Eden, near Nunwick (H. Britten). [This is only the second 
time I have met with this useful bird in this district, the first 
occasion being in 1896, when I saw a bird in the Old Eden in 
October (H. Britten).] Storm-Petrel seen near the lightship off 
Silloth (W. Nichol). 

15th. — Barnacle Geese arrived at Buthwell (G-. H. Carr). 

16th. — Five Grey Geese (probably Pink-footed) and thirty 
Barnacle Geese seen on Long Newton Marsh (T. L. Johnston). 
[Cf. Zool. 1905, p. 392.] 

18th. — A Black Tern in immature plumage seen on Skin- 
burness Marsh (W. Nichol). 

21st. — A Spotted Eedshank seen, probably the same bird as 
previously reported (W. Nichol). 

[28th. — An immature Wigeon was shot on the Eden near 
Salkeld. I have never met with this Duck previously on Eiver 
Eden (H. Britten).] 

October. 

[1st. — A large flock of Wild Geese was seen passing up the 
Eden Valley in south-east direction. Also other flocks have been 
seen at different times during the month. The easterly movement 
is, from my own personal observations, earlier this season than 
usual (H. Britten).] 

5th. — Five Bean-Geese seen, Skinburness (W. Nichol). [The 
Jack- Snipe made its appearance at Great Salkeld ; a number 
seen together. Also others at intervals since that date (H. 
Britten).] 

13th. — Eedwings arrived at Nunwick (H.Britten). [On this 
date the last of the Swallows and House-Martins left ; Salkeld 
Dykes (H. Britten).] 

14th. — Hooded Crow seen at Orton (T. L. Johnston). 

16th. — Fieldfares arrived at Nunwick (H. Britten). Four 
Swallows on Eiver Eden at Edentown (D. L. Thorpe). 

[A fine specimen of the Buzzard was seen in the Eden Valley 



NOTES FROM LAKELAND. 187 

early in the month, and I am told that a pair of these fine birds 
have been seen regularly up the Briggle Beck by Langwathby 
for the last five or six weeks (H. Britten).] 

24th. — About twenty Wild Swans flew down the Solway (W. 
Nichol) . 

27th. — Swallows still at Etterby Scaur (D. L. Thorpe). 

29th. —A large flock of Barnacle Geese passed over Carlisle, 
low down (T. L. Johnston). 

During October some Wigeon were on the Biver Eden near 
Nunwick (H. Britten) . 

[The Kingfishers are conspicuous in the Eden Valley at the 
present time, their numbers having been considerably increased 
by the birds which have been nesting on the banks of our smaller 
becks, and as these birds are naturally of a quarrelsome dis- 
position, this has led to vigorous battles, often carried on high in 
the air, accompanied by a great amount of shrill screaming. 
The occasional glimpses of the brilliant blue backs and chestnut 
breasts of the birds as they dart about is a charming sight. I 
have often watched these birds as they sat on some favourite 
perch, waiting and watching for a luckless Minnow to appear 
within reach of a swift dash into the water, and it is very rarely 
that I have seen them miss their prey. This season I have seen 
them hovering over the shallows of the Eden, a habit I have 
never seen them do before, though, of course, both read and 
heard about it. They hover about six to seven feet above the 
water, and are perfectly motionless as regards horizontal and 
perpendicular movement, but the wings vibrate with great 
rapidity. I several times saw these birds hovering so that I had 
an extensive reach of the river behind them as a background, 
and found, though the sun was shining brightly, that their 
colours harmonized so perfectly with the water that they were 
almost invisible. This gave me the idea that possibly, to the 
fish below, their colours would blend in the same way with the 
sky, and so render them invisible to their prey. After several 
failures I at last succeeded in getting one of these birds between 
me and the bright sunny blue sky, and, although I was within a 
dozen yards of the hovering bird, it was very difficult to see. I 
could see it a great deal easier when it was changing its position, 
but as soon as it hovered the chestnut and blue seemed to blend 



188 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

together, and the rapidly beating wings seemed to make the bird 
appear quite hazy to the view (H. Britten).] 

November. 

9th. — A Greenshank seen on Burgh Marsh (L. E. Hope). 

12th and 13th. — A Swallow seen at Nunwick (H. Britten). 
[This bird was seen by a number of people at Nunwick Hall. The 
only other occasion on which I can remember a Swallow occur- 
ring here during this month was in 1896, when a bird was seen 
flying round Nunwick on Nov. 7th, the ground being covered by 
a heavy fall of snow (H. Britten).] 

16th. — The Whooper Swan returned to the Eden and re- 
joined the Mute Swans, in full mature dress (cf. Zool. 1906, 
p. 193). 

21st. — A pair of Velvet Scoters frequenting the Solway, near 
Silloth (W. Nichol). 

[Ravens have been seen on a number of occasions passing 
high overhead from one range of hills to the other (i. e. Lake 
District to the Cheviots) ; Salkeld Dykes (H. Britten).] 

December. 

12th. — A brood of Starlings hatched in a barn- wall at Work- 
ington (G. W. Miiller). 

26th. — A large flock of Bramblings seen at Lingey Close 
Head (B. Johnston). 

28th. — A Kestrel was found dead in a tree at Windermere, 
having caught its head in the fork of a branch and hanged 
itself (W. E. B. Dunlop). Great Spotted Woodpecker seen at 
Windermere (W. E. B. Dunlop). 

[Kestrels seem to be rather more plentiful again this winter 
at Salkeld (H. Britten).] 



[In connection with this paper a letter from two corre- 
spondents appears at p. 192. — Ed.] 



( 189 ) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



MAMMALIA. 

Gregarian Occurrence of the Water Shrew (Sorex fodiens) in York- 
shire. — Between six and seven o'clock in the evening of May 10th, 
1907, I was attracted by an unusual agitation of the water in a wide 
ditch or long narrow pond skirting the eastern margin of a plantation 
at Ackworth, and communicating with the River Went, a small stream 
more or less polluted with sewage. The weather was fairly warm, 
and there had been rain, accompanied by thunder and lightning, 
during the day. Standing at the edge of the pond for half an hour or 
more I had the good fortune to see twenty or thirty Water Shrews 
disporting in the water. They were chasing one another in amorous 
play, and they kept up a squeaking chorus. When swimming on the 
surface of the water they had a wriggling motion, caused by the alter- 
nate action of the hind feet. Several left the water and ran on the 
bank of the pond, some of them coming within a few inches of my 
feet. When I stirred or made a noise those on the bank instantly 
plunged into the water out of sight, and those in the act of swimming 
or running on the weeds floating on the water immediately dived, but 
they only disappeared for a few brief moments, coming up again and 
continuing their frolics. The colour of the upper parts ranged from 
velvety black to brown and grey, and in some of them, when swim- 
ming, the white of the belly was projected so as to present a narrow 
line, giving the appearance of a white fringe along either side. Al- 
though I frequently visited the spot and its neighbourhood before and 
since this interesting exhibition — and I was there on several evenings 
immediately succeeding that of the occurrence related — I have only 
occasionally noticed single examples, none of which were at the spot 
where I observed the party. — Walter B. Arundel (High Ackworth, 
Pontefract). 

Common Shrew in Skye. — On Sept. 18th, 1907, I had the good 
fortune to trap a female Sorex araneus below the garden of the hotel at 
Sligachan, Skye. I have delayed in writing this note as I have been 
away from home and desired to enclose its measurements to ensure 
the correctness of my identification. These measurements, taken on 



190 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the British Museum standard and compared with those of four speci- 
mens from Glenelg on the coast just opposite Skye, are as follows : — 

Locality. Sex. Head and Body. Tail. Ear. Hind Foot. 

Sligachan ? 68-5 42 7-5 12-5 

Glenelg ? 69 40 9 12 

„ 5 72 43 9 13 

$ 78 40 7 13 

„ $ 65 39 9 12 

The Glenelg specimens are interesting as showing the extreme west 
limit of S. araneus on the mainland. Glenelg is opposite Skye, where 
the Channel is narrowest. The dentition of the Skye specimen also 
agreed with that of S. araneus. — P. A. Buxton (32, Great Cumberland 
Place, London, W.). 

White Water Vole. — On April 27th a man lopping trees near the 
water-mill at Little Glemham, Suffolk, killed an albino Water Vole 
(Arvicola amphibius). The fur was of the purest white all over, 
long, soft, abundant, and shining ; the eyes red. It was a young 
animal, about three parts grown, and must, I think, have been born 
last autumn.— G. T. Eope (Blaxhall, Suffolk). 

AVES. 

Mimicking Song of Chiffchaff. — I have been watching a Chiffchaff 
here for some days which almost invariably concludes its normal song 
of "chiffchaff" with an exact reproduction of the song of the Willow- 
Wren. There is no interval between the two songs, the "chiffchaff" 
part always coming first. One would hardly expect to meet with 
mimicry in a Chiffchaff, if such it should be — or is there any other 
possible explanation of its having the song of the two species ? This 
bird arrived and commenced its song as above described before I 
could find any Willow- Wrens about. — H. Meyeick (Hampstead). 

The Great Black Woodpecker. — On several occasions I asked 
readers of ' The Zoologist ' to let me know if they could trace a loud 
melodious cry which I frequently heard when at Schinznach, near 
Basel, and also at Strassburg, &c. I wish now to say that I feel 
assured it proceeds from the Great Black Woodpecker (Picus martins), 
as I heard it last July at Helenen, above St. Nicolaus, in the Zermatt 
Valley, and was assured that the " specht " there was the " schwarzer." 
I heard it first years ago at the Signal Hill at Belveden, near Bex 
(Vaud), and immediately afterwards saw the bird, " like a chicken," 
flapping with rapid beats of the wing from tree to tree. The note 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 191 

reminded me somewhat of that of the Whimbrel. — Charles W. 
Benson (Bedford House, Balbriggan). 

Peregrine Falcon in Norfolk. — I have much pleasure in recording 
a fine female Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in full adult plumage ; 
weight just over two pounds nine ounces. It was shot at East 
Harling, Norfolk, by Mr. Frank Claxton, on February 5th last, and 
sent to me the next day. — J. A. Clark (57, Weston Park, Crouch 
End, N.). 

Sexual Selection in Birds. — I have only just had the opportunity 
of seeing the editorial comment on the remarks made by me in ' The 
Zoologist ' (1907, p. 238) in regard to the exhibition by the King Bird 
of Paradise of the inside of its mouth, which is of a bright" apple- 
green, as part of its nuptial display — viz. that Darwin referred to the 
black colouring of the gullet in Buceros bicornis as distinct from that 
of the female, which is flesh-coloured, but did not consider that this 
could have been due to sexual selection. But this does not militate 
against the view which I have brought forward, since it is evident 
that the reason why Darwin thought thus was that he had no idea of 
such a part becoming visible during courtship any more than gene- 
rally ; for he says that it is very doubtful if the eyes, &c, of some 
birds have become variously coloured through sexual selection, since 
the mouth of this Buceros is as stated in the two sexes, " and their 
external appearance or beauty would not be thus affected." But of 
course, if the mouth was to be made visible, it would for all practical 
purposes be external, so that the appearance and beauty would be 
affected. The matter, in fact, is put upon a fresh footing altogether 
when it is found that various birds adorned in this curious manner do, 
in fact, display the part in question as part of their nuptial antics. 
That being so, there is nothing to differentiate such an inner from an 
outer adornment in relation to the theory of sexual selection, and inas- 
much as the former can hardly, or not often, be due to protective or 
other such alternative agencies, it becomes a very crucial, and there- 
fore important and interesting, point. Darwin, at any rate, I am 
convinced, would have been much interested had these facts been 
brought to his notice. We have now a little nucleus of birds, to 
which in time others will no doubt be added, who, in the nuptial 
season, make the distention of the jaws a special feature, thereby 
displaying in the most striking manner a surface of more or less 
brilliant or aesthetic colouring — viz. the King Bird of Paradise, the 
Shag, Fulmar Petrel, Kittiwake, Puffin, Guillemot, Black Guillemot, 
and Eazorbill. — Edmund Selous. 



192 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Effect of Recent Late Snow on Bird-Life. — The phenomenal snow 
of April 23rd and 24th will have caused many speculations as to its 
effects on bird-life. "With us in Mid-Suffolk it began at about 5 p.m. 
on the 23rd, and continued so far as we know without intermission 
till about 9.30 a.m. on the next day. At that time there were quite 
four inches on the level, and probably more earlier in the day. The 
most pathetic figures in the wintry scene were some young Thrushes 
not long out of the nest, which seemed quite helpless and hopeless, 
and one brood of young Blackbirds a few days old was found cold 
and dead under the snow. We had two broods of Eobins in old 
kettles, and both survived, though in one case only a single member 
of the family remains. I have made several inquiries as to birds 
being found dead, but could hear of none ; a Land-Kail, however, was 
brought to Mr. Travis at Bury, evidently starved, being literally 
nothing but feathers and bones. A pair of Pied Wagtails and an odd 
bird (intermediate between the Pied and White Wagtails) disappeared 
for some days, but have since returned. Nightingales appeared to 
have deferred their migration, as none were seen or heard till May 1st. 
This was a brilliant day, with hot sun, and they were in evidence 
everywhere ; early in the afternoon three were singing at the same 
time near this house. Swallows and Martins at the present date 
(May 4th) seem fairly numerous. The rapid melting of the snow 
flooded many meadows in this district, and numerous nests of Snipe 
and Ducks must have been destroyed. The Snipe would soon lay 
again, but for the Ducks with full clutches, hard sat on, the loss 
would be more serious. We had a visit from about ten Kedshanks, 
which stayed for two days on the floods ; this is the first record of 
the species in this parish. — Julian G. Tuck (Tostock Eectory, Bury 
St. Edmunds). 

Notes from Lakeland, Cumberland and Westmorland. — It is with 
some surprise that we note in the last issue of ' The Zoologist ' (ante, 
p. 144) an article by T. C. Parker, entitled " Notes from Lakeland, 
Cumberland and Westmorland." The opening paragraph states that 
the notes are " largely " derived from our Eecords, but that some are 
from other sources (which he does not name, but they are evidently 
taken from Mr. H. Britten's "Notes from a Naturalist's Diary," pub- 
lished in the 'Penrith Observer'). Now, Mr. T. C. Parker has never 
seen the Carlisle Museum Eecord Bureau's Notes, but merely that 
part of them which has been published in the " local newspapers" ; 
he does not know personally those individuals who have contributed 
to the Eecords, therefore he cannot vouch for their reliability, nor for 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 193 

the authenticity of a single note from this source. Nearly the whole 
of the introductory matter is from our Keport published in the 
' Carlisle Journal,' Feb. 16th, 1906, and is republished without our 
permission or connivance in any way. We do not think that matter 
collected in this way, from local newspapers, &c, ought to be taken 
seriously by readers of 'The Zoologist,' as there is possibility of mis- 
prints, or even worse things, when passing through the hands of one 
who may not be a competent ornithologist, for Mr. Parker does not 
supplement the compilation by any notes of his own save one. He 
says : — " I have heard also Peggie Whitethroat." He may have 
heard that or any other name applied to the Dipper by those who 
know little of the bird, but " Peggie Whitethroat " is the well-known 
local name all over the county for the Whitethroat, Sylvia cinerea 
(Bechst.). — D. Losh Thorpe and Linnaeus E. Hope (Corporation 
Museum, Tullie House, Carlisle). 

ARACHNID A. 

Curious Habits of Chelifers. — I can supplement the records which 
have recently appeared on this subject in 'The Zoologist' [ante pp. 77 
and 159) from my own experience. Three specimens of a Ghelifer 
were taken by myself at Mackay, Queensland, under the wing-cases 
of a longicorn beetle (Agrianome gemella, Pascoe). — R. E. Turner. 

INSECTA. 

Rhynchota and their Parasites in South Africa. — Perhaps the 
enclosed may interest your readers. It was my intention some days 
ago to ask you why this bug, which you will at once recognize as 
common throughout this colony, attracts the little fly enclosed in 
paper. My attention was drawn to some common thistles (Garduus), 
a large species which often attains a great height before blossoming ; 
the leaves are very spiny and have elongated points and white on the 
under surface. I give this description as I cannot get the plant's 
name yet. I have noticed this weed is a favourite for many insects, 
including the Homoptera. This bug can always be found in all its 
stages upon it ; the little flies, which may be a Cynips of some kind, 
I found resting upon the bug's body in a state of excitement, for they 
were running up and down the wing-cases and underneath its body, 
for what reason I could not explain. Certainly there was not the 
usual odour. To this I attribute the possible state of the weather, 
which at the time was misty, or else the pairing had finished. I must 
state there were several others in coitu at the time ; these I closely 
Zool 4th ser vol. XII., May. 1908. q 



194 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



examined to see if they were favoured also, but I could not see any 
signs of the fly. Perhaps the insect was in an unhealthy state, and 
there was some peculiar smell about it which was pleasant to the fly. 
I am curious to find out, and I leave this remarkable instance to you, 
as you may have at some time had it brought to your notice. Per- 
sonally this instance is quite new to me. I have seen certain kinds 
of larvae — -ladybirds, &c. — which have favoured ants, and the reason 
assigned for this, I believe, has long since been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. I must further tell you when I caught hold of the bug 
these flies, as might be expected under usual circumstances, never 
left their hold unless it was to run up my thumb, but back again to 
the bug. They kept their antennas moving all the time, much like 





Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. 



Proctotrypid, gen. ? sp. ?. 



some of the Ichneumonidae do when hunting, but when placed in the 
cyanide-tube they expired at once. — H. W. Bell Marley (Durban, 
Natal). 

[The bug forwarded by Mr. Marley is the widely distributed 
Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. The hymenopteron has been identified 
by Col. C. T. Bingham as belonging to the Fam. Proctotrypiclce, Sub- 
fam. Scelionince, and probably representing an undescribed genus and 
species. W. H. Ashmead, in his well-known Monograph of the 
North American Proctotrypiclce (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 45, 1893), 
writing on the Scelionince, states that all the species are " strictly 
egg-parasites, scarcely a single order of insects being free from their 
attacks," and that the genus Haclronotus " is parasitic on different 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 195 

Heteropterous Hemiptera belonging to the families Coreidce, Pyrrho- 
coriclcR, and Reduviidce." The attack made on the South African 
Coreid is therefore well worth recording. — Ed.] 

Introduced Orthoptera. — The green Orthoptera brought over with 
bananas belong to various species, but the Natural History Museum 
has just received a rather rare species (not recorded as introduced 
into England before) from Mrs. Neville Ward, of Southampton. This 
is Panchlora fratema, described by Saussure and Zehntner in the 
'Bioiogia Centrali- Americana ' : Orthoptera, i. p. 97, n. 14 (1893) from 
Nicaragua and Panama. I may add that in my previous note on this 
subject, on the top line of p. 117, "hind wings" should read "hind 
legs." The insect referred to {Diestrammena marmorata, De Haan) 
is apterous. — W. E. Kieby (Natural History Museum, South 
Kensington) . 



NOTICES OP NEW BOOKS. 



Three Voyages of a Naturalist. By M. J. Nicoll, M.B.O.U. 
Witherby & Co. 

Mr. Nicoll accompanied Lord Crawford on three cruises in 
his yacht 'Valhalla,' and as natural history objects always 
seem to have prompted these journeys, and many out-of-the- 
way islands were visited, the publication of this book became a 
duty. Our readers will remember that Mr. Nicoll published in 
this Journal his natural history observations made during the 
voyage of 1902-3 (Zool. 1904, p. 401), and communications have 
appeared in other journals with reference to the ' Valhalla ' 
expeditions, for new species thus discovered have been described, 
and, what is more, considerable interest appertains to the 
observation of a strange marine animal appertaining to the 
cult of the " Sea-Serpent," which was sighted near Para, and of 
which a full account was given at a meeting of the Zoological 
Society of London in 1906. All this matter, or references 
thereto, with very much that is new, is given in this well- 
illustrated volume, which will doubtless find a place in the 
libraries of most naturalists. 



196 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

One cannot but admire the action of Lord Crawford in 
showing what private enterprise can do for zoology, and how a 
private yacht can be made a vehicle for natural history investi- 
gation. A hundred years ago such voyages made for similar 
purposes would have brought the ' Valhalla ' down to us at the 
present day among the celebrated vessels of zoological discovery, 
and we can well understand what her ornithological cargo would 
then have been ; even now she has added considerably to our 
knowledge, and Mr. Nicoll has made the best of some unique 
opportunities. At Easter Island, however, his time was too 
short to do much to elucidate the many anthropological problems 
which all travellers have recognized, and which still require 
solution. May Lord Crawford take his yacht there again, and 
make a longer stay ! 

The Moths of the British Isles. By Eichard South. 
F. Warne & Co. 

In this Journal for 1906 we drew attention to Mr. South's 
' Butterflies of the British Isles,' of which the present volume 
may be considered a continuation, and comprises the families 
Sphingida to Noctuidce. Since the publications of Stainton and 
Newman, once the standard and almost only reliable books on 
the subject, we have had many volumes devoted to the British 
Moths. We may mention Meyrick's 'Handbook,' in which the 
classification and nomenclature were sought to be brought to 
date ; then followed Barrett's volumes, so full of the most 
delightful personal observation ; while Tutt's colossal under- 
taking, of which several volumes have appeared, may well prove 
the despair of any writer seeking to say a later word on the 
subject. Mr. South's publication would alone be welcome for its 
wealth of illustration, mostly coloured figures, and not only of 
the perfect insects but of eggs, larvas, chrysalids, and food- 
plants. The letterpress can also be accepted as reliable and 
adequate. However, a retrograde step may have been taken 
by affixing "trivial " rather than scientific names to the plates ; 
such names as "Hebrew Character," three different kinds of 
" Quaker," &c, are more difficult to remember than the generic 
and specific names by which they are usually known. But 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 197 

this is only a detail, and scarcely affects the value of the pub- 
lication. 



Sketches of South African Bird- Life. By Alwin Haagner, F.Z.S., 
and Robert H. Ivy, F.Z.S. R. H. Porter. 

This is the first South African ornithological book in which 
the camera has played its part, and given us nature photographs 
instead of artist's sketches ; the first to be preferred by zoologists 
for local illustration, the latter when larger landscapes are 
required. Most of these beautiful blocks are from photographs 
taken by Mr. Ivy, of Grahamstown, a well-known colonial 
naturalist, and he must have many more, which we trust he 
will publish. 

Zoology is making great strides in the South African colonies, 
especially in the Transvaal, where it would have made more, 
but recent retrenchment and replacement have caused the 
exodus of many good naturalists who went out to other appoint- 
ments after the late war. Both ornithology and entomology are 
sciences which have largely found their support and advance- 
ment in the enthusiast and private student rather than in the 
paid official, for the ranks of the last must be always smaller 
than those of the former, and the latter are not always 
enthusiasts, and the former as certainly not always adequately 
equipped. A popular book like the one under notice therefore 
supplies a want, and helps the cause. It should have a vogue 
in South Africa, and in some lonely farm on the veldt or in some 
financial magnate's office may be read by a "rustic Milton" or 
"vulgar Cato," who may thus be incited to become the true 
naturalist — the observer. 

The text is to the point ; where not original it has been com- 
piled with care. In some statements we do not entirely agree. 
Thus the distribution of Alario alario is described as " essenti- 
ally a Gape colonial bird, but ranges into Great Namaqualand 
and the Orange River Colony as far north as Bloemfontein." It, 
however, extends further north ; the writer of this notice pro- 
cured it near the town of Pretoria, and that specimen has been 
examined by Capt. Shelley. 



198 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Ornamental Waterfowl: a Practical Manual on the Acclimatiza- 
tion of the Swimming Birds. By Hon. Kose Hubbakd. 
(Second edition.) The Walsall Press, Walsall. 

This book will interest several classes of readers — the lordly 
owner of the park and lake, the more ordinary aviculturists with 
fluctuating opportunities, and the lovers of birds who keep pets ; 
for Miss Rose Hubbard caters for all — for even the amateur who 
possesses " a wire enclosure six feet square," and could thus enjoy 
the company of a pair of Mandarins. The first six chapters go to 
the root of the matter, and are devoted to Management, Food, 
Breeding, Diseases and Accidents, Pinioning and Exhibiting ; 
and so far as we can see — we, who like others have sought, 
sometimes vainly and sometimes successfully, the help of 
manuals on diverse undertakings — this volume is more or less 
a vade-mecum. 

In the body of the publication two hundred species are 
referred to, with descriptions of the birds, male and female, 
young, and eggs — in many cases with the prices one may expect 
to pay for them — and, what is more, a compilation of much 
bionomical information relating to them, and with their original 
habitats. 

To those who possess a piece of water in their grounds, 
either large or small, here is a suggestion for a new venture — 
less costly than orchid-growing, and even more interesting than 
the breeding of prize poultry. The birds are hardy and not 
difficult to rear, and one need not commence with the two 
hundred species, but, like the prudent amateur horticulturist 
who begins with a selection of roses or chrysanthemums, he 
may delete Swans and commence with Ducks. We are now 
learning how to grow exotic water-lilies ; why should we not 
extend our pleasures to ornamental waterfowl? To all who 
have such an inclination we can recommend this inexpensive 
volume, which has illustrations by Mr. Frohawk, and a " glossary 
of terms" to assist the non-ornithological reader. 



( 199 



EDITOBIAL GLEANINGS. 



We have already (mite, p. 39) recorded the large freshwater fishes 
captured in 1907. We are now, by the help of Mr. Albert E. Jackson 
in ' The Anglers' News and Sea Fishers' Journal,' able to extend the 
record to the fishes of the sea. 



Name op Angler | 
or Mode of 
Capture. 



Place. 



Date. 



Weight. 
lb. oz. 



Remarks. 



Bass (Specimen Weight, 8 lb.). 

Trawled I Bognor | August ... I 16 

— Walters | Plymouth . . | September | 15 

Cod (Specimen Weight, 20 lb.). 



Long-line 



J. C. Dight. 



North Sea 



Ballycotton 



March, '08 



September 



86 



31 



Conger (Specimen Weight, 18 lb. 

Unknown I Polperro .... I July I 72 

Swam ashore . . . . | Sheringham | February 70 



Approximate weight be- 
lieved to be a record for 
British waters. 

Reported to B.S.A.S. 



Reported to B.S.A.S. 



T. Waller . 
J. Crimmen 



E. A. Watts 



R. M. Bell Southend 



Dab (Specimen Weight, 1 lb.). 

I 1 8| I Silver medal B.S.A.S. 

Southwold . . | December | 1 6^ J 

Dogfish (Specimen Weight, 10 lb.). 
Westcliff | August ... | 49 J 5 ft. 4£ in. long. 



September | 41 10 ] Won Southend Fest. 



Flounder (Specimen Weight, 2 lb.). 

Unknown I St. Leonards I October . . I 3 6 1 

G. Elsdon | Southend . . . | November | 2 8J | 

Grey Mullet (Specimen Weight, 3 lb.). 

Netted I Pagham Hbr. I March, '07 113 1 

Unknown | Weymouth . . | September | 6 2J | Member W. & D.A.A. 



W. Adams (Mose- 
ly, Birmingham) 



Gurnard (Specimen Weight, 31b. 



Ramsey, Isle I Sept. 2nd 
of Man 



9 8 



31 in. long ; now in South 
Kensington Museum ; 
8 in. longer than any 
other known specimen. 



S. Bullock 

T. R. E. Lewis 



Halibut (Specimen Weight, 20 lb.). 

I 102 I Silver medal B.S.A.S. 

Ballycotton 56 | 



200 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



Name of Angler 

or Mode of 

Capture. 



Place. 



Date. 



Weight. 
lb. oz. 



Remarks. 



J. T. Ashby .... 
T. Lewis 



Prof, fisherman . . 
C. H. Hearne 
(Derby) 



Unknown 

Oliver Wheeler . . 



W. Adams 

E. M. Mallett .. 



Trawled 

Boatman E.Dalby 



Hake (Specimen Weight, 10 lb. 

Penzance . . I ■ ■ 16 

Penzance . . | August . . . | 15 4 

John Dorey (Specimen Weight, 4 lb.) 



Challenge cup B.S.A.S. 



Folkestone 
Penzance 



June 

September 



7 
6 



Long-line. 

Weighed seven hours 
after capture. 



Trawled 

Conger Trot .... 

Dr. P. V. Dodd . . 
H. Shirley 



Cremer Roberts. 
W. Adams 



Ling (Specimen Weight, 15 lb.). 
Ballycotton I September I 30 I 

28 | C hallenge cup B.S.A.S. 

Mackerel (Specimen Weight, 1 lb. 8 oz.). 

I 3 8 I Silver medal B.S.A.S. 

Letterfrank 1 13 | 

Plaice (Specimen Weight, 3 lb. 8 oz.). 
Folkestone . . I December I 11 12 I 
Folkestone . . | September | 7 8 | Hand-line. 

Pollack (Specimen Weight, 10 lb.). 
Folkestone . . I November I 17 1 
Portland.... | August ... | 16 8 | And another 15 lb. 

Pouting (Specimen Weight, 2 lb.). 
Folkestone . . I September I 2 8 1 
Ballycotton 2 8 | 



Sea-Bream (Specimen Weight, 3 lb.). 



Folkestone 



October 



Prawn-net 
— Page . . 



Reported by G. C. 
Challenge cup B.S.A.S. 



Professional 

C. J. Crisfield..., 



F. S. Stenning . . 
J. H. Campbell . . 



Sole (Specimen Weight, 2 lb.). 

Inslow I September I 5 6 1 

Folkestone . . | October . . | 2 12 | 

Skate (Specimen Weight, 20 lb.). 

Unknown . . I June I 230 I 

Letterfrank | August . . | 200 | 

Turbot (Specimen Weight, 8 lb.). 
Salcombe . . I September I 27 I 
Hastings.... October .. 13 10 



Exhibited Leeds market. 
Record for rod-caught. 



Took cup for flatfish. 



Long-line .... 
R. C. Wadman 



C. H. Lacey 

T. H. Greehill . . 



Whiting (Specimen Weight, 2 lb. 8 oz.). 

Folkestone . . I April I 5 I Brace weighed 10 lb. 

I 3 3 I Challenge cup B.S.A.S. 

Wrasse (Specimen Weight, 3 lb.). 

Portland | 4 12 I 

Weymouth.. | September | 4 llf | Very fine fish. 



irth Series. 
XII.. No. 138. 



June 15th, 1908. 



No. 804. 




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London: WEST, NEWMAN dc CO., 54, Hatton Garden, E.G. 



THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 804.— June. 1908. 



NOTES ON THE OYSTERCATCHER (HMMATOPUS 
OSTRALEGUS), WITH REFERENCE TO ITS 
HABIT OF FEEDING UPON THE MUSSEL 
(MYTILUS EDULIS). 

By J. M. Dewae. 

To say that the Oystercatcher eats Mussels is to assert a 
commonplace. Yet little seems to be known regarding the 
methods by which the shells are opened and are deprived of 
their contents. Apart from the question of expediency, the 
absence of information on this subject may be attributed to the 
difficulties inseparable from close observation of birds that are 
wary and not easy to approach. Oystercatchers avoid those 
places which permit an observer to approach unseen, they act 
with great rapidity, their methods are varied within wide limits, 
and it is only by the exercise of much patience that results of 
any value are obtained. The present account is based partly on 
observations of the birds themselves, and partly on an examina- 
tion of the empty shells which are scattered over the feeding- 
places. 

Oystercatchers are creatures of regular habit ; their time- 
table is regulated by the ebb and flow of the tides, which they 
follow with more or less precision. Speaking generally, it may 
be said that the Mussel- scalps extend across the shore from a 
line distant about one hour from the high-water mark to a line 
corresponding with the low-water mark of neap tides. The 
Zool. -ith ser. vol. XII., June, 1908. r 



202 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Oystercatchers spend the time of high-water resting near the 
high-water mark. They fly over to the scalps exposed by the 
ebb, and occupy themselves with the uncovered shell-fish ; as the 
scalps become dry the birds turn their attention to the edges of 
the banks, the adjacent sand or mud, and the pools in quest of 
hidden Mussels. The period of slack water is devoted to repose, 
or is spent in other ways, and during the rise and flow of the tide 
over the scalps the Oystercatchers renew the search, until they 
are carried literally off their feet by the flood, when they betake 
themselves once more to the high -water mark. There is reason 
to believe that they are able to search effectively in the dark, and 
they are certainly active on moonlit nights. 

The preceding paragraph shows that the Mussels must be 
surrounded by a certain amount of moisture if they are to meet 
the requirements of the Oystercatchers. With one exception, 
to which reference will be made, the Mussels which lie on the 
surface of the scalps are left alone when once they have become 
dry, and attention is concentrated on those which are covered 
by seaweed or by water, and on those which are buried in sand 
or mud. 

The attitude of rest is one in which the valves of the Mussel 
are separated slightly along the free border, due to the tension of 
the elastic ligament ; the tight closure of the valves is caused by 
the contraction of the adductor muscles, and its maintenance 
implies continuous exertion. The attitude of rest is possible 
only when the shells are under water or in moist situations ; 
otherwise the delicate internal structures would shrivel. As soon 
as the shells become dry the Mussels must close their valves. 
Hence it is found that in the one case the shells are gaping 
slightly, in the other they are tightly closed. The former are 
liable to destruction by the Oystercatchers ; the latter, with one 
exception, as far as can be discovered, are invulnerable. It is 
essential that the moisture should be saline. Heavy rainstorms 
interfere with the search of the Oystercatchers by flooding the 
scalps with fresh water, which has the same effect as the drying 
of the shells. 

Inspection of any scalps on which Oystercatchers have been 
feeding shows a litter of emptied shells. Some still lie in posi- 
tion on the scalps, others remain at the bottom of conical 



NOTES ON THE OYSTERCATCHEB. 203 

excavations in the sand or mud, and many have been carried to 
bare patches of rock to be cleared of their contents. 

Careful examination furnishes an important clue to the posi- 
tion the shells occupied during life, and therefrom to the manner 
in which they were opened. It will be seen that of the shells in 
which the valves are still united many have the dorsal borders 
uppermost, and a lesser number the ventral borders ; and of the 
shells in which the valves have fallen apart, some have the 
ventral borders adjacent and others the dorsal borders. The 
position of these shells should be compared with that of the un- 
opened Mussels on the banks. The majority rest with the 
dorsal borders uppermost, and are fixed securely to the ground 
by strands which emerge between the ventral borders of the 
valves. In few instances is the converse true. Occasionally 
they lie in a vertical position, the posterior ends being superior. 

In the tightly closed shell the edges of the valves are in perfect 
apposition, with the exception of the middle portion of the 
ventral border. There a long and narrow fissure with rounded 
edges is present. This fissure is the weak point in the Mussel's 
armour, and it is seldom exposed on the open beds. Shells so 
placed are sought for eagerly by the Oyster catchers, and form 
the exception to the rule that dried and therefore tightly closed 
Mussels are left alone. When Oystercatchers are seen at work 
on dry Mussel-scalps it may be taken for granted that they are 
searching for these Mussels, and I have found repeatedly in 
these cases that only those Mussels were opened of which the 
ventral borders were uppermost. While the Mussels vary in 
size within wide limits, those which are attacked by the Oyster- 
catchers agree closely in dimension with one another. One and 
a quarter inches to one and five-eighths inches in length by half 
an inch to three-quarters of an inch in breadth denote the normal 
variation. I have not seen Mussels of larger size than one and 
five-eighths inches by seven-eighths of an inch opened, and it 
would appear that Mussels smaller than one inch by half an 
inch are taken only when larger sizes are not available. 

We have now to consider the way in which suitable Mussels 
are discovered, the manner in which they are opened, and how 
their contents are removed. Difficulties arise at once by reason 
of the variety of methods in use, the variable effect of these 

e2 



204 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

methods on the shells, and the readiness with which the Oyster- 
catchers adapt the methods to overcome varying and often un- 
foreseen circumstances. I have thought it best to classify the 
shells according to the places at which they are opened, to 
describe the principal methods and their results in each class, 
and to mention some of the exceptions as they come under 
notice. 

I. Mussels opened through the dorsal borders. 

These form approximately seventy-eight per cent, of the 
shells opened by Oystercatchers. Bearing in mind that the 
Mussels in which the dorsal borders are present are the normal 
inhabitants of the banks, that they are available only when a 
sufficiency of moisture permits a separation of the valves, the 
reader will understand that the Oystercatchers must search for 
the gaping shells, and the birds are to be 'seen at these times 
walking sedately over the banks, their heads directed forwards, 
and their bills in a position ready to strike. Each Mussel is 
approached in the line of its major axis, and is submitted to a 
careful inspection, usually from the front, though why this should 
be I have not been able to decide. 

If the Mussel meet with approval the Oystercatcher strikes a 
sharp blow with the point of its bill on the summit of the dorsal 
border, apparently to find out whether or not the bill will pass 
between the edges of the valves. Frequently this does not 
happen, and the bird continues the search. When the result of 
the tap is favourable the bill is pushed down into the Mussel 
before the valves have time to close by a number of jerks with 
great rapidity and force, until the deepest part of the much 
compressed bill comes to lie lengthwise between the margins of 
the valves. Usually further action is necessary, and it must 
follow soon after the introduction of the bill ; but in a few 
instances the bird raises its head, looks about, and then proceeds 
leisurely to clear out the contents. 

When this happens it is probable that the shell has been 
thinner than usual, and the stroke has not been delivered fairly 
between the valves ; in consequence a small fragment of one 
valve is driven in before the point of the bill, and through the 
hole thus formed the Oystercatcher is able to extract the con- 



NOTES ON THE OYSTEBCATCHEB. 205 

tents. Occasionally empty shells are found which exhibit the 
depression of a fragment at the margin of one valve. 

The simplest procedure is to shake or lever the bill violently 
from side to side, and is sometimes successful in separating the 
valves, as the Mussels are fixed securely to the ground. The 
two methods most in use may be employed independently one 
after another, or may follow the method just described, as cir- 
cumstances require. 

One method is as follows : The bill, sunk vertically between 
and in line with the valves, forms a pivot of a movement of the 
Oystercatcher to one side of the Mussel. As the Oystercatcher 
walks slowly round the bill turns through quarter of a circle and 
comes to lie with its greatest depth across the fissure, causing a 
marked separation of the valves. The same effect may be pro- 
duced without moving the feet, by rotating the head to one side 
on a vertical axis. The other method is equally simple : The 
Oystercatcher lowers its head almost to the ground on one side 
of the Mussel, and the point of the bill, being well inside the 
shell, presses on the opposite valve which is separated widely 
from its fellow. This may have to be repeated several times. 
It is curious that, as far as observation goes, the Oystercatcher 
walks round or lowers its head to its own left side, and the left 
valve suffers more often than the right, because the bird ap- 
proaches the Mussel more often from the front than from 
behind. 

Now and again another and less simple method of opening the 
shells is seen. It may be employed from the first, or after other 
ways have been tried and have been found wanting. I have 
seen a group of Oystercatchers use it to the virtual exclusion of 
other methods for several days, and then apparently it was 
abandoned for months. This method requires that the bivalve 
be approached from behind. The bill is pushed downwards be- 
tween the valves and behind the ligament, and perhaps, after 
ineffectual attempts to open the shell by lateral and rotary 
levering, the bill is drawn slowly and firmly backwards and 
downwards between the valves, until the head almost touches 
the ground behind the Mussel, and the bill, instead of being at 
right angles to the long axis of the Mussel, lies parallel to it 
between the margins of the valves at the posterior end. From 



206 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

this position the bill is pushed in firmly until the point seems to 
reach the anterior end of the Mussel, when snapping motions of 
the mandibles occur, and are followed by gradual separation of 
the valves. It is plain that this method cannot be applied to 
Mussels buried in sand. 

When the empty shells are examined it is found that, with 
the exception of those opened by the last method, one valve in 
each is fractured — that the fracture extends in most cases from 
a point on the dorsal border of the valve, one-eighth of an inch 
from the posterior end of the ligament, along a curved course 
following one of the lines of growth to the anterior end of the 
shell, and passes above the insertion of the anterior adductor 
muscle. 

The upper and anterior fragment of the valve is raised by the 
passive contraction of the ligament, and its posterior free end is 
twisted outwards. Less frequently the fracture turns backwards 
instead of forwards, separating an upper and posterior portion 
from the rest of the valve. Occasionally the fracture extends 
transversely across the valve, isolating the posterior portion, 
and more rarely from the ventral border transversely across 
the valve to a point about a quarter of an inch below the pos- 
terior end of the ligament, and then horizontally to the 
anterior end. 

In this case the lower and anterior portion of the valve is 
separated, the posterior portion united to the upper and anterior 
portion remains with the other valve, and from posterior end of 
the ligament is twisted markedly outwards. 

It is noteworthy that the edges of the valves seldom show 
where the bill has been introduced. In the only example I have 
seen the margins of the valves a little behind the posterior end 
of the ligament were ground away, so that when the valves were 
brought together an elliptical hole was formed, which admitted 
the deepest part of a bill lengthwise. 

It can be shown experimentally that the fracture starts at 
the place where pressure is applied, and when the lever is rotated 
between the valves it begins at that edge of the lever towards 
which pressure is directed. On a few occasions these processes 
were verified by observing the Oystercatchers at work, and after- 
wards by examining the particular shells they had opened. 



NOTES ON THE OYSTERGATCHEB. 207 

II. Mussels opened through the ventral borders. 

These amount to nine per cent, of the empty shells. Mussels 
in which the ventral borders are directed upwards are vulnerable 
at all times, and while the relative percentage is low the actual 
percentage may be as high as a hundred. When they are 
exposed to view on the banks they require no tentative inspec- 
tion or tapping, and are opened at once. Oystercatchers can be 
seen to sight them from a distance, and to run eagerly to open 
them. The valves are separated in the ways which have been 
described, and whenever close inspection is possible the bill is 
seen to enter nearer the posterior than the anterior end of the 
fissure. The method whereby the bill, after being introduced, is 
lowered from the vertical to the horizontal position, and then 
pushed home to the anterior end of the shell, I have seen in use 
once with a shell of this class. It was employed after an in- 
effectual attempt had been made to separate the valves by a 
vigorous shaking of the bill sidewise. The snapping motions of 
the mandibles in the anterior end of the shell were followed by 
the gradual and wide separation of the valves, which were seen 
plainly to fall away from one another on to the sand. 

Damage to the margins of the valves occurs seldom or never, 
and a considerable proportion of these Mussels is opened with- 
out fracture of the valves. When fracture does occur the right 
valve usually suffers, and the commonest form is a simple trans- 
verse fracture extending from the point on the margin of the 
valve where the bill was introduced to the dorsal border. 
Frequently a large quadrilateral fragment is separated from the 
valve opposite the posterior half of the fissure, and from the 
lower angles of the gap thus formed lines of fracture may travel 
to the dorsal border and to the anterior end. 

More Mussels are opened by way of the ventral borders when 
buried than when exposed to view. Those Mussels are covered 
by a film of sand or mud, frequently as much as one inch in 
depth, and are found by a process of tapping the surface with the 
point of the bill. At first the ground is tapped here and there in 
tentative fashion. Sometimes a single tap leads directly to the 
Mussel ; more often numerous taps are made in a small area 
until one is made in the right place, when the bill sinks quickly 



208 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

into the sand and the Mussel is opened in one or more of the 
ways which have been described. 

It is probable, as Macgillivray* suggested in the case of the 
Dunlin, that " they discover the object of their search rather by 
the kind of resistance which it yields than by touch like that of 
the human skin." Sand overlying smooth rock is equable to the 
touch, and I have noticed that the tapping instrument meets 
with greater resistance over the presenting border of a Mussel 
than elsewhere, but I have not been able to distinguish a Mussel 
from inanimate objects. Possibly the movement which the 
Mussel makes in closing its valves and drawing them more 
nearly to the rock is transmitted to the bill through the sand ; 
the high proportion of hidden Mussels opened through the 
ventral borders, together with the circumstance that the relative 
frequency of the several positions assumed by the Mussel is 
not influenced by the presence or absence of overlying sand and 
mud, leads me to believe that it is so, and the movement which 
apprises the Oystercatcher of the presence of its prey often 
defeats the end in view, unless the ventral border of the Mussel 
is open to attack. 

At these times delicate imprints made by the point of the 
bill are seen on the sand or mud around the scalps. Usually at 
wide and unequal intervals, in places they are crowded together, 
and there may be a few shallow probings, some of which are 
bridged by septa of sand or mud, showing that the mandibles 
are slightly separated. In several places these clear imprints 
are obliterated by footmarks, often deeper than usual ; in the 
centre of each place there is a deep conical pit surrounded by 
ejected material, and the empty shell lies at the bottom, or it is 
found near by. 

The Oystercatcher removes the Mussel from its anchorage 
under the sand or on the open banks from choice, or as the 
result of the undesirable attention of others, and to avoid the 
prolonged submersion of the head under water which extraction 
of the contents sometimes requires. A fine distinction is drawn 
between the shells of the two classes. Those which present the 
ventral borders are opened up before being detached from their 
foundations, while those in which the dorsal borders are present 

* ' History of British Birds,' vol. iv. p. 212. 



NOTES ON THE OYSTERCATCHEB. 209 

may have the valves separated slightly when the Mussels are in 
position, and the opening up completed at leisure after detach- 
ment. The reason is to be found in the characters of the two 
borders. Along the dorsal border the valves meet at an acute 
angle and rest insecurely on the ground, while on the other 
side they meet at an open angle, and are flat- bottomed like a 
barge. 

The Oystercatcher empties a shell at the bottom of a deep 
hole in the sand as easily as one on the open ground. 

After the shell has been opened the separation is effected by 
introducing the upper mandible within the shell, and by gripping 
a valve — usually the damaged one — between the mandibles, a 
few vigorous shakes and a pull in the upward direction being 
sufficient to detach the shell. 

III. Mussels opened through the posterior ends. 

Forming about thirteen per cent, of the shell remains, the 
valves of these Mussels are never fractured, and at most show 
some comminution of the thin posterior edges. The fragments 
remain attached to each other, and are not driven inside the 
shell. 

It is, therefore, likely that the valves are separated to some 
extent before the bill is introduced. This can be the only route 
to the interior of the buried shells, the long axes of which are 
vertical, but in the case of Mussels placed horizontally on the 
banks it is not easy to understand why the posterior end of each 
should be chosen. 

The method is simple enough. The point of the bill is 
inserted quickly between the valves and pushed home by a 
number of forcible jerks. Vigorous shaking of the bill sidewise 
follows, and is sufficient to open the shell. When the Mussel 
lies horizontally the Oystercatcher approaches from behind with 
its head lowered nearly to the ground, and the point of the 
bill directed forwards. 

A feature which the shell opened at the posterior end exhibits 
more frequently, and to a greater degree than the shell opened 
by any of the other routes, is a partial rotation of one valve on 
the other, about a point situated near the middle of the ligament. 



210 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Among the litter of empty shells the presence of a variable 
number of unopened shells is of daily occurrence. 

Some are quite uninjured, the margins of the valves are in 
perfect apposition, and are tightly closed. More commonly the 
valves of each Mussel are rotated partially on one another, so 
that the margins overlap, and a portion of the mantle is nipped 
between the edge of one valve and the inside of the other. When 
the valves are not shut firmly this rotation is produced easily by 
applying pressure to the valves in opposite directions; the 
Mussel makes no attempt to readjust the relative position of the 
valves, and slowly adducts them in their altered relation. As 
might be inferred from what has been stated, the right valve is 
as a rule lower posteriorly than the left, and the dorsal border is 
uppermost as the shell lies on the ground. 

Shells which measure not more than an inch nor less than 
half an inch in length are searched for, and opened in the same 
way as the larger specimens, but the introduction of the bill 
and the subsequent manoeuvres require less force, and are per- 
formed more rapidly. Frequently, however, the Oystercatcher 
approaches with the bill opened widely, and pushes the upper 
mandible between the valves ; simultaneous rotation of the head 
to one side on a vertical axis and approach of the lower to the 
upper mandible follow, so that the upper mandible rotates into 
a transverse position within the fissure, and the posterior portion 
of one valve is crushed and twisted outwards in the firm grip of 
the bill. 

Shells of half an inch by quarter of an inch and those of 
smaller size are torn from the rocks, one at a time, and are 
swallowed entire. Macgillivray,* speaking of the contents of 
the stomachs, states that the bivalve shells are generally, 
"when of small size, either entire or merely crushed"; and 
Professor Patten f has found " in several gizzards small bivalves 
with unbroken shells which measured 12 by 5 mm." 

The greater part of the mollusc makes a few mouthfuls. 
Large pieces are torn away and transferred to within reach of 
the tongue by jerks of the head. At each projection of the head 
the bill, as it were, slides over the piece, and the return of the 

* ' History of British Birds,' vol. iv. p. 156. 

\ ' Aquatic Birds of Great Britain and Ireland,' p. 249. 



NOTES ON THE OYSTEBCATCHER. 'Ill 

morsel is prevented by pressure of the mandibles and the 
reverted cusps on the palate. 

When entrance has been gained through the middle part of a 
border, one end is cleared out first and then the other, the 
Mussel, if detached, being turned round by the Oystercatcher, 
and, if not, the Oystercatcher, after emptying the end farthest 
from itself, walks round to the opposite pole and clears out the 
other. When the chief part of the mollusc has been removed 
there remains material adhering to the inner surface of the 
valves, chiefly the mantle. To remove this material the bill is 
employed like a pair of scissors. It is laid flatly on the inner 
surface of a valve near one end, and as it is pushed forward it 
snips away the adherent flesh. After reaching the opposite end 
of the shell the bill is returned to one side of its starting point, 
and snips its way along a line adjacent and parallel to the pre- 
ceding, and so on, until the adherent flesh has been removed 
from both valves. This skilful procedure is carried through 
rapidly without pause, and often without moving the shell. It is 
seldom seen towards the end of the feeding periods, and at these 
times shells are to be found in which portions of the mantle 
remain. 

Consideration of the methods employed by the Oystercatcher 
leads to the conclusion that fracture and rotation of the valves 
are in no way essential to the complete exposure of the - contents 
of the shells. This view is supported by the cases in which 
neither occurs, and by the position, relative to the Mussel, in 
which the bill is introduced. It will be seen that the bill is in- 
serted in the posterior half of the commissure between the valves, 
and when the attack is made on the borders it is pushed down 
just in front of the posterior adductor muscle. In this position 
the bill separates the valves most widely where separation is 
most required. Observation proves that mere rotation of the bill 
between the valves is sufficient to rupture the fused portion of 
the mantle, and to impair the action of both muscles ; they con- 
tract very slowly after slight extension. The wider separation, 
usually produced, tears the posterior muscle from its attachment 
to the valve, which forms the fulcrum of the lever, and the 
anterior adductor gives way in similar fashion whenever the 
valves are set farther apart. 



212 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The position in which the bill is introduced, the quickness 
with which the Oystercatchers remove the anterior and posterior 
parts of the molluscs, and the interesting cases in which the bill, 
after it has been sunk vertically between the borders, is borne 
down between the posterior margins, destroying on its way the 
posterior adductor, and is pushed on at once to cut through the 
anterior muscle, go far to prove that the Oystercatchers are 
acquainted with the position and relative importance of the two 
muscles, and fully realize the necessity for their early de- 
struction. 

The fractures, when they occur, depend primarily for their 
production on the relative strength of the shell, the adductor 
muscles, and the ligament ; their situation and character are 
determined by the position in which the force is applied, the 
position of the muscles and the ligaments, and the direction of 
the lines of least strength in the shell. 

In these notes I have attempted to describe the ways by 
which Oystercatchers deal with Mussels ; I have shown how the 
Oystercatchers are limited to certain Mussels, how entrance to 
the shells is effected, how the valves are separated so as to pre- 
vent their adduction while the molluscs are being devoured ; I 
have brought forward observations which seem to prove that the 
Oystercatchers, far from being actuated by blind impulse, on the 
contrary proceed deliberately to remove certain structures which 
hinder the achievement of their desires ; and I may say with 
truth that we have in the Oystercatcher a living illustration of 
the principle of the lever, by means of which a comparatively 
feeble instrument is enabled to render the stoutest resistance of 
no avail. 

It remains for me to point out that interest must centre largely 
on the manifold ways in which the bill is employed, and on the 
attempts which may be made to assemble its numerous modes 
of action in the order of their development in Time. 



213 ) 



THE PENGUINS AND THE SEALS OF THE 
ANGEA DE SAM BBAS. 

By James E. McClymont. 

Penguins were seen by the followers of Vasco da Gama in 
the Angra de Sam Bras on the south coast of Africa in the 
month of December, 1497, and in March, 1499. The anonymous 
author of a Eoteiro of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama to 
India calls the birds " sotelycairos," which word is now written 
" sotilicarios." It is most probably derived from the Spanish 
" sotil," subtle. 

The anonymous diarist tells us that the " sotilicarios " could 
not fly because they had no quill-feathers in their wings, that 
their cries resembled the braying of asses, and that they were 
as large as drakes.* Castanheda, Goes, and Osorio also mention 
the " sotilicario," and compare its wing to the wing of a Bat, 
and certainly, if the under surface of the wing was contemplated 
by these chroniclers, the comparison is not inapt. The last 
author whom I shall cite in connection with the " sotilicario " 
is Manuel de Mesquita Perestrello, who visited the South African 
coast in 1575. Professor Diogo Kopke quotes from a manuscript 
of his Eoteiro in the Oporto Library to the effect that the wing- 
lets of the " sotilicario " were covered with minute feathers, and 
that they dived after fish for food for themselves and for their 
young, which were hatched in nests constructed of the bones of 
the fish which were caught by them and by Seals. t 

There is nothing at which one can cavil in these statements 
unless it be at that which asserts that the nests were constructed 
of fish-bones, for this is not in accord with the observations of 
our contemporaries, who tell us that the nests of the Cape 

* 'Eoteiro da Viagem de Vasco da Gama em mccccxcvii,' Segvmda 
Edicao, Lisboa, 1861, pp. 14, 105. 
f 'Roteiro,' p. 142. 



214 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) are constructed of small stones, 
shells, and debris * 

In the Angra de Sam Bras, which is believed to be Mossel 
Bay, or some other bay in proximity thereto, there were Seals in 
great numbers. On one occasion the Portuguese counted three 
thousand in the bay. Some were as large as Bears, and their 
roaring was like the roaring of Lions. Others were quite small, 
and these bleated like kids. The author of the Boteiro appears 
to think that there was more than one kind of Seal in the bay, 
but this is doubtful, for Seals of different species do not usually 
herd together. The difference in size and in power and quality 
of voice may be explained by supposing that there were differ- 
ences of age and sex amongst the Seals ; all may have been of 
that species upon which various names have been bestowed, as 
Otaria pusilla, Arctocephalus delalandii, and A. antarcticus. An 
adult male A. delalandii is recorded to have attained eight feet 
and a half in length, and cubs from six to eight months old 
measure in length about two feet and a half.t In the same bay 
Anchovies were plentiful, and were caught and salted for pro- 
visions on the homeward voyage. 

I conclude by mentioning the animals which were observed 
in the earlier stages of the journey. In August, 1497, in which 
month the ' Sao Bafaell,' commanded by Paulo da Gama, in 
which our author sailed, was, I opine, slowly making its way 
across the Gulf of Guinea, birds which resembled large Herons 
were seen ; these may have been Great White Herons on a 
migratory journey southwards. On the 27th day of October in 
the same year, when the vessels were nearing the south-west 
coast of Africa, Whales and Seals were encountered, and also 
" quoquas," i which appear to have been Whales of a different 
kind from those named " baleas." On the 8th day of November 
the ships cast anchor in a wide bay, which extended from east 
to west, and which was sheltered from all except north-westerly 
winds. It was subsequently estimated to be sixty leagues 
distant from the Angra de Sam Bras, and as the Angra de Sam 

* Moseley, 'Notes by a Naturalist on the Challenger,' p. 155. 
| ' Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British Museum,' by J. E. 
Gray, 2nd edition, p. 53. 

I Can " quoquas " be " corcovas " and signify humpbacks ? 



PENGUINS AND SEALS OF ANGRA DE SAM BE AS. 215 

Bras was also sixty leagues distant from the Cape of Good Hope, 
the wide bay in which the ships anchored must have been in 
close proximity to the Cape. The voyagers named it Angra de 
Santa Elena; it was probably the Table Bay of modern maps. 
On the Cantino Chart, which was drawn in 1502, the "G. de Sta 
ellena " is laid down in the position of Table Bay. 

The Portuguese came into contact with the inhabitants of 
the country adjacent to the anchorage ; they had tawny com- 
plexions, and carried wooden spears tipped with horns, bows 
and arrows, and Foxes'-tails attached to short wooden handles. 
These were probably used to brush flies away. Their food was 
the flesh of Whales, Seals, and Gazelles (" Gazellas "), and the 
roots of certain herbs. Lobsters* abounded at this anchoring- 
place. The diarist affirms that the birds were similar to the 
birds in Portugal ; there were Cormorants, Wood-Larks, Turtle- 
Doves, and " guayvotas." " Guayvota " appears to be related 
to "guaiva," moat or ditch, and may signify a kind of water- 
fowl. M. Morelet translates by "muuettes," regarding "guay- 
vota" and " gaivota " as synonymous. 

* Crayfish ("Cape Lobster"). — Ed. 



216 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



ON THE LONGEVITY OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGISTS. 
By W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., &c. 

Some years ago I began to make memoranda on the longevity 
of British entomologists, and on recently mentioning it to my 
friend Mr. Distant, he was so much interested that he asked me to 
put together a few notes for publication. I have therefore compiled 
a statement of the ages at death of upwards of three hundred 
British entomologists, chiefly from Hagen's ■ Bibliotheca Ento- 
mologica' and the current entomological magazines, adding the 
date of death as a clue to any person who might wish to refer to 
the obituary of any particular entomologist. 

I have included only British-born entomologists, omitting a 
few of whose actual birthplace there was some uncertainty. On 
the other hand, some names will be found (e.g. Walsh and Riley) 
whose work was chiefly carried on in America or the Colonies, 
and who died there. Again, a few names will be found better 
known in other branches of science than in entomology — such as 
John Russell Hind, the astronomer, who was probably the first 
English entomologist to form a collection of European Lepi- 
doptera, as opposed to British Lepidoptera on the one hand and 
Exotic Lepidoptera on the other. 

The names represent all ages at death, and all classes of 
society ; but it will be seen that by far the larger proportion 
lived beyond middle life, and many reached an advanced old age. 
Consequently, the results are such that one might confidently 
recommend anyone who wished for a long life to turn entomolo- 
gist; and the list should also be an inducement to insurance 
companies to grant reduced premiums to entomologists, as some 
of them do to teetotalers. It will be noticed, too, that entomolo- 
gists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries also seem to 
have lived fairly long lives. The moral of the investigation seems 
to be a confirmation of the effects of an interesting occupation 
in conducing to long life. 



LONGEVITY OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



217 



Approximate Ages op British Entomologists at Death, from 
Twenty-one to Ninety-four, with the Addition of the 
Year of Death. 



21 (1). 


Henry J. Stevin Pryer (1888). 


J. W. Jobson (1880). 


P. G. Cannon (1906). 




Norman Dalziel Warne (1905). 


22 (1). 


George Robert Crotch (1874). 


Robert W. Sinclair (1880). 






38 (2). 


21 (1). 


R. G. Keeley (1871). 


John William Shipp (1898). 


John Henry Leech (1901). 


26 (1). 


39 (3). 


Waldo Irvin Bennett. 


Edward Doubleday (1849). 




Henry Waring Kidd (1884). 


27 (1). 


Arthur Unwin Buttley (1905). 


William Clayton (1890). 






41 (2). 


28 (2). 


Trovey Blackmore (1876). 


William Alexander Forbes (1883). 


William Lello (1874). 


William Wing (1885). 






42 (4). 


29 (1). 


Edward William Robinson 


Walter Philip Watson (1881). 


(1877). 




William Molyneux (1698). 


30 (3). 


Hugh Edwin Strickland (1883). 


William Arnold Lewis (1877). 


Alfred Owen (1874). 


Arthur Sidney Olliff (1896). 




P. F. J. Lowrey (1831). 


43 (1). 




Thomas Young (1820). 


32 (1). 




Arthur Bliss (1890). 


44 (3). 




Frederick Octavius Pickard-Cam 


33 (2). 


bridge (1908). 


Henry Wyndham Vivian (1902). 


George Bennett (1848). 


Ambrose Quail (1905). 


Hamlet Clark (1867). 


35 (1). 


45 (2). 


James Mortimer Adye (1908). 


William Ramsay McNab (1890). 




George Adams (1795). 


36 (2). 




John Bickerton Blackburn (1881). 


46 (4). 


Henry Ramsay Cox (1880). 


Howard W. J. Vaughan (1892). 




James Hamer (1887). 


37 (5). 


N. C. Tuely (1879). 


Francis Willoughby (1672). 


William Elford Leach (1836). 



Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., June, 1908, 



218 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



47 (4). 
James Wood-Mason (1893). 
John Nathaniel Still (1895). 
John Anderson Cooper (1896). 
John Henry Fowler (1903). 

48 (3). 
Charles Home (1872). 
Arthur John Chitty (1908). 
Charles Tester (1895). 

49 (4). 
William Garneys (1881). 

John Christopher Dennis (1898). 
James Anderson (1808). 
Andrew Melby (1851). 

50 (2). 
E. T. Atkinson (1890). 
Charles Healy (1876). 

51 (6). 
William Farren (1887). 
Thomas W. Wonfor (1878). 
George Newport (1854). 
Samuel Purchas (1628). 
Thomas Wilson (1887). 
William Watkins (1900). 

52 (4). 
Francis Archer (1892). 

Charles Wyville-Thomson (1882). 
Francis Buchanan White (1895). 
Charles Valentine Eiley (1895). 

53 (7). 
Thomas Henry Allis (1870). 
Edward Daniel Clarke (1822). 
William Curtis (1799). 
Eobert Smith Edleston (1872). 
George Guy on (1878). 
Edward Caldwell Eye (1885). 
S. C. Tress-Beale (1885). 

54 (3). 

H. Harpur Crewe (1883). 
Charles William Dale (1906). 
Thomas Moufet (1604). 



55 (3). 

John George Children (1832). 
Edward Horton (1870). 
John Keart Lord (1873). 

56 (7). 
George Carden (1894). 
Thomas Desvignes (1868). 
Eobert Jameson (1854). 
Edward Ealph Pearson (1890). 
Eichard Piatt (1698). 
William Eoxburgh (1813). 
Thomas Vernon Wollaston (1878). 

57 (4). 
Eobert Bakewell (1867). 
Edwin Brown (1876). 
Clarence Fry (1897). 
Thomas Moncrieffe (1879). 

58 (9). 
Thomas John Bold (1874). 
Noah Greening (1879). 
Christopher George Hall (1890). 
John Hellins (1887). 

Abel Ingpen (1854). 
William Laycock (1870). 
William Miles Maskell (1898). 
Henry Salt (1877). 
Thomas Wilkinson (1876). 

59 (7). 
Thomas Eedle (1888). 
John Hill (1775). 
George Norman (1882). 
William Prest (1884). 
James Eobinson (1878). 
John Sang (1887). 

John Sanders Stevens (1903). 

60 (9). 
William Gabriel Blatch (1900). 
Arthur Dowsett (1897). 
Edward Carteret Dobree Fox 

(1906). 
Eobert Francis Layne (1887). 
John Charles London (1843). 
James Francis Stephens (1852). 



LONGEVITY OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



'219 



Charles Turner (1869). 
Charles J. Watkins (1907). 
James Trimmer Williams (1844). 

61 (7). 
John Berkenhout (1791). 

Jean Baptiste Jos. Dormer (1902). 

John Finlay (1897). 

Eobert Hind (1881). 

Philip Brookes Moon (1904). 

Charles Turner (1868). 

Benjamin D. Walsh (1869). 

62 (9). 
James Batty (1893). 

John Thomas Carrington (1908). 
John Thomas Harris (1892). 
George Shaw (1813). 
George Perry Shearwood (1891). 
Joseph Sidebotham (1885). 
John Eichard Wellman (1895). 
Adam White (1822). 
John George Wood (1889). 

63 (6). 

John Brooks Bridgman (1899). 
Thomas Chapman (1879). 
Philip Crowley (1901). 
Alfred Ficklin (1902). 
Alexander Henry Haliday (1869). 
Osbert Salvin (1898). 

64 (6). 
George Barnard (1894). 
John William Dunning (1897). 
George Eobert Gray (1872). 
Henry Moss (1882). 
William Henry Tugwell (1895). 
Christopher Ward (1900). 

65 (12). 
Edwin Birchall (1884). 
Henry Doubleday (1875). 
Abraham Edmonds (1869). 
Eobert Hislop (1880). 
John Hunter (1793). 

Eobert C. Eobert Jordan (1890). 
Beebee Bowman Labrey (1882). 



Alexander Goulman More (1895). 
Andrew Murray (1878). 
William Edward Shuckard (1869). 
John Scott (1888). 
Francis Walker (1874). 

66 (9). 
Thomas Atkin (1879). 

John Thomas Bos well (1888). 
Benjamin Cooke (1883). 
William Sweetland Dallas (1890). 
John Ellis (1776). 
William Hardy Haworth (1833). 
Dionisius Lardner (1859). 
William Swainson (1855). 
William Farren White (1899). 

67 (9). 
Henry Walter Bates (1892). 
E. C. Buxton (1879). 
Joseph Chappell (1896). 
Nicholas Cooke (1895). 
Henry Deane (1874). 
James English (1888). 
Eobert M'Lachlan (1904). 
William Eeid (1858). 
Edwin Sheppard (1883). 

68 (3). 

Charles Golding Barrett (1904). 

William Boys (1803). 

John Turberville Needham (1781). 

69 (7). 
William Buckler (1884). 
Thomas Carpenter (1831). 
John Gray (1882). 

John H. Hocking (1904). 
Fred. Wollaston Hutton (1906). 
Edward Wesley Janson (1891). 
James Edward Smith (1828). 

70 (9). 
Mark Catesby (1749). 

William Daniel Conybeare (1857). 
Samuel Dale (1739). 
Thomas Henry Huxley (1895). 
William Wilson Saunders (1879). 

s2 



220 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



Henry Tibbats Stainton (1892). 
J. Aspinall Turner (1867). 
Alexander Wallace (1899). 
Alfred Henry Wratislaw (1892). 

71 (6). 
Thomas Cooke (1885). 
William Duppa Crotch (1903). 
Ferdinand Grut (1891). 
William Harper (1884). 
John Kidd (1851). 

William Macleay (1892). 

72 (15). 

George Bedell (1877). 
John Ashton Bostock (1846). 
John Charles Bowring (1893). 
Henry Thomas Colebrook (1897). 
Thomas William Daltry (1895). 
Thomas Edward (1886). 
(Archdeacon) Hey (1882). 
Wm. Chapman Hewitson (1878). 
John Eussell Hind (1895). 
William Martin (1894). 
Edward Parfitt (1892). 
Ebenezer Sabine (1902). 
G. H. K. Thwaites (1882). 
John Jenner Weir (1894). 
William Yarrell (1856). 

73 (7). 
Joseph Sugar Baly (1890). 
Daniel Barrington (1800). 
John Harrison (1907). 
Martin Lister (1711). 

Wm. Humphrey Marshall (1818), 
Georgiana Eliz. Ormerod (1896). 
Frederick Smith (1879). 

74 (10). 
Frederick Bates (1903). 
Alfred Beaumont (1895). 
Charles Eobert Darwin (1882). 
William Gurney (1879). 
James B. Hodgkinson (1897). 
Allan Maclean (1869). 

F. J. Sidney Parry (1885). 
John Emmerson Eobson (1907). 



Sidney Smith Saunders (1886). 
J. B. Wilkinson (1902). 

75 (6). 
Peter Collinson (1768). 
H. J. Gore (1889). 

John Edward Grey (1875). 
George Haggar (1892). 
Edward Newman (1876). 
William Thompson (1892). 

76 (8). 
Eobert Calvert (1891). 
Henry Dorville (1874). 
Henry Guard Knaggs (1908). 
Thomas Ansell Marshall (1903). 
John Arthur Power (1886). 
John Eay (1704). 

W. C. Unwin (1887). 
Morris Young (1897). 

77 (6). 
Henry Baker (1775). 
Joseph Banks (1820). 
Walter Battefshell Gill (1900). 
Frederick Moore (1907). 
Eobert Sibbald (1720). 

George Eobert Waterhouse (1888). 

78 (7). 
Stephen Barton (1899). 
William Chaney (1907). 
William Derham (1735). 
Philip Henry Gosse (1888). 
Thomas Kelsall (1904). 
Eleanor A. Ormerod (1901). 
Sidney Smith (1885). 

79 (6). 
Edward Armitage (1896). 
Frederick Bond (1889). 
George Edwards (1773). , 
Neil Mc Arthur (1879). 

Fran. Polkinghorne Pascoe (1893). 
W. H. Z. Walcott (1869). 

80 (4). 

James Scott Bowerbank (1877). 



LONGEVITY OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



221 



Henry Burney (1893). 

Richard William Fereday (1899). 

George Wailes (1882). 

81 (4). 
James Charles Dale (1872). 
Alexander Macleay (1848). 
Thomas Parry (1872). 
James Rennie (1881). 

82 (8). 

Peter Bellingham Brodie (1897). 
William John Burchell (1863). 
Joseph Greene (1906). 
Charles Stuart Gregson (1899). 
Peter Inchbald (1896). 
Andrew Matthews (1897). 
Joseph Merrin (1904). 
Francis Orpen Morris (1893). 

83 (3). 
John Harrison (1776). 
Samuel Stevens (1899). 
Jethro Tinker (1870). 

84 (4). 
James Barron (1848). 
Alexander Fry (1905). 
James Hardy (1899). 

F. G. Waterhouse (1899). 

86 (1). 
Richard Henry Meade (1900). 



87 (5). 
Charles C. Babington (1895). 
Charles Butler (1647). 
James Cooper (1879). 
William Blundell Spence (1900). 
John Obadiah Westwood (1893). 

88 (3). 

George Bowdler Buckton (1905). 
Walter Charleston (1907). 
Samuel James Wilkinson (1903). 

89 (1). 
Bernard Smith (1903). 

90 (5). 
Patrick Brown (1790). 
Bracy Clark (1800). 

John William Douglas (1905). 
W. Johnson (1905). 
Thomas Martyn (1825). 

91 (1). 
William Kirby (1850). 

92 (2). 
John Blackwell (1881). 
Hans Sloane (1752). 

94 (1). 
L. Blomefield (Jenyns) (1893). 









Summary of Ages at Death. 






21 ... 


1 


36 


2 


51 6 


66 .... 


9 


81 4 


22 ... 


1 


37 


5 


52 4 


67 .... 


9 


82 8 


23 ... 





38 


2 


53 7 


68 


3 


83 3 


24 ... 


1 


39 


3 


54 3 


69 


. 7 


84 4 


25 ... 





40 





55 3 


70 


9 


85 


26 ... 


1 


41 


2 


56 7 


71 


6 


86 1 


27 ... 


1 


42 


4 


57 4 


72 


15 


87 5 


28... 


2 


43 


1 


58 9 


73 


. 7 


88 3 


29 ... 


1 


44 


3 


59 7 


74 


10 


89 1 


30... 


3 


45 


2 


60 9 


75 


6 


90 5 


31 ... 





46 


4 


61 7 


76 


8 


91 1 


32 ... 


1 


47 


4 


62 9 


77 


6 


92 2 


33 ... 


2 


48 


3 


63 6 


78 


7 


93 


34 ... 





49 


4 


64 6 


79 


6 


94 1 


35 


1 


50 


2 


65 12 


80 , 


4 


Total 309 



222 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE PIED FLYCATCHEB (MUSCICAPA 
ATRICAPILLA). 

By E. P. BUTTBRFIELD. 

Ever since my boyhood days a certain glamour has always 
clustered around the Pied Flycatcher, but it was not until the 
year (I believe) 1874 that I made my first acquaintance with 
this most charming bird. Previous to the above year I had 
heard of its breeding in Wharfedale. This, however, was said to 
be a very rare occurrence, but my brother James Alfred Butter- 
field, of Plumstead, and I decided on a visit to confirm or 
discard this record ; so, as might be expected, neither of us 
was at all sanguine that our visit would be attended with 
success. However, after travelling about twenty miles, half of 
which was accomplished on foot, immediately on entering the 
wood, one can imagine our surprise when a fine male Pied 
Flycatcher was seen flying from one old oak to another in a 
small wooded dell, after which it was seen to enter a hole in an 
old oak tree, in which was found its nest. 

An experience such as this comes to a naturalist but at rare 
intervals, and the above will always stand out as a " purple 
patch " in my life. 

On subsequent investigation we found this species, within a 
certain limited area, to be not only common but what might be 
described as fairly numerous — as plentiful perhaps, or more so, 
than in any other of its habitats in Britain. 

Scarcely a year has passed since my first acquaintance with 
this bird but I have paid a visit to its haunts, and this familiarity 
has been provocative of an ever-increased interest. 

The distribution of this species in Britain is very peculiar, 
for, while it is said to have bred occasionally in the Southern 
Counties and Midlands, it seems to affect more particularly hilly 
and deeply wooded valleys where old timber abounds, but is by 
no means confined to districts which embrace such physical 



NOTES ON THE PIED FLYCATCHER. 223 

features. It is locally common in some parts of Wales, and the 
same remarks are applicable to Yorkshire and Westmorland, but 
further north it becomes more scarce ; whilst in Scotland it is a 
scarce breeding species, and in Ireland, where it was first recorded 
in 1875, it is still more so. 

Eegarding its distribution in Airedale, I have heard or known 
of but two instances of its nesting for over forty years — once 
near Malham, and once in the Goit Stock Valley. Once it com- 
menced to breed in Bingley Woods, but was dispossessed by a 
Blue Tit from a hole in an old beech tree, nearly as soon as it 
commenced to build its nest. 

What makes its scarcity in this district (Airedale) all the 
more remarkable is the fact that in not a few places the combina- 
tion of physical features is almost identical with those which 
obtain in its haunts in Wharfedale, where it is so common ; and, 
moreover, the Aire Valley would appear to be one of the migra- 
tion routes to its more suitable breeding stations, since it is met 
with here nearly every spring in late April, but disappears after 
a very short stay. I am not aware of any instance of this 
species breeding in Lower Airedale. It has been seen at Col- 
lingham (Harrison), and a nest is said to have been found at 
Wetherby in 1889 (Stephens). 

In the East Biding it is more to be regarded as a bird of 
passage, although it is said to have nested in one or two cases. 
Probably some of the individuals which nest in North-west 
Yorkshire and Westmorland work their way up the river valleys 
from the east coast. 

Near Pontefract it has been observed, but whether it breeds 
there I am not in a position to say. At Eoche Abbey, on the 
borders of Nottinghamshire, it is said to be a rare summer 
visitor, and so presumably breeds, but is a common breeding 
species at Stainborough Park, near Barnsley. North-east of 
Stainborough Park, in a line to the borders of Westmorland, it 
is but sporadically distributed, and has been reported as having 
bred at Huddersfield, Halifax, and Hebden Bridge (Nelson), but I 
am not aware of any recent occurrences within these districts. 
It is not included in the records of Upper Bibblesdale by Peake, 
but it breeds lower down the valley near Gisbourne. It appears 
to be absent in the Ingleton district. It is reported as having 



224 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

been seen on the Wenning, near Bentham, on the borders of 
Westmorland, by James Moore in 1904, but whether on migra- 
tion it is not stated ('Yorkshire Weekly Post,' June 4th, 1904). 
It has been found nesting in the Sedburgh district (Fortune), 
but must be considered as a very rare bird in that locality. In 
the 'Birds of Upper Nidderdale,' by Boebuck, Clarke, and Storey, 
the Pied Flycatcher is said to be a " local and not numerous 
summer visitant, breeding at Brimham, Guyscliffe, Pateley, < 
Wath, and as high as Lofthouse." 

I spent a few days near the head of the Wharfe a few 
years ago, making Buckden my headquarters, extending my 
investigations to Hubberholme, over the fells to Hawes, 
thence to Aysgarth and Bishopsdale, without ever seeing this 
species. Mr. Chapman, however, includes it in the ' Birds of 
Wensleydale ' as a comparative rare summer visitant, and so 
mentioned as amongst the rarer birds that visit the district of 
Leyburn, and has been known to nest near Masham (Tinkler). 
A few breed annually near Bichmond and Marske, but it is a 
rare and local summer visitant to Lower Sevaledale, and the 
same remark applies to the Barnard Castle district. It is locally 
distributed in the woods near Middlesbrough, and also in the 
Whitby district it is sparingly distributed. I have seen it near 
Mulgrave Castle Woods, and it occurs occasionally at Langdale 
Bigg, near Scarborough ; also further west to Pickering and 
Kirbymoorside. Duncombe Park, near Helmsley, would appear 
to be its headquarters in the North Biding. Near the Cleve- 
land Hills it is said to have occurred at Swainby. In the early 
sixties, however, I spent a month in Scugdale, which is adjoin- 
ing Swainby, without ever seeing this bird, but it is possible 
it may have been overlooked, although this is difficult to con- 
ceive on account of its conspicuous plumage. Other localities 
in Yorkshire where this Flycatcher breeds are Hovingham in 
Byedale, Bilsdale, Farndale, and by the Biver Wiske near 
Northallerton. 

I have never found the nest in any other situation than in a 
hole of a tree varying in height from a few up to thirty feet, 
and is a slight structure, somewhat slovenly and similarly built, 
but not so substantially, as the nest of the Bedstart. There are 
usually deposited five to six eggs, which have again a resemblance 



NOTES ON THE PIED FLYCATCHER. 225 

to the eggs of the Kedstart, and anyone who has observed the 
habits of this Flycatcher must have been struck with its close 
affinity to that bird. 

Once I found the nest of this species in a hole in a mountain- 
ash, occupied by a pair, the male of which was in its immature 
plumage, and it was some time before I could discover which was 
the male bird. When hunting for insects it has a curious habit 
at times of dropping from some distance to the ground, returning 
to some dead branch. Like its congener, its spotted cousin, it 
is fond of building in the same place year after year, and rather 
courts than shuns the presence of man. 

One of its provincial names is "Coldfinch." Whether this 
has its origin because it affects mountainous districts, or on 
account of its plumage, it is impossible to say ; but whether 
this name " Coldfinch " is a misnomer or not, no other British 
bird can form a warmer friendship for man, and anyone who 
can lightly misplace its confidence, much less seek the de- 
struction of this bird, deserves to be ostracised from the society 
of all true naturalists. 

I very well remember the first and only time I saw the Boiler 
in this district, and the first instance to come to my notice, after 
long years of searching, of the breeding of the Hawfinch ; and 
my impressions on first seeing the Scotch Argus in all its glory 
in its only Yorkshire station, and my rapture at the first sight 
of the Clouded Yellow Butterfly in this district in 1876 ; but no 
witchery that can be conjured up from my memory can equal my 
first sight of the Pied Flycatcher. Since then my pilgrimages 
to its haunts have been many, and I trust they may be still 
more. It is the "White Admiral" among birds. Long may 
England continue to be a dulce domum to this charming and 
interesting bird ! 



226 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



MAMMALIA. 

Otters destroying Moorhens. — While fishing a few weeks since on 
a river in Westmorland, I happened to remark to the river- watcher 
that I noticed a great diminution in the number of Water-hens 
(Gallinula chloropus), and that now I did not see more than one where 
a few years ago I could count twenty. He told me that Otters (Lutra 
vulgaris) had recently taken to killing them, and showed me the 
mouth of a drain which was thickly covered with their feathers. 
This river is well stocked with trout, but contains few coarse fish or 
eels, which may possibly account for the changed habits of the 
Otters. I should be greatly interested to learn whether any of your 
readers have noticed a similar destruction of these birds on other 
streams. — E. H. Eamsbotham (Elmhurst, Garstang). 

AVES. 

The Songs of Chiffchaff and Willow-Wren.— Col. Meyrick's note 
(ante, p. 190), headed "Mimicking Song of Chiffchaff," is very inte- 
resting. After describing the Chiffchaff as finishing its normal song 
with an exact reproduction of the song of the Willow- Wren, he asks 
whether there is any other possible explanation of its having the 
song of the two species, besides that of mimicry. I think it just 
possible that these two closely allied species had originally one type 
of song, that this was rather the Chiffchaff type than the Willow- 
Wren type, and that the Willow- Wren's notes have been added in 
the course of ages, just as the Lesser Whitethroat seems to have 
added its loud high notes to the normal Whitethroat song, which it 
still constantly utters in a subdued tone, before indulging in its own 
peculiar performance. This idea occurred to me as the result of 
hearing, on April 13th, 1897, as recorded in my diary, a Willow- Wren 
(apparently just arrived) singing but a few notes, and those notes 
curiously like the notes of the Chiffchaff. It may not be easy for 
anyone familiar with the two songs to imagine how this could be, 
but it undoubtedly was the fact that the bird was a Willow- Wren, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 227 

the song also a Willow- Wren's, but strangely modified so as to 
resemble the Chiffchaff' s. There was a pair of Chiffchaffs mating 
close by, but I could not conclude that it was a case of imitation, for 
this was the first Willow- Wren I had seen, and the weather had been 
extremely cold. My own belief was that the bird, before acquiring 
its full song, had on its arrival unconsciously fallen back on the 
primaeval song of its race. That Col. Meyrick's Chiffchaff should 
have added the Willow- Wren's song to its own may possibly mean 
that a Chiffchaff may, like the Willow-Wren, be inspired to add a 
strain to its own original song, but without abandoning the latter, as 
the Willow- Wrens have done. All Chiffchaffs, I may add, are well 
worth listening to with care ; they differ among themselves curiously. — 
W. Warde Fowler (Kingham, Oxon). 

Mimicking Song of Chiffchaff. — The song mentioned by your 
correspondent, Col. Meyrick, has been recorded by Mr. G. A. Dewar 
in his ' Hampshire Highlands,' and also by a lady who writes to the 
'Hampshire Chronicle' under the name of "Caer Gwent." It is 
curious that it should have been so long overlooked. — J. E. Kelsall 
(Eectory, New Milton). 

Lesser Redpoll Nesting in Middlesex. — As there do not appear to 
be many recorded cases of the Lesser Eedpoll (Linota rufescens) nest- 
ing in Middlesex, the following note may be of interest. Last year 
several pairs of this Eedpoll were to be seen daily about Hampstead 
Heath during the spring and summer, and were no doubt breeding 
there. I saw young broods, evidently not long out of the nest, 
accompanying the parent birds. In autumn the several family 
parties flocked and soon left, and I could not find any about here 
during the winter. This year two or three pairs of Lesser Eedpolls 
returned to the Heath about May 12th, just as the birch trees were 
well in leaf. On May 28th I found a nest containing eggs, and upon 
which the female bird was sitting. This nest was placed in a fork at 
the end of a branch of a birch tree, and about fifteen feet above the 
ground. On the following day I found another nest about half a 
mile away from the first, which was also placed in a birch tree, being 
in a fork against the main stem and about twenty-five feet up. In 
this nest the female bird (June 1st) is still busy with the lining, which 
appears to be white vegetable down of some sort. As is usual with 
Eedpolls, the birds at both nests are very confiding, and can be easily 
observed at close quarters through glasses. — H. Meyrick (Holly 
Cottage, The Mount, Hampstead). 



228 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Note on the Great Spotted Woodpecker. — In February and March, 
1907, I had opportunities in Switzerland of observing the habit of the 
Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopus major) recently detailed by 
Mr. Selous (ante, p. 81). Several times I saw the bird carry a fair- 
sized spruce-cone to the crevices, which were higher up than those 
described by Mr. Selous. The lowest I found was more than four feet 
from the ground, and one natural hole that the bird used was about 
ten feet up. All the crevices were in walnut trees, these being the 
only trees near. There was a large collection of cones at the foot of 
each tree, some hardly eaten at all, and others almost entirely de- 
molished. On one occasion I saw the bird fly with a cone to the 
tree which it used most, but, finding the crevices there already occu- 
pied, it flew with the cone to another tree. It is perhaps also worth 
noting that three other species of Woodpecker — Green, Middle 
Spotted, and Lesser Spotted — were all to be seen frequently in the 
vicinity, but none of the others ever came to the spruce trees, the 
Green and Middle Spotted keeping to the walnuts, and the Lesser 
Spotted chiefly to a row of poplars. — H. G. Alexander (3, Mayfield 
Eoad, Tunbridge Wells). 

Great Northern Diver and Eared Grebe. — Eeferring to the article 
on " The Birds of Staines" (ante, p. 137), may I venture upon a couple 
of remarks ? From the author's description of the habits of the bird 
he calls a Great Northern Diver (Colymbus glacialis), I think the bird 
must have been the Black-throated Diver (G. arcticus), the two being 
very difficult to distinguish at a distance by their plumage only, when 
in winter dress, their behaviour being a better guide ; and, from his 
description of the behaviour of this particular bird, I should have 
little hesitation in calling it a Black-throated Diver. Personally, I can 
only distinguish the two by their habits when in winter plumage, and 
I have repeatedly watched them in Orkney. With regard to the Eared 
Grebe (Podicipes nigricollis), although the upward bill to the beak is 
a certain guide to the species when in the hand, I very much doubt — 
in fact, am practically certain — whether this could be seen in a free 
bird, even were it within a yard of the observer, and when in winter 
plumage the two are very difficult — indeed, almost impossible — to 
distinguish, unless it be by the slightly smaller size and shorter beak 
of P. nigricollis. Of course, the name Eared Grebe is very mis- 
leading, as the Sclavonian species (P. auritus) in summer plumage 
has far more right to the name, and the so-called Eared Grebe is now 
as often known as the Black-necked, which its Latin name (P. nigri- 
collis) signifies, and which is a much better name for it, as I have 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 229 

repeatedly seen Sclavonian Grebe in summer plumage called Eared 
Grebe, and do not wonder at the mistake, as they are far better named 
by their Latin name (P. auritus). — H. W. Eobinson (Lansdowne 
House, Lancaster). 

Ornithological Notes from Mayo and Sligo. — The unusually cold, 
wet, and stormy weather during March and April, combined with the 
long continuance of high northerly, north-west, and north-east winds, 
and the three days' snowstorms from April 23rd to 26th, delayed the 
arrival of many of our spring visitors, and also had the effect of 
driving many of our resident small birds far inland for shelter from 
the bitter northerly gales ; and the consequent result is that very few 
of the latter returned to breed in their old haunts about here. The 
Chaffinches, Yellowhammers, and the three species of Tits appeared 
to be the only birds that held their ground. Blackbirds were in fair 
numbers, but not as many as last season, while the Song-Thrushes 
were remarkably scarce. Only two pairs were observed about this 
place, when in other seasons many pairs bred in the garden and 
plantations. Only one pair of Greenfinches bred in the garden this 
season, where several pairs had nests, and also about the place in 
other years. Even Sky-Larks deserted our fields, and very few 
Meadow-Pipits remained. Altogether the scarcity of our resident 
small birds is very remarkable. The Sandwich Terns were unusually 
late, not appearing in the estuary until April 17th, which was strange, 
because several were observed on Lough Conn on the 12th, showing 
that they kept to the open bay, probably from scarcity of food inside 
the estuary. Whimbrels were heard on the 30th, as usual appearing 
by May 1st, or a day or two earlier, this season. On April 29th I 
observed a Common Sandpiper, the first time I ever saw one on 
the shore here in spring, though they always put in an appearance 
on their return from the inland breeding haunts. A few Swallows 
appeared on the 18th on the Bunree Eiver, near Ballina, but it was 
not until the end of the month that they spread out over the country. 
On May 2nd Little Terns were seen on the estuary, and by the 11th 
the three species — Common, Arctic, and Little — were in large num- 
bers fishing about the estuary. The White Wagtails visited Bartragh 
on the 6th inst., when eight birds were seen, but evidently did not 
remain for any time. However, on the succeeding day (the 7th) 
Captain Kirkwood had the pleasure of seeing a fresh arrival of 
ten birds. He was in his garden when he was attracted by the 
sight of some small birds flying high overhead ; these, when pass- 
ing over, suddenly lowered their flight and dropped down outside 



230 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the garden-wall, on a marshy flat between the garden and shore (the 
usual haunt of these visitors on their first arrival on the island). 
The birds appeared tired and very tame, and allowed an approach 
within eight or ten yards. I do not know how long these birds 
remained, but several were seen on the 9th and 10th, and when I 
visited the island on the 11th I was just too late to see a pair that 
had been on the island before I landed. On the same day, when 
going to Bartragh, a flock of about fifty Dunlins in full summer 
plumage passed our boat, flying up towards Castleconnor, and later I 
observed as many others feeding on the sands, while a small flock of 
eight or ten fed in a little bay by the marsh in which they bred last 
year ; these kept by themselves, and occasionally fled to and from 
the marsh, as if thinking of nesting there again this season. 

In last month's ' Zoologist ' I was very much interested in Col. H. 
Meyrick's account of a Chiffchaff mimicking Willow- Wren's song, for 
a somewhat similar case came under my notice on April 22nd, 1887. 
I was passing a small plantation here when I heard feeble, subdued 
notes of Willow- Wren and Chiffchaff. The weather was cold, and as 
on their first arrival these birds' song is always affected by the state 
of the weather, I thought both birds were trying their notes. I 
listened and watched for some time, but could only see one bird 
(a Chiffchaff), and he began with two or three notes of the Willow- 
Wren, ending with the Chiffchaff note, twice repeated. I listened 
and watched for a long time, until I satisfied myself that only the 
Chiffchaff was in the plantation. 

In Mr. C. Oldham's " Field-Notes on the Birds of the Eavenglass 
Gullery" (ante, p. 166), I was pleased to see that the Sandwich Terns 
were breeding in company of Black-headed Gulls, confirming my ob- 
servations, on this west coast, that in every breeding haunt of Sand- 
wich Terns that I know of these birds associate with the Gulls, and not 
with the smaller Terns. At Cloona Lough, Eathroneen Lough, Lough 
Conn, and Lough Erne all the colonies were alongside of or among 
Black-headed Gulls. At the great breeding haunt of Arctic Terns on 
Ardbolan Island, off Drumcliff Bay, Co. Sligo, no Sandwich Terns breed, 
nor among the many hundreds of Arctic and Little Terns on the western 
end of Bartragh Island. — Eobeet Waeeen (Moy View, Ballina). 

Notes on the Birds of West Renfrewshire (Caldwell District), 
1907.— 

January 10th. — Song-Thrushes have returned to us after two 
months' absence. 

13th.— Watched the Dipper to-day bathing itself as a Duck does, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 231 

then preening its feathers. Its mate sat silently watching the per- 
formance till its completion, when both flew down the stream. 

17th. — Pair of Goosanders on the loch. 

18th. — A male Golden-eye on the loch. 

20th. — Thirty-five Pochards are on the loch. Blue Tits are very 
plentiful. 

24th. — Snow falls to-day, followed by frost. 

February 13th. — Storm still holds on. 

16th. — Snow and ice gone. Saw a solitary Brambling. Song- 
Thrush singing for the first time. 

17th. — Heard the Mistle-Thrush this afternoon. 

21st. — Saw five Bramblings this morning. There were twenty- 
seven Pochards, four Mallards, and five Tufted Ducks — four males 
and one female. The latter was behaving in a most excited manner, 
standing up and beating the water with her wings, while the males 
did not seem to pay any attention. This continued all the time I 
watched them. 

23rd. — Lapwings are now plentiful. 

25th. — Heard the Blackbird sing to-day. 

26th. — Chaffinch and Greenfinch in song. Walking home in the 
moonlight, about 10 p.m., I heard the "drumming" of the Snipe. 
The Tawny Owls were very noisy. 

27th. — Sky-Lark sings to-day. 

28th. — First spring call of the Lapwing to-day. 

March 2nd. — Saw the Yellow Bunting this morning, and heard 
the Eedshank for the first time this spring. 

3rd. — Curlews have returned to-day to their nesting quarters. 

6th. — About one hundred and twenty Pochards on the loch, also 
Tufted Duck and Mallard. 

7th. — Saw a Heron flying low over the loch to-day, when a 
Pochard rose with extended wing as if to strike it. The Heron evi- 
dently thought so, as it immediately rose higher in the air. 

8th. — Saw a Book standing on the head of a sheep as it lay 
peaceably. 

10th. — Four inches of snow this morning. Heard the Goldcrest 
to-day. 

16th. — Two pairs of Golden-eye on the loch. Dipper's nest 
to-day with four eggs. 

23rd. — About thirty Fieldfares flew overhead. 

25th. — Grey Wagtails have returned. Saw a Water-Bail to-day. 
Great Crested Grebe has returned. 

29th. — Three Goosanders on the loch. 



232 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

30th. — Watched some Coal-Tits for a while. 

31st. — Saw the first Lapwing's egg to-day, also a pair (male and 
female) of Wheatears. 

April 6th. — Spent to-day. in the rookery. Found two nests with 
six eggs, and several with five ; also one nest containing young birds. 
Forty Fieldfares flying north-east. 

7th. — Every place white with snow. Fieldfares abundant, pass- 
ing over us. 

8th. — First primrose shows itself to-day. 

9th.— White Wagtail at the loch. 

19th. — Fieldfares have been passing in small flocks for some days. 
To-day I saw about fifty flying north-east. Moorhen's nest with 
eight young ones. 

23rd. — Sedge-Warbler seen to-day. 

24th. — Common Sandpiper arrived ; last year the date was the 
12th, which is about the usual. 

28th. — The keeper's dog to-day flushed a Land-Bail from some 
gorse. This is the earliest record I have. Found a Bed Grouse's 
nest with ten eggs. 

30th. — Two Snipes' nests, each with four eggs. 

May 3rd. — Went to-day to examine some Jackdaws' nests built 
in spruce-fir trees. They are very large structures, being roofed over 
with sticks, just leaving a hole large enough to admit the bird. One 
of the four I examined containing eggs was quite open. The keeper 
told me he found in the last week of April a Woodcock's nest which 
was "run." 

5th. — Heard the welcome sound of the Cuckoo's voice. 

6th. — A Curlew's nest with four eggs. I got near enough to 
flush the bird from her nest — a most unusual experience. 

7th. — Barn-Swallows arrive. 

8th. — Met the assistant keeper to-day with a young Tawny Owl 
in his pocket. It was found in the "Crow Wood," and bore marks 
of having been pecked by the Books. 

9th. — Heard the Land-Bail "craking." 

11th. — Found another Bed Grouse's nest with ten eggs, hard- 
sat. There were four pairs of Golden Plovers, but I could not find 
a nest. 

12th. — Sedge- Warblers abundant and in fine song. 

16th. — Water-Bail's nest with seven eggs ; also three Mallards 
nests with seven, five, and one egg respectively. 

17th. — Dunlin's nest with four eggs, and also Curlew's with four 
eggs. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 233 

18th. — Saw Common Whitethroat and Spotted Flycatcher to-day. 

27th. — Saw for the first time a Curlew's nest, with the four young 
birds still in the nest. 

[Absent from home most of June and July.] 

June 30th. — Cuckoo last heard calling in the district. 

August 7th. — Saw a solitary Land-Bail. 

September 3rd. — There is ice on the water this morning. 

26th. — Swallows and House-Martins gone. 

October 1st. — Pochards have returned to the loch. 

4th. — Dipper in fine song. 

6th. — Blackbird sings for about half an hour to-day. Four Ked- 
wings flew past, going south-west. 

9th. — Five Swallows to-day — must have been a late nest. 

16th. — Watched a Fox for a while this morning. 

20th. — Flushed eighty Snipe (Common) from the coarse growth 
at the foot of the loch. 

25th. — Tufted Duck on the loch ; they now nest every year in 
this district. 

26th.— A few Fieldfares. 

27th. — Large flock of Fieldfares. 

November 23rd. — Saw a lovely cock Bullfinch to-day. 

24th. — Went to the loch this morning, with pleasing result. 
There were twenty-eight Mallard, five Wigeon, one pair of Golden- 
eye, one pair of Teal, thirty-one Pochards, and fifty Coot. From the 
coarse grdwth at the foot I succeeded in putting up two hundred and 
forty-seven Common Snipe, and do not think I shifted them all. I 
saw fifteen Bramblings among the beeches in the wood. 

December 1st. — A solitary Pied Wagtail to-day. 

7th. — Saw the Marsh-Tit to-day; they are not easy to watch, 
being much more shy than any of the other Tits. 

9th.— Three Long-tailed Tits. 

15th. — Had another try at the Snipe amongst the coarse growth 
at the loch, but only succeeded in putting up one hundred and eighty. 
They are very difficult to move, rising in fives and tens, and thus 
making it easy to count them. Jack-Snipe have also been fairly 
common this winter. The under-keeper told me he saw five Grey 
Geese (species unknown) about the middle of December on the 
loch. 

These notes are sent in the hope that they may prove of interest 
to some south-country readers by way of comparison. — T. Thornton 
Mackeith (Hall of Caldwell, Renfrewshire). 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII.. June, 1908. T 



234 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Notes from Shipley District. — 

March 29th, 1908.— Fairly large flocks of Pied Wagtails noted on 
the Eiver Aire between Saltaire and Bingley, as usual, at this time of 
year, composed mostly of males. On the 31st Pied Wagtails were 
simply swarming — hundreds were seen on the same stretch, also one 
or two Grey Wagtails. One Sand-Martin — an exceptionally early 
arrival, particularly so when we consider the Arctic weather we have 
had this spring. This bird seemed strong on the wing, securing its 
food off the stream, hovering like a Wagtail, and picking something 
as it floated down stream ; although I was within two yards of it 
frequently whilst thus engaged, I could not make out any fly on the 
water. 

April 2nd. — On same ramble, when only very few Pied Wagtails 
were noted, and these seemed in pairs ; wind S.S.W. and decidedly 
warmer, later in day N.W. No Sand -Martin. Perhaps it had returned 
south, as Seebohm pointed out that birds frequently arrived too early 
in the extreme north, before the break-up of ice and frost-bound land ; 
consequently they had to return on account of food-supply. I believe 
we get a few stragglers in this country, too, that arrive too early. 

5th. — In a small plantation quite near the Eiver Aire, where 
previous notes were made, one brown Wren, with a small party of 
Marsh-Tits. I might mention here that the Chiffchaff does not 
breed in Upper Airedale ; so I longed to hear the song of this (to us) 
rarer visitor. However, patience has its limitations, even to a bird- 
watcher — but sing it would not — the smallness of the wing seemed 
to help me in deciding it to be the Chiffchaff. At the sides of the 
river and in the fields adjoining were many Pied Wagtails ; one big 
flock rose high in air, and away up stream. On the 7th and 8th, on 
the same ground, scarcely a bird to be seen. 

12th.— Eeversed the walk, starting at Bingley to Saltaire, with 
Mr. Bedland, of the Bradford Naturalists ; very few birds to note. 
Creepers in full song, and evidently a few pairs still breed here. One 
Sand-Martin within a few yards of the place where one was noted on 
March 31st. 

Birds are exceptionally late this year, and up to this date, with 
the exceptions mentioned, there is hardly a migrant to be seen about 
here. — W. H. Parkin (Studholme, Shipley). 



( 235 ) 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



African Nature Notes and Reminiscences. By Frederick Court - 
eney Selous, F.Z.S. With a "Foreword" by President 
Eoosevelt. Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 

"Mr. Selous is the last of the big-game hunters of South 
Africa." Such is the statement of President Pioosevelt, and 
such is the verdict of all of us. Wealthy sportsmen may still 
find game in South-East Africa, but the days of the old Nimrod 
are gone. Mr. Selous, hunting in his shirt, shoes, and soft hat, 
reminds one of Gordon Cumming, and the period between these 
two great hunters of similar garb and equal love of laying low 
the mighty game, marks an era which exhibits the decline and 
fall of the great mammalian fauna of South Africa. 

In this book, much of which has been previously published 
in fragmentary contributions to different journals, Mr. Selous 
reaches his high-water mark in zoological observation, and it 
contains bionomical monographs of several animals. As regards 
the Lion this is markedly the case, and the peculiar haunts of 
the Inyala are focused in two tersely written and highly interest- 
ing chapters. 

Of more than average importance is the chapter dealing with 
the Tsetse Fly, particularly in its connection with the Buffalo, 
and the author's conclusions as to the interdependence of these 
two living creatures, the diminution of the one being accom- 
panied with the scarcity of the other ; in other words, their 
mutual disappearance in certain once well-known fly-infested 
areas. 

But what has particularly impressed the writer of this notice 
is the experimentum crucis afforded by Mr. Selous's observations 
made during his long sojourn in the South African veld, and in 
the bush of that region, on much of the theories of protective 
coloration and mimicry. As President Roosevelt, with bis 
shrewd common sense, remarks : " His observations illustrate 



236 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the great desirability of having the views of the closet naturalist 
tested by competent field observers"; and, again: "The most 
conspicuous colors of nature, for instance, are, under ordinary 
circumstances, black and white. Yet we continually find black, 
and sometimes white, animals thriving as well as their more 
dull-coloured compeers under conditions that certainly seem as 
if they ought to favor the latter." 

Mr. Selous's chapters i. and ii. may be carefully read and 
pondered by some of the enthusiastic missioners in the ultra 
cult of "protective coloration," "recognition marks," and 
" mimicry." Not that these theories are repudiated so much as 
largely qualified, and this is the philosophical position. The 
argument in their favour was originally one of possibility, which 
rightly developed into probability ; but by the vogue in which 
these interesting problems have been received, and the extremes 
to which they have been pushed, they are rapidly being rele- 
gated into the domain of unlikelihood. And this is the pity 
of it. 



A Guide to the Elephants (Recent and Fossil) Exhibited in the 
Department of Geology and Paleontology in the British 
Museum (Natural History). Printed by Order of the 

Trustees. 

This is another of those useful little handbooks by which a 
visitor to our National Museum may acquire a thorough know- 
ledge of the few animals to which it rightly claims to be a 
• Guide.' It is written by that well-known palaeontologist, 
Dr. C. W. Andrews, and is, in fact, a short and handy mono- 
graph of the Proboscidea. We believe that these booklets are 
of the highest educational value to those visitors who wish to 
know not only the names and position of the preserved animals 
they see, but also their history in time. For a lesson on the 
process of animal evolution the Proboscidea afford a splendid 
text, and we would suggest that this inexpensive 'Guide' might 
be placed in the hands of schoolboys, who, after having read 
it, should be taken to the Museum to see the subject of its 
pages, which might afterwards be reperused. The evolutionary 
conception by this and similar means would be clearly attained, 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 237 

which is seldom accomplished by the publication of " popular 
books " on the subject. The ' Guide ' is well illustrated. 



A Guide to the Gallery of Fishes in the Department of Zoology in 
the British Museum (Natural History). Printed by Order 
of the Trustees. 

This 'Guide' has been prepared by Dr. Eidewood in daily 
consultation with Prof. Lankester, as we are told in the preface. 
The collections of Fishes in the British Museum are not only 
famous for their number, but for the care with which they are 
conserved and have been worked out. Most of these are spirit- 
specimens, and are studied by the ichthyologist. But in the 
Gallery there are exhibited preserved specimens and models 
which have recently been thoroughly rearranged and added to, 
and these appeal to the visitor, for whose instruction this hand- 
book has been written. By its aid he can be made acquainted 
with all the principal types they represent, and the elements of 
the classification by which they are arranged. It also describes 
much of their peculiar structure, life-history, and distribution, 
thus making the Gallery to serve the purpose of a popular 
lecture-room, with the object-lessons round the walls. No 
written natural history can impart the pleasure and instruction 
to be derived from the visit to a good museum collection with an 
adequately written handbook. This one contains ninety- six 
figures. 



238 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



EDITOEIAL GLEANINGS. 



The Society for the Destruction of Vermin was formed in January, 
1908, to organize a national movement for the extermination of rats 
and other vermin noxious to man. Among the vermin included 
within the scope of the Society's operations are rats, mice, sparrows, 
ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, and flies. It stands amply proved by the 
testimony and researches of many eminent scientists that rats and 
other vermin constitute a most serious menace to public health. They 
foster and disseminate disease germs, and in many instances are the 
leading factors in disease epidemics. 

Bubonic plague is now known to be conveyed mainly by rats. In 
most recent outbreaks this disease has been noticed to occur first 
amongst the rat population of the invaded areas ; from these it passes 
to man by means of fleas, which inoculate him with the germs they 
have imbibed in feeding on infected rats. It is evident that the 
destruction of rats is an essential, if not the most important, preven- 
tive against plague. Malaria is known to be directly conveyed to man 
by infected mosquitoes. The extermination of mosquitoes is being 
carried out very actively in numerous malarial districts with remark- 
able results. Yellow fever : This pestilence has been proved to be 
conveyed from the sick to the healthy by mosquitoes. The steps 
taken by the Americans in Havana afford striking demonstration of 
the part played by these insects in the propagation of disease. After 
various sanitary methods had been tested and found futile, a cam- 
paign was undertaken against the mosquitoes, and the disease dis- 
appeared as if by enchantment. Sleeping sickness : This fatal 
disease is conveyed and inoculated by tsetse-flies. The European 
Powers, alarmed at the rapid extension of the disease and the heavy 
mortality it is causing, have convened an International Conference of 
the leading scientific authorities on tropical diseases to concert 
methods for the destruction of tsetse-flies. 

Among other examples may be mentioned enteric fever and cholera, 
conveyed by the house-fly ; various forms of relapsing fever, by ticks 
and bugs ; trichinosis, by the rat ; and red- water fever and other 
diseases in cattle, by ticks. The striking discovery has recently been 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS 239 

made that the house-fly is a principal factor in the dissemination of 
the epidemic of summer diarrhoea among infants. Probably many 
other diseases of men and domesticated animals of which little is 
known are similarly conveyed by vermin. 

Although the agency of vermin as disease conveyors has been 
suspected from the remotest antiquity, it is only of late years that it 
has received definite proof. As already mentioned, action has been 
taken as regards mosquitoes, and now, owing to the recrudescence of 
plague and the proof that the rat is the main agent in diffusing it, 
action is being taken against this animal in various countries, as, for 
example, in Denmark, where a special law has been enacted with the 
view of destroying these rodents. The fly also is receiving attention ; 
in New York a Special Committee has just handed in its report, giving 
some very valuable suggestions as to the best way of dealing with the 
fly question. In this country reports have also been drawn up by 
the Public Health Committee of the London County Council and the 
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Although the Society for the 
Destruction of Vermin has decided to direct its earliest operations 
against the rat tribe, it contemplates in the future, as opportunities 
may arise, the initiation of destructive measures against mice, house- 
flies, and the other vermin mentioned herein. 

Apart from considerations of health, on economic grounds the 
destruction of the rat is much to be desired. The depredations of 
this animal are very costly. It has been computed that there are not 
less than thirty million rats in the United Kingdom at the present 
day, and that the loss through their incessant ravages amounts to 
some five million pounds yearly. Fields of corn are ofttimes seriously 
damaged ; stores of meat, poultry, and cereals, both in warehouse 
and on shipboard, are heavily taxed ; buildings are damaged ; docks 
and wharves are overrun ; and so serious have the depredations 
become in many quarters — notably the London Docks — that private 
proprietors have abandoned all hope of decreasing the plague of rats 
by individual efforts. The cost of the repressive measures taken 
against rats alone in London now exceeds ten thousand pounds 
a year. 

The Society for the Destruction of Vermin, which is in process of 
incorporation under Board of Trade regulations as a public associa- 
tion not formed for the object of making profit, will collect informa- 
tion from all sources of the birth, breeding, distribution, and life- 
history of noxious vermin. It will pay especial attention to the part 
played by vermin in disease causation. Disseminate as widely as 



240 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

possible the acquired knowledge by means of the general Press, and 
also by special reports, leaflets, and lectures. It will endeavour to 
make known to the public the dangers connected with each kind of 
vermin, the necessity for exterminating certain species, and the best 
and most merciful lawful methods of destruction. Carry out experi- 
ments in the field, test any promising measures suggested for the 
destruction of vermin, and, if funds permit, distribute gratuitously, 
to such persons as are unable to afford the expense, the necessary 
substances and apparatus. Organize, in co-operation with other 
associations and public bodies, a practical campaign for the destruc- 
tion of vermin. (To conduct operations an Active Committee has 
been formed.) And encourage and assist in any legitimate way the 
operations of Eat and Sparrow Clubs and similar bodies. In the 
promotion of the above objects obtain, if possible, such Government, 
Municipal, or other public aid as may be thought desirable. 

The services of the Society will be placed at the disposal of 
Municipalities, Boards of Health, Agricultural Societies, Eailway, 
Shipping and Dock Companies, and other bodies interested in the 
suppression of vermin. 

The Society is under the Presidency of Sir James Crichton- 
Browne, and Mr. A. E. Moore is its energetic Secretary. The tem- 
porary address is 1, Palace Garden's Mansions, London, W. 



139- 



July 15th, 1908. 



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Each volume contains 33 full-page Plates containing a Coloured Illustration 

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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No, 805.— July, 1908. 



SPECULATIONS ON THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 

By Bruce F. Cummings. 

I. 

Birds do not show a great many gradational types from 
simple to complex forms in the development of this instinct, but 
there are sufficient to indicate the base-lines along which it has 
progressed. Allowing always a broad margin for various circum- 
stances which, wholly unknown to us, may have considerably 
modified its development or altered its course, I hope to suggest 
in the following paper the necessary conditions for its origin, 
and the forces which have moulded its subsequent advance- 
ment. 

I assume that the instinct, at its earliest dawn, originated 
primarily in an unconscious way by the natural selection of 
chance favourable variations of unconscious habit, for it seems 
evident that a bird would find no just cause for any self-sacri- 
ficing attention to a hard uncomfortable object of which it has 
just ridded itself, and which we call an egg. And so Romanes 
has pointed out that the incubation instinct can only be explained 
as arising from the results of natural selection, and not as an 
action, originally intelligent, since stereotyped into mechanical 
instinct, as the reason why they sit could never have presented 
itself to the birds, for it would imply at least a scientific know- 
ledge of the properties of the germinal area of the egg. 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., July, 1908. u 



242 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The majority of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, from 
which latter, it must be acknowledged, our birds are derived, 
possess no parental instinct which is so remarkable a charac- 
teristic of the birds. But most animals possess that very 
elementary kind of parental instinct — typical of the insects — 
which informs them of the most suitable places for the dropping 
of their eggs. 

Similarly, in ages long ago, the females of birds probably 
dropped their eggs at random in a variety of situations in more 
or less suitable localities on the ground. No special receptacle 
was made, but the eggs were laid in just those places where the 
female happened to be at the time of her accouchement ; so that 
the eggs of a single female were scattered one by one over per- 
haps a wide area. These eggs, left with heartless nonchalance 
by the parents, would be hatched by the heat of the sun, or by 
inanimate substances. The young, at hatching, would be per- 
fectly capable of looking after themselves. Possibly they would 
be able to fly within an hour or so. 

In cold climates the sun would not be hot enough for the 
hatching of eggs, but at that time the eggs may have materially 
differed from those of to-day in the amount of heat required, 
while the two hemispheres may have been generally warmer, 
for even the Arctic Eegions show abundant evidence of having 
been favoured — in the Cretaceous epoch, for example — with a 
hot climate and rich vegetable life. The gradual decline of this 
heat and the approach of Arctic conditions were no doubt instru- 
mental in inducing parental affection and increasing the incuba- 
tion duties. A few species which still resort to the heat of the 
sun now linger in the Tropics. 

Many species in a fit of carelessness occasionally, even at the 
present time, drop their eggs on the bare ground and leave them, 
viz. many of the ground birds, Molothrus vulgaris and Stumus 
vulgaris, and others. 

These primitive birds, with little or no parental instinct, 
laid a very large number of large eggs. 

The reason for this was that the risks to which the eggs were 
exposed were very great, and only a few of the embryos which 
happened to fall in with suitable circumstances would ever arrive 
at maturity. The eggs were large in order to contain the in- 



PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 243 

creased amount of food-yelk necessary to enable the young birds 
to be hatched in an advanced stage of development, and fully 
equipped to fight the battle of life alone. 

Lichenstein remarks that but for its numerous enemies the 
multiplication of the Ostrich would be quite unequalled, and it is 
a primitive bird with very little parental instinct. 

The fact that the number of eggs varies, ceteris paribus, with 
the risks is well shown by the facts which are known to occur 
among fishes. The Herring (Clupea harengus) lays thousands of 
eggs — a fish which possesses no parental instinct, and whose 
eggs are exposed to all the dangers and vicissitudes of ocean life. 
The ova of the oviparous Elasmobraiichii are comparatively few in 
number, as they are afforded very considerable protection by a 
tough, leathery, protective envelope. Fishes show a remarkable 
fecundity because they, unlike the birds, do not arrive at a 
permanent size. They grow continuously, and this causes the 
struggle for existence to be severer and the risks greater. 

Birds in these remote times were probably to a great extent 
polygamous, or, at all events, a very loose sort of pairing 
obtained. As there was no need for any parental instinct or 
prolonged care of the eggs, the females and males, after copula- 
tion, had no reason to remain paired off; they had no severe 
mental tax laid upon them such as the care and training of 
young helpless birds entails, and were therefore open to sustain 
the demoralizing effect of promiscuous pairing. Possibly a 
large majority of the fishes are polygamous, and a sort of " pan- 
mixia" appears to occur among amphibians and reptiles of some 
species. 

The Ostrich tribe and a great many of the Gallince are poly- 
gamous. The Ostrich (Struthio camelus) presents an interesting 
intermediate stage. She still lays an enormous number of eggs, 
but the male of the species, apparently, has begun to carry out 
the onerous duties of incubation. Though the species is still 
decidedly polygamous,* the females take a share in sitting ; the 
male, however, does most of the work.f If the Ostrich were to 
make any intellectual advance, it would commence with the 
reduction of eggs and wives, and the increase in sexual and 

* On this point cf. S. G. Cronwright Schreiner, ' Zoologist,' 3 897, p. 115. 
— Ed. 

f Cf. loc. cit., pp. 109-110.— Ed. 



244 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

parental affection. The offspring would probably be more 
vigorous. 

The parental instinct of birds, once established, no doubt 
helped to produce the present complex condition of that reason 
and intelligent adjustment to surroundings which, without any 
danger of being called unscientific and anthropomorphic, I hold 
all birds incontestably display. 

The elementary condition of the instinct which I have 
sketched was not a very permanent one. The females would 
find it an economy of energy in looking for suitable localities by 
always returning to the same spot, and so the eggs instead of 
being scattered would be laid in a clutch ; or if in any district 
suitable localities were not numerous, the few localities that did 
exist would become overcrowded with eggs, and ground vermin 
and egg-eating birds would be attracted. This would threaten 
extinction, but the birds would respond by attempts, crude no 
doubt at first, at driving away their enemies and guarding the 
eggs. This would be the inception of the parental instinct. 
The male, being the more bellicose of the two sexes, would be 
the first to assume these watch-dog duties ; moreover, should 
this species be an egg-eating one itself, the males would be 
forced to guard the eggs against their own females. To do this 
more successfully the male would collect his spouse's scattered 
products, and this again would result in the eggs being laid in a 
clutch, for the female, through the action of natural selection 
and her own enlightened intelligence, would not be slow to fall 
in with the male's domestic arrangements. 

Another way of meeting these adverse circumstances and the 
onslaughts of enemies, but a way not adopted, was a further 
increase in the number of eggs — a tax on the organism as a 
machine, but not as an independent intelligence. In some such 
accidental atmosphere must have arisen the germ not only of 
the paternal instinct but of the whole of the bird's large and 
varied mental capabilities ; for, like charity, intellect begins at 
home, and just as civilization is dependent on the relative per- 
fection of the community, so the community is dependent on the 
condition of family life. 

If only for their own convenience, when undergoing the 
ordeal of egg-laying, the females would tend to be secretive 



PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 245 

over their nesting-site. They would choose quiet unfrequented 
nooks. Some would bury their eggs in the sand or under dense 
herbage. 

The instinct which prompts the Turtle to leave its eggs in 
the sand to be hatched by the heat of the sun is in no point 
inferior to that of the Maleo of Celebes, whose method of nidi- 
fication is precisely the same. This we may take to be a primi- 
tive case, and one where, in order to meet pressure imposed, 
natural selection chose to act on the sagacity of the female 
rather than on the pugnacity of the male. (Cf. p. 247, 1. 18.) 

The Brush-Turkeys (Talegallus) heap fermenting vegetable 
rubbish over their eggs, but show a slight superiority to the 
Maleo, for the male is said to guard the heap, which must 
certainly be a conspicuous object. 

All the females of each polygamous male of primitive birds 
probably laid their eggs together in one large nest. This obtains 
with the Talegallus, Struthio, and others. This habit, like a 
great many other primitive though ingrained remnants of the 
history of evolution, still persists in cropping up as " sports" in 
a variety of birds. Audubon found three females of Meleagris 
gallipavo which had laid eggs in one and the same nest. They 
were sitting on forty-two eggs, so that each bird covered fourteen 
eggs. The American Ehea is not averse to making use of a 
neighbour's burrow in which to lay her eggs, and so with 
Pheasants, Partridges, Wild Duck, and Long-tailed Tits. The 
Game-birds and Plovers, Gulls, &c, sometimes, in thus revert- 
ing, make the mistake of laying their eggs in the nest not of one 
of their own but another species. Such an accident as this was 
undoubtedly the origin of the parasitic habits of the Cuckoo. A 
respectable, homely, and affectionate Cuckoo perhaps impul- 
sively reverted to a nesting trait of her primitive ancestors by 
laying her eggs in the nest of an unsuspecting neighbour. 
When the species had generally commenced this retrogressive 
though luxurious method the nests of other species would have 
to be imposed upon, and so the well-known and parasitic habit 
of the Cuckoo would gradually be evolved. 

Molothrus bonariensis, a parasitic bird, throws an occasional 
"sport." Several females begin to build an untidy, irregular 
nest of their own, in which they together lay as many as fifteen 



246 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

to twenty eggs ; otherwise this species is strictly parasitic (see 
Darwin in his chapter on " Instinct " in the ' Origin '). 

Of course, a large number of birds of the present day show 
a tendency to the primitive habit of leaving their eggs to hatch 
of themselves, viz. Emus, Grebes, Plovers, and others. Some 
cover their eggs when leaving them (Anas boschas, and others) ; 
others, again, only during the period before the whole clutch is 
laid, while the bird is not sitting, viz. Parus major, P. cceruleus. 
And so, the male jealously guarding the eggs, or, in some cases, 
the female carefully secreting them, would ensure the safe pro- 
creation of the species, and that species would ultimately win in 
the struggle for existence. 

Though no one denies that Nature is profoundly extravagant, 
it is no contradiction of terms, and even more true to say that 
she is economical and thrifty too. No more eggs are laid by 
any bird than are necessary. With things at this juncture the 
necessity for so large a number of eggs would go, as the 
guarding male would eliminate so many of the risks. The 
reduction of eggs means an economy of food-yelk manufactured 
by the female, who would in turn receive an accentuation of 
vigour in some system other than her reproductive one. We 
must remember that Darwin's great principle of the struggle 
for existence is universal, and occurs even between the integrate 
parts of the same organism. In this case the nervous system 
benefits at the expense of the reproductive, while the young 
birds would undoubtedly be stronger and healthier. The pro- 
duction of healthier chicks would probably be the cause of a 
second lessening in the number of eggs, and this would again 
react on the young, and so on ad infinitum. Furthermore, the 
parents, instead of attempting to cope with an unwieldy number, 
would be able to give their undivided attention to the few chicks 
produced. 

But there would be limits. Every species ought to send out 
into the world annually enough young, not only barely to carry 
that species through along its own narrow groove, which its 
heredity and environment have cut for it, but also enough young 
to allow of the expansion of its area of distribution and power to 
cope with change of pressure ; for, under the rigorous action of 



PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 247 

natural selection, a species must advance, or its extinction is 
simply a matter of time. 

The stimulus to advance, viz. increased competition, would 
be responded to by the fact that a sufficient number of young 
would present a sufficient supply of variations, so that natural 
selection could grip the more favourable ones with sharper dis- 
crimination, and re-equip the species for its new environment. 

By reason of the female laying her eggs in a clutch and the 
male guarding them, the attention of both parents becomes 
localized on the nesting-site. A proud sense of ownership 
possesses the male, and a stealthy secretiveness the female. It 
does not require great imagination to see that the step from 
guarding the eggs to sitting on them is not a long one. The 
male to escape a superabundance of attacks would attempt to 
make himself less in evidence. When an enemy came in view 
he would bob down on the eggs, and, finding them warm and 
comfortable, would continue to sit. 

A curious fact is that among the birds, and even among the 
vertebrates generally, the male is generally the first to assume 
the responsibilities of domestic life. The male is the original 
mother. Consider the male's psychic qualities — he is the most 
vigorous, most pugnacious of animals, and the sex that courts, 
and, indeed, shows himself to be the most impressionable of 
birds. The female is passive. 

Among the fishes, the male, almost without exception, is the 
only sex which shows any attachment to its eggs, and even then 
it is rather a piscine affection. It is the male Surinam Toad 
(Pipa americana) which carefully places the eggs on the back of 
the female. It is the male of Rhinoderma da?-wini, of Chili, who 
carries the female's eggs ; it is the male of the Obstetric Frog 
{Alytes obstetricans) who assumes maternal duties, and twists 
the eggs round his hind limbs. Even among the invertebrates 
the maternal male is not unknown, viz. in the Pycnogonida. 
Among reptiles, however, it is apparently the female Python 
which sits on the eggs. Mammals, of course, produce sub- 
stantial anatomical evidence of the male's former association 
with the female in suckling and in the care of the young. In the 
birds, of course, the males of each species in the Ratitcs incubate, 
while onlv in a few instances are the females allowed to have a 



248 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

care in the eggs at all. And so it is with many other primitive 
birds. In the Bustard-Quails and Phalaropes, and one or two 
others, the male also does all the sitting, but this is not the 
primitive habit as developed in the Ostriches, because in the 
species I have named the female has taken on the characters of 
the male in every detail. She is larger in size, handsomer, and 
does all the courting, and she therefore assumes all the enjoy- 
ments as well as the hardships of that strange metamorphosis, 
and the male is left to sit. 

With the bird there is no deep inevitable relation between 
the female and extreme development of the parental instinct. 
Present conditions, where the female is more generally the 
maternal parent, are the results of character and difference of 
temperament in the two birds, and of relative benefits. For 
example, in a species where sexual selection had already acted, 
it would be disadvantageous for the brightly-coloured male to 
sit if the nest were on the open ground, and so the female would 
take his place. Eggs laid in holes in rotten timber — probably a 
favourite locality with primitive birds — would require assiduous 
incubation because of the lack of heat, and it is obvious that this 
warmth would be amply provided if a division of labour occurred 
among the two parents. This division of labour would prevent 
any disastrous weakening effects in the male when he is forced 
to carry out all the incubation himself. The Spotted Emu 
(Dromceus irroratus), in captivity, has been known to sit for fifty 
days, during which time it took no food, and only left the eggs 
five times. The duties of incubation are burthensome at any 
time, and the males of many species drive their females on to 
the eggs, and vice versa. 

When once incubation became necessary, it was seen that 
the female was the more suited for it. It would suit the cock- 
bird more to stand by and fight. She would be acted on by 
various physiological changes ; she would grow broody and want 
to sit of her own accord. As she grew more and more the 
sitting bird she would develop that keen sense of possession 
which would tend to create a somewhat mystic tie, as Prof. J. A. 
Thomson thinks, between the hen and her eggs. It is a fact well 
known to all that those hens which do not get broody lay more 
eggs than do those which frequently become broody. This fact 



PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 249 

affords an illustration of the idea that birds with no parental 
instinct lay large quantities of eggs. 

An extreme case of "physiological affection" is met with in 
the Emperor Penguin of the Antarctic Eegions. The females 
are so filled with a desire to sit that, according to Capt. Scott, 
they line up behind a sitting female so as to be ready to take 
her place whenever she rises to leave the egg. 

I wonder that more species have not adopted the happy-go- 
lucky and lazy method of the Owls in not waiting till the full 
clutch is laid before they sit. The females sit as soon as an egg 
makes an appearance. The benefits of this are clear as day- 
light. It lessens the labour of the parents in hunting for and 
providing food for five helpless young at once, while the incuba- 
tion is cut short as the warmth from the bodies of the nestlings 
keeps up the incubation temperature of the unhatched eggs. 
Probably this is adopted more often than is usually thought. 
The eggs get buried beneath the young, and the observer, as a 
rule, is satisfied without lifting them to look beneath. I found 
Tree-Pipits', a Ked-backed Shrike's, and Chaffinches' nests this 
year with eggs buried beneath well- developed young. The eggs 
hatched subsequently. 

II. — Other Aspects. 

Concurrently with the development of the incubation instinct 
arose the nest-building habit, the chief factors directing which 
probably were the personal comfort of the sitting bird first, then 
the protection of the young, and finally the aesthetic taste of the 
builders. If a female can choose and detect minute differences 
in form and colour of the males, surely she exercises those 
powers in the construction of her nest ! 

All birds were formerly ground -birds most probably. Most 
of the ground-builders of to-day do little else than breast a 
hollow in the sand or scrape one in the earth. Subsequently 
they were driven to the trees, or to holes in the earth and in 
timber. 

When once the parental instinct had secured a firm founda- 
tion, and the ties between birds and their offspring became 
strong and close, all those remarkable tactics, such as the 
lame devices of the Ducks and Plovers, would be evolved. I 



250 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

will not suggest that the Plover is fully conscious of the signi- 
ficance of her " lame assumptions," but in a case like this, if 
we lamely assume the habit to be a blind instinct, we are only 
raising a dust and then complaining that we cannot see. When 
Spencer calls instinct " compound reflex action " nobody is any 
the wiser, but if we accept that every instinct is mingled with 
"a little dose of reason," as Huber said, then the clouds lift. 
We understand, then, the relations between instinct and reason ; 
reason and intelligence increase at the expense of instinct, just 
as inhibition gains control over reflex action, and in proportion 
with the growth of independent volition. 

Nothing is more certain that when birds possessed no parental 
instinct the young hatched in an active condition, so that they 
were able to look after themselves ; but when parental instinct 
had advanced sufficiently the young came to be born in a naked 
and helpless condition, for the male, having permanently ac- 
quired the habit of guarding the eggs, would next begin to guard 
the young birds that hatched from those eggs. And the result 
of this was that there occurred the possibility of the young 
hatching in a less developed state, and in a more or less helpless 
condition. 

But the benefits that would accrue from this are not at first 
sight particularly obvious. Of course, when birds come to sit, 
smaller eggs would be a necessity, or otherwise the parents 
would be unable to cover the whole clutch ; while extremely 
large eggs would take a long time to hatch and cause exhaustion 
to the sitting bird. Again, the reduction of the food-yelk would 
benefit the producer — the hen — and the young would become 
healthier. 

Among those species where the helpless nestling chiefly 
obtains, it will be found that they are for the most part arboreal 
in their habits and great fliers. They are not runners or swim- 
mers. Consequently the young do not possess any running or 
swimming ability, and the parents build their nests for the most 
part in trees. If their young, therefore, developed the temporary 
art of ambulation before the acquisition of the permanent power 
of flight, they would soon run over the edge of the nest and break 
their necks. If, on the contrary, they were hatched already with 
the power of flight, as is the case with the Megapode of Celebes. 



PARENTAL INSTINCT IN BIRDS. 251 

the eggs would require to be large, which, as I have pointed out, 
would be an impossibility with incubating species. 

Even admitting that the size of the egg may not be the all- 
important factor, and assuming that it is the precocious develop- 
ment of the nervous system, allowing of co-ordination of move- 
ment, which regulates the conditions of chicks at birth, there 
must still remain the objection that precocity does not ever mean 
physical strength, and five minutes' chat with a gamekeeper 
soon convinces one of the delicate susceptibilities of Grouse and 
Pheasant chicks. So it is necessarily an advantage to a bird 
capable of caring for them to produce a few — say, four or five — 
helpless though healthy young rather than a large number 
of delicate and precocious ones. 

Superficially, it looks a convenience at least for any species to 
give birth to young able to look after themselves ; but the chicks, 
for example, of the Partridge must run a greater number of 
risks than the parent, possessing at the same time less ability to 
cope with them. Consequently the Partridge has to produce as 
many as ten young at a brood, not because it has less parental 
instinct than the Thrush (who would assert that?), who produces 
four, but because its young are active and run into all kinds of 
dangers. Active young are really antagonistic to the parental 
instinct, and hence the advantages of helpless young to a species 
which has developed this instinct. 



252 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE 'INDEX 
ZOOLOGICUS' OF C. 0. WATERHOUSE. 

(Second Series.) 

By E. Bergroth, C.M.Z.S. 

In my first series of additions to this work (Zool. 1905, 
pp. 63-67) about three hundred names were recorded ; in this 
second series nearly two hundred and fifty further names are 
added. As in the first series, only names published before 1901 
are included. 

Additions. 



Acantlierpestes, Scudder, Myr., 1882. 
Actinelius, Haeckel, Prot., 1865. 
iEdeophasnta, Scudder, Orth., 1885. 
.ZEgyria, Claparede <£ Lachmann, 

Prot. 
Agriliuni, Westwood, Col., 1854. 
Agrionides, Charpentier, Neur.,1840. 
Alaurina, Busch, Verm. 
Arnphicosmus, Coquillett, Dipt., 1885. 
Anandrus, Menge, Arachn., 1856. 
Anaxandra, Stal, Orth., 1877. 
Anisonerna, Dujardin, Prot. 
Anornalites, Fritsch, Col., 1884. 
Anthobothrium, Beneden, Verm., 

1849. 
Anthracoscorpio, Ktista, Arachn., 

1888. 
Aphioides, Rondani, Hem. 
Arabella, Grube, Verm., 1851. 
Arantia, Stal, Orth., 1874. 
Arrhacia, Herrich- Schaeffer, Lep. 
Arrhostus, Beuter, Hern., 1884. 
Arthropleurion, Goldenberg, Myr., 

1877. 
Atrophopalpus, Toivnsend, Dipt., 

1892. 
Banza, Walker, Orth., 1870. 
Belostomates, Schoberlin, Hem., 

1888. 
Bematiscus, Cope, Mamm., 1892. 
Bcehmia, Hoek, Pantop., 1888. 
Borana, Dohrn, Pantop. 
Brachinites, Fritsch, Col., 1882. 



Bradyaphis, Mordvilko, Hem., 1895. 
Branchiomma, Claparede, Verm., 

1868. 
Calamoptera, Saussure, Orth., 1861. 
Calanus, Saussure, Orth., 1886. 
Calligorgia, Gray, Ccel. 
Capulacrnaea, Sars, Moll. 
Carabocera, Ganglbauer, Col., 1889. 
Castanella, Haeckel, Prot., 1879. 
Castanidium, Haeckel, Prot., 1879. 
Castanissa, Haeckel, Prot., 1879. 
Castanopsis, Haeckel, Prot., 1879. 
Cerambycites, Deichmiiller, Col., 

1886. 
Ceriodaphnia, Dana, Crust., 1847. 
Cerosipha, Guercio, Hem., 1900. 
Chaetosorna, Claparede, Verm., 1863. 
Charusesipho, Dai-win, Crust., 1854. 
Charnidas, Stal, Orth., 1875. 
Choanotsenia, Baillet, Verm. 
Chonionotus, Jordan, Myr., 1854. 
Cicadinella, Geinitz, Hern., 1884. 
Cimicidium, Westwood, Hem., 1854. 
Cistelites, Heer, Col., 1865. 
Clavigerus, Szepligeti, Hem., 1883. 
Clotenia, Dohrn, Pantop. 
Colossendeis, Jarzynsky, Pantop. 
Correbia, Herrich- Schaeffer, Lep. 
Cosmophyllum, Blanchard, Orth., 

1852. 
Cremodes, Guenee, Lep. 
Crinodes, Herrich- Schaeffer , Lep. 
Crithe, Brady, Crust., 1874. 



INDEX ZOOLOGICUS: 



253 



Cyclocoris, Heer, Hem., 1865. 
Cycloderma, Heer, Col., 1865. 
Cystostylus, Whitfield, Prot., 1880. 
Davainea, Blanchard, Verm. 
Decalopoda, Eights, Pantop. 
Derocardia, Saussure, Orth., 1895. 
Diacanthodis, Walker, Orth., 1870. 
Dicaera, Bell, Dipt., 1888. 
Dicyema, Kblliker, Prot. 
Dileptus, Dujardin, Prot. 
Dinopbrya, Biitschli, Prot. 
Diplophyllus, Saussure, Orth., 1859. 
Dipylidiurn, Leuckart, Verm. 
Discoptila, Pantel, Orth., 1890. 
Dolichoglossus, Spengel, Moll., 1893. 
Dysepicritus, Beuter, Hem., 1884. 
Echinoderes, Dujardin, Verm., 1851. 
Ectotrypa, Saussure, Orth., 1874. 
Elatobia, Herrich-Schaeffer, Lep., 

1853. 
Eocicada, Oppenheim, Hem., 1888. 
Epicharmus, Stal, Orth., 1875. 
Eriococcus, Targioni, Hem. 
Eriphyla, Gobi, Moll. 
Euhadrocerus, Beuter, Hem., 1884. 
Eunemertes, Vaillant, Verm., 1890. 
Eupagurus, Brandt, Crust., 1851. 
Eupolia, Hubrecht, Verm., 1887. 
Euthernisto, Bovallius, Crust., 1887. 
Fabellovena, Oppenheim, Hym., 

1885. 
Feronites_, Fritsch, Col., 1884. 
Flammulina, Martens, Moll., 1873. 
Galerucites, Oppenheim, Col., 1888. 
Gastrostornum, Siebold, Verm., 

1878. 
Geroneura, Mattheiv, Neur., 1889. 
Gorgopis, Menge, Arachn., 1854. 
Grylloderes, Bolivar, Orth., 1894. 
Gryllomyia, Seidl, Orth., 1837. 
Gyrinites, Heer, Col., 1852. 
Haemodipsa, Tennent, Verm. 
Haptomerus, Faust, Col., 1889. 
Hemidina, Walker, Orth., 1869. 
Hersilioides, Gourret, Arachn., 1887. 
Heteracis, Dujardin, Verm., 1845. 
Hilarites, Heer, Dipt., 1856. 
Homalostomum, Beneden, Verm. 
Hormomya, Mbrch, Moll. 
Hypselodoris, Stimpson, Moll., 1855. 
Ischnopoda, Grandidier, Orth., 1869. 
Kampecaris, Page, Myr., 1856. 
Karabidion, Montr ouzier, Orth., 

1855. 
Lamiites, Fritsch, Col., 1888. 
Lestoblattina, Woodward, Ortb., 

1887. 



Leucotina, Adams, Moll., 1860. 
Libellulites, Charpentier, Neur., 

1840. 
Libellulium, Westwood, Neur., 1854. 
Ligyda, Bafinesque, Crust. 
Limnocbares, Heyden, Hem., 1862. 
Lindia, Dujardin, Rot., 1841. 
Lionotus, Wrzesniovsky, Prot. 
Lipomyzon, Cope, Pise, 1881. 
Lithoplanes, Scudder, Col., 1886. 
Lobeza, Herrich-Schaeffer, Lep. 
Lobophyllus, Saussure, Orth., 1859. 
Lophonotus, Menge, Myr., 1854. 
Lopbospira, Whitfield, Moll. 
Lydella, Dujardin, Arachn. 
Lyttonia, Waagen, Brachiop. 
Macrostomum, Schmidt, Verm. 
Mecynostomum, Beneden, Verm. 
Mengea, Grote, Col., 1886. 
Mesobaetis, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Mesoblattina, Scudder, Orth., 1885. 
Mesoleuctra, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Mesonemura, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Mesoneta, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Mesopsychoda, Brauer, Dipt., 1889. 
Metaporcitus, Costa, Hem., 1834. 
Methylla, Hansen, Dipt., 1883. 
Microgryllus, Philippi, Orth., 1863. 
Muceria, Stal, Orth., 1878. 
Muscaria, Giebel, Dipt., 1846. 
Myelophilus, Eichhoff, Col. 
Nanthacia, Scudder, Orth., 1890. 
Necropsocus, Scudder, Neur., 1883. 
Nectocarcinus, Milne-Edtvards, 

Crust., 1860. 
Neocles, Stal, Orth., 1875. 
Neopallene, Dohrn, Pantop. 
Newnhamia, King, Crust., 1855. 
Ocnerites, Oppenheim, Lep., 1885. 
Omalia, Beneden, Neur., 1867. 
Ornmatocarcinus, White, Crust., 

1852. 
Ophryocotyle, Fries, Verm. 
Opisthopbylax, Menge, Arachn., 1856. 
Orophus, Saussure, Orth., 1859. 
Orthosolenia, Beuter, Hem., 1884. 
Oryctites, Oppenheim, Col., 1888. 
Otiorrhynchites, Fritsch, Col., 1882. 
Owenia, Delle Chiaje, Verm., 1842. 
Oxyonyx, Faust, Col., 1885. 
Pacbnepteryx, Brunner, Orth., 1865. 
Pachymeridium, Geinitz, Hem., 

1880. 
Palaeocossus, Oppen7ieim,Jje-p., 1885. 
Palaeophlebia, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Palseopsocus, Kolbe, Neur., 1883. 
Palenarthrus, Scudder, Myr., 1890. 



254 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



Palinostylus, Bate, Crust. 
Palotta, Walker, Ortk., 1869. 
Panorpidium, Westivood, Orth., 1854. 
Paradoxoides, Motschulsky, Neur., 

1851. 
Pararnaya. De Haan, Crust. 
Paraneruobius, Saussure, Orth., 

1877. 
Parapleurites, Bedtenbacher, Orth., 

1889. 
Parattus, Scudder, Arachn., 1882. 
Parkeria, Oabb, Moll. 
Paroacanthus, Saussure, Orth., 1859. 
Patalene, Herrich-Schaeffer, Lep. 
Patiscus, Stal, Orth., 1877. 
Peliopelta, Uhler, Hem., 1886. 
Periboea, Philippi, Pantop., 1843. 
Periphylla, Steenstrup, Ccel., 1837. 
Petaloptera, Saussure, Orth., 1859. 
Petaloptila, Pantel, Orth., 1890. 
Phenacohelix, Suter, Moll., 1892. 
Philobrya, Carpenter, Moll., 1872. 
Phlceophthiridium, V. d. Hoeven, 

Hem., 1849. 
Phragrnatoecites, Oppenheim, Hem., 

1885. 
Phryganeidium, Westwood, Neur., 

1854. 
Phyllobothrium, Beneden, Verm., 

1849. 
Physocypria, Vdvra, Crust., 1898. 
Physoderes, Westwood, Hem., 1844. 
Pilumnopeus, Milne-Edwards, 

Crust., 1867. 
Platyperla, Brauer, Neur., 1889. 
Primnoella, Gray, Coel. 
Prionidus, Uhler, Hem., 1886. 
Procarabus, Oppenheim, Col., 1888. 
Prodytiscus, Oppenheim, Col., 1888. 
Progeotrypes, Oppenheim, Col., 1888. 
Prolystra, Oppenheim, Hem., 1888. 
Prorhynchus, Schultze, Verm., 1851. 
Proscorpius, Whitfield, Arachn., 

1885. 
Pteromus, Serres, Hym., 1829. 
Ptychodon, Ancey, Moll., 1888. 
Ehabdogaster, Metschnikoff, Verm., 

1866. 
Bhapha, Giebel, Neur., 1856. 
Ehaphidium, Westwood, Neur., 1854. 
Ehipidorrhabdus, Oppenheim, Hym., 

1885. 
Rhizocera, Kirk, Hem., 1897. 



Ehizomaria, Rartig, Hem., IS 
Rhizophthiridium, V. de Ho , 

Hem., 1849. 
Ehombogaster, Dallas, Hem., , 1. 
Ehynchothorax, Costa, Panto',. 

1861. 
Saccocirrhus, Bobretzky, Vern' , 

1871. 
Sanna, Walker, Orth., 1870. 
Saurita, Herrich-Schaeffer, Lep. 
Sciobia, Burmeister, Orth., 1838. 
Seniaulus, Hey den, Col., 1866. 
Sialium, Westivood, Orth., 1854. 
Silphites, Fritsch, Col., 1882. 
Siphonosphasra, Midler, Prot., 1858. 
Solenopus, Sars, Moll. 
Spongioderma, Kblliker, Coal. 
Stenophylla, Westwood, Orth., 1845. 
Stictosynechia, Beuter, Hem., 1884. 
Stylarioides, Claparede, Verm., 

1868. 
Subcallipterus, Mord,vilko, Hem., 

1894. 
Sybriacosoma, Jacoby, Col., 1895. 
Symydobius, Mordvilko, Hem., 1895. 
Synagoga, Norman, Crust. 
Syntomaptera, Tepper, Orth., 1893. 
Systenocerus, Weise, Col. 
Tedla, Walker, Orth., 1869. 
Tethneus," Scudder, Arachn., 1882. 
Theramenes, Stal, Orth., 1875. 
Timarchopsis, Ganglbauer, Col., 

1889. 
Tineites, Germar, Neur., 1843. 
Tineites, Kawall, Lep., 1876. 
Tivia, Walker, Orth., 1869. 
Tricala, Walker, Orth., 1869. 
Trichopteridium, Geinitz, Neur., 

1880. 
Trigsenes, Dohrn, Pantop. 
Triodonta, Williston, Dipt., 1885. 
Tristichochseta, Panceri, Verm., 

1878. 
Trocnada, Walker, Hem., 1858. 
Ululodes, Currie, Neur., 1899. 
Uronema, Dujardin, Prot. 
Velenovskya, Fritsch, Col., 1888. 
Wollastoniella, Beuter, Hem., 1884. 
Wollastonites, Heer, Col., 1865. 
Xerampelus, Guercio, Hem., 1900. 
Xestops, Cope, Eept. 
Zalmona, Giebel, Neur., 1856. 



INDEX ZOOLOGICUS: 255 



Corrections. 

for Anthracothemma read Anthracothremma. 
, for Aristocarabus, Beitter, read Aristocarabus, Semenov. 
i, for Brachycerus, Olivier, 1889, read 1789. 
2, for Brontes, Kugelann, 1898, read 1798. 

9, omit Clopteroeoris; it is recorded correctly on the same page as 
Closterocoris. 
86, omit Cordolydon ; it is recorded correctly on the same page as 
Cordylodon. 

97, for Cyrtodisea read Cyrtodisca. 

103, for Dermestoides, Herbst, 1883, read 1783. 

120, for Elasmocerus read Elasrnocera ; for Elateroides, Schneider, 

1892, read 1792. 
125, omit Epactius ; it is a nonien nudum. 
131, for Eucalypta read Encalypta. 
196, for Leptocala read Leptocola. 
209, for Macrosiphum, (Estlund, 1886, read Macrosiphum, Passerini, 

I860. 
303, omit Probiscidoris ; it is recorded correctly on the same page as 

Proboscidocoris. 
326, for Rhaphidochila, Kerremans, read Bhaphidochila, Jahovleff. 

rections to Waterhouse's 'Supplementary List ' (London, 1904). 

4, for Chrondropsis read Chondropsis. 

6, for Hydropomorpha read Hydroporomorpha. 

Corrections to Scudder's ' Nomenclator.' 

98, for Didynaozooa read Didymozoon. 
174, for Leucastra read Lucastea. 

195, for Metoponia, Guenee, 1852, read Metoponia, Duponchel, 1844. 

208, for Nemobia read Nemobius. 

326, for Tridactylus, Latreille, 1807, read Tridactylus, Olivier, 1789. 



256 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



IS THE OKAPI IDENTICAL WITH THE "THAHASH" 
OF THE JEWS? 

By S. M. Pbrlmann. 

Quite recently the January number (1904) of the ' Wester- 
mannsche Monatshefte ' first reached my hands. My attention 
was at once drawn to an article by Georg Krause entitled " The 
Okapi ; an Animal newly discovered in the Primitive Forests of 
Africa." As I had formerly read with interest in different news- 
papers some short notes and remarks regarding this new mam- 
mal, I attentively perused this publication, and became more 
convinced of what I had surmised long since, namely, that this 
animal, which is new with us, was already known to the Jews 
at the time of Moses under the name of- " Thahash." 

I consider my suggestion a probable one, but I fear I am 
very late (post festum) with it, and it would be very curious 
if nobody had thought of it till now ; but, regardless of being too 
late, I will not shrink from compiling the arguments on which I 
base my views. 

Before quoting the sources on which my suggestion is based, 
I consider it necessary to give some quotations from the article 
on the Okapi by Krause. There it is said (p. 465) : "... Their 
[the aborigines'] information and scanty narratives were gener- 
ally limited to the description of the Okapi as a zebra-like 
creature with a dark brown upper part of the body, and it has 
more than one hoof." Further (p. 466) : " Now it became appa- 
rent that the Okapi is not a horse but a ruminating animal." 
And (p. 467) : " The most interesting part of the skull of the 
Okapi, after all, is the forehead. There are three elevated spots 
to be perceived distinctly ; two of them on those places where 
other animals have the horns, and the third one between the 
eyes, at the very centre of the root of the nose." 

I will now adduce my arguments for the view that thi r 
animal is the same as is called in the Bible (Exod. xxv. 5, anc 

I 



OK API AND " THAHASH" OF THE JEWS. 257 

xxxv. 7) by the name " Thahash," and that the Talmudisls 
most probably knew by tradition more or less about the qualities 
and conditions of the Okapi. 

It is said (Exodus xxv. 3-5) : " And this is the offering 
which ye shall take of them ; gold, and silver, and brass, 
and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' 
hair. And rams' skins dyed red, and ' Thahash ' skins, and 
shittim wood." Luther and almost all Christian translators 
of the Bible translate the word " Thahash " by " Badger " (see 
notes by Kitto to the ' Illustrated Family Bible ' ; see also James 
Inglis's ' Bible Text Cyclopaedia ' and John Endre's ' Dictionary 
of the Holy Bible ') ; whereas most Hebrew translators left the 
word untranslated in due deference to the Talmudists, paying 
full attention to the doubts expressed by them in the Talmud. 
What really is to be understood by " Thahash " ? The renowned 
Bible commentator " Bashi " has abstained in both verses in 
Exodus from giving any explanation whatever for the word ; he 
merely quoted the Talmud : " This animal existed only at that 
time," or, to express the meaning of the Talmud more properly, 
" the animal existed only for that time and for this special pur- 
pose, namely, to be used as a cover at the Tabernacle." 

We find the animal " Thahash " mentioned once more by the 

prophet Ezekiel (xvi. 10), " Vaenahlekh Thahash," and there it 

is translated by the same commentator, "Bashi," by " calzaite 

Taisson." But there is some reason for supposing that this 

translation does not originate from " Bashi," but was adopted 

_rom a marginal note, and it proceeds from the " Goluth 

" 7 i3hudah " (Venetia, 1612), by the Italian scholar, Leon Mo- 

.ena, who translated " Thahash " by " calzaited Tasso," as 

'Bashi" never contradicts himself, and never deviates from an 

interpretation once acknowledged by him as correct. Gesenius 

ives three translations for " Thahash " : one as meaning to 

.enote the colour of the skin (as the Septuagint and Vulgate 

xke it in translating by "hyacinth colour"), being something 

ke the colour of a dolphin ; the second translation denoting the 

nning and finishing of the skin, meaning " morocco-like " ; and 

s third translation, to which Gesenius is inclined to agree, is an 

imal named " Thahash," and to be translated by " Badger" or 

Dolphin." In the 'Encyclopaedia Biblica,' edited by Canon Cheyne 

Zool 4th ser. vol. XII.. July. 1008. x 



258 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

ahd Dr. Sutherland Black, besides the same translations as quoted 
by Gesenius, there are other ones, viz. sub 4, that " Thahash " 
means " Thaish " (Ram = he-Goat), which is considered by the 
editors as " less probable," because rams' skins, dyed red, are 
separately mentioned in the same verse under the name "alim"; 
and sub 5, what the editors consider as " most probable," is to be 
translated by " Egyptian leather." I cannot see the probability 
of this translation ; it could be well applied in Ezekiel xvi. 10, 
in connection with " Vaenahlekh," which means, "I will attire 
ye with shoes of Thahash," but never could be applied in 
Exodus in connection with the word " oroth," which means 
" skins," and proves that the word " Thahash " connected with 
it means the name of the animal whereof the skin comes, like 
" oroth alim," meaning " skins of rams." The [ Jewish Ency- 
clopaedia ' is inclined to take it as " wether skins," but I fully 
agree with the ' Encyclopaedia Biblica ' and call this translation 
" less probable," for the reasons mentioned. 

I will now quote the descriptions of "Thahash" by the 
Talmud, and thus it will be seen that the "Okapi" is probably 
identical with the " Thahash " of the Bible. 

' Talmud-Bably, Tractat Sabbath,' 23 a : Eabbi Joseph, answer- 
ing the question put before him whether the " Thahash" which 
was living at the time of Moses (i. e. an animal not known 
afterwards) was a clean or unclean one, says : " As to it, there 
cannot be even a question raised, as we are taught elsewhere 
that only skins coming from clean animals were permitted to be 
used for things destined for holy purposes."* This answer was 
objected to for the following reason : Rabbi Nehemiah has said, 
" There was in the Tabernacle one cover alike to ' Tala-elon ' or 
' Kala-elon ' (which means ' Weasel ' or ' Marten '), and these 
animals certainly are unclean ones ; wherefore the explanatory 
answer from Rabbi Joseph, ' The cover only resembles in colour 
the said animals, but not the very skins of these unclean ones.' " 
To this Rabbi Joseph added : " Accordingly, the translation of 
' Onkoloss ' of the word ' Thahash ' by ' Sossgavna ' is to be 
understood as of an 'enchanting colour.'" Further, 'Talmud- 

* Clean animals are to be discriminated from unclean ones by the 
following marks : "Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and 
cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat " (Leviticus xi. 3). 



OKAPI AND " THAHASH" OF THE JEWS. 259 

Bably, Tractat Sabbath,' 28 b : Rabbi Myer said, " The animal 
' Thahash,' which lived at the time of Moses, was of a particular 
species, and the scientists were unable to decide whether it was 
a species of cattle or of wild beast. It had one horn on its fore- 
head. It was discovered by Moses at that time. Moses had 
used its skin for the Tabernacle, and it disappeared afterwards." 
In ' Talmud-Jerusalmy, Tractat Sabbath,' p. 18, we find the 
following discussion : " What is to be understood by ' Thahash ' ? 
Eabbi Yehudah said ' Tainun ' ; it means the colour of the 
cover. Rabbi Nehemiah said ' Galaktania,' i. e. ' Weasel ' or 
' Marten,' of the skins of which the cover was made. All other 
Rabbis said it meant the name of the animal, and a clean 
animal." In ' Midrass Tanhoumah ' (portion Troumah) we 
read: "Rabbi Yehudah said the 'Thahash' belonged to the 
section of clean animals ; it was a big animal of the steppe, and 
had one horn on its forehead, and its skin was of six colours." It 
is evident that this Rabbi takes the translation of "Onkoloss" 
by " Sossgavna " as "sess" (six) "gavna" (colours). Rabbi 
Nehemiah said : " This animal was a miraculous creature ; it 
was purposely created for the adornment of the Tabernacle, and 
as soon as its calling was fulfilled it was taken from the world." 
In ' Midrasz Koheleth ' (paragraph 80) we find the following : 
" What is to be understood by ' Thahash ' ? Rabbi Yehudah said : 
' Altania ' (blue coloured) ; Rabbi Nehemiah said : ' Glaktania ' 
(Weasel or Marten)." 

From all this it is evident that the Talmudists, relying on 
traditions and religious precepts, considered the " Thahash " to 
be a clean animal — i. e. a ruminating one — with parted hoofs, 
and that it was of a beautiful colour and had one horn on its 
forehead. All these marks are found again on the recently re- 
discovered "Okapi," although it had since that time disappeared. 

I add some remarks in my correspondence with the zoologist, 
Georg Krause, of Berlin : — I am sure that the Commentators 
who took " Thahash" (plural " Thoshim") as describing a certain 
colour (among them the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and Josephus, 
Antiq. iii. vi. i.) have erred like the others who translated it by 
" Badger " (Luther and most others),* or by " Dolphin " (Dr. 

* It is worthy to be noted that Luther translated " Thahash " in 
Exodus xxv. 5, by "Badger," and in Exekiel xvi. 10, by " morocco." 

x2 



260 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Julius Fuerst). The first translation (colour) is against the 
Hebrew grammar ; if colour was meant it ought to be said 
" oroth metokhoshim," instead of " oroth Thoshim," like "oroth 
alim modomin," and in Ezekiel xvi. 10 it is quite unthinkable to 
take " Thahash " as a colour ; and therefore those Commentators 
who strictly keep to the grammar, e.g. "Bashi" and "Eben- 
Ezra," have left the word untranslated, restricting themselves to 
the statement " Thahash " was an animal known at that time. 
The second translation, " Badger " or "Dolphin," is decidedly 
against the Jewish religious spirit of the time when the Taber- 
nacle was erected. It would be preposterous to admit that 
Moses, at the same time when he dictated the severe precepts of 
"clean" and "unclean," should have chosen skins of unclean 
animals for the adornment of the Holy Tabernacle of God. 

As a final and authoritative argument, I take the characters 
which are found alike in the " Okapi " as well as in the " Tha- 
hash " ; they are both "ruminating," "parted hoofs" (which 
mark both as clean animals), and have a " horn-like elevation 
at the root of the nose " (which induced the Talmudists to speak of 
one horn)* " and the enchanting colour of the skin." There is no 
doubt that the " Thahash " was of a beautiful colour, otherwise 
its skin would have been dyed and coloured for beauty, as the 
rams' skins were dyed red (Exod. xxv. 5). 

* And the imagination was used to construct " only one horn " of the 
elevation between the eyes, and to make the miraculous " Thahash" some- 
what resemble the legendary miraculous bull, who was the first sacrifice 
of Adam. Of this bull, Rabbi Yehudah (' Talmud-Bably, Tractat Sabbath,' 
p. 286), interpreting a verse in Psalm lxix., says, " The bull which was the 
first sacrifice of Adam had only one horn on his forehead." 



( 261 ) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING A 
CRUISE TO THE EAST ON BOARD THE 
'VALHALLA' R. Y. S., 1907-1908. 

By Geoffkey Meade- Waldo, B.A., F.E.S. 

I had the good fortune to receive an invitation to accom- 
pany Lord Crawford on his magnificent yacht, the ' Valhalla,' 
on a cruise to the Far East during the past winter, and it is 
hoped that a few remarks on things collected or observed may 
not be without interest. 

In 'Three Voyages of a Naturalist,' by Mr. M. J. Nicoll, ail 
that is necessary to explain the reason for such a prolonged 
cruise will be found ; also a full description of the yacht herself. 
In the event, however, of there being readers who have not had 
the opportunity of seeing the book, I will briefly give the details. 
The ' Valhalla ' is a full-rigged ship, and is in that respect 
unique among yachts ; she is fitted with auxiliary and steam- 
power capable of a good average ten knots per hour. <Her ton- 
nage is 1490 tons, and, needless to say, she is fitted out in the 
most comfortable fashion, and is the beau ideal of a ship for 
cruising in the Tropics. 

I joined the yacht at Cowes on Nov. 8th, but partly on 
account of a dense fog we were kept there until the 12th, and 
we did not actually leave the English coast until the 15th, being 
forced into Dartmouth and Falmouth before we were able to 
cross to Ushant. 

I will now give briefly the extent of our cruise before going 
into details of any one place : — 

Gibraltar, Nov. 19th-21st; Port Said, Nov. 29th; Cairo, 
Nov. 30th-Dec. 3rd ; Aden, Dec. llth-13th ; Ceylon (Colombo), 
Dec. 24th-29th ; Kandy, Dec. 29th-Jan. 3rd, 1908 ; Trincoma- 
lee, Jan. 8th-13th ; Pulo Way, North Sumatra, Jan. 23rd ; 
Singapore, Jan. 26th-31st ; Johore, Feb. lst-3rd ; Borneo 
(Sarawak), Feb. llth-14th. Malay Peninsula : Malacca, Feb. 



262 THE ZOOLOGIST 

18th ; Port Dixon, Feb. 19th ; Port Swettenham (expedition to 
Kwala Lumpur and Semangko Gap), Feb. 20th-23rd ; Penang, 
Feb. 24th-25th ; Pulo Way, Feb. 27th-March 3rd ; Colombo, 
March 7th-12th ; Aden, March 20th-21st ; Suez, March 26th. 

After entering the Mediterranean we went to Naples, and 
after a short stay there cruised to the Piiviera, eventually getting 
to Gibraltar on April 26th, and to Cowes on May 3rd. 

The greater part of the time available in port I spent in 
collecting insects. By this means a good number of specimens 
were obtained, including species of Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, 
Diptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, and Homoptera, 
the two first-named groups forming the bulk of the collection. 

It is only natural that, when landing for the first time in a 

tropical country, one should feel quite overpowered by the wealth 

of life in every form, the consequence being that many objects of 

the greatest interest either pass unnoticed, or else, if noticed, 

only in the most perfunctory manner. It is entirely otherwise 

at sea, where almost everything that alights on board can be 

either captured or observed, and some creatures, seemingly of 

feeble flight, boarded us at considerable distances from the 

shore. Thus, a moth of the "Thorn" family and a "Snout" 

were seen on board far out at sea off the Algerian coast on 

Nov. 25th. A dragonfly, two small moths, two locusts, and a 

beetle joined us in the Ked Sea, and when still over one hundred 

miles from Colombo a "Skipper" butterfly came on board. 

When rounding Dronga Head a butterfly (Belenois taprobana) 

appeared on deck, and again, when we were quite four hundred 

miles from Ceylon en route for Pulo Way, a Sphingid moth 

(Chcerocampa theylia) was captured. In the Straits of Malacca I 

had quite an exciting evening (Jan. 25th), quite a number of 

large Cicadas boarding us and making a great noise as they flew 

up against the deck-awnings ; two species of Macroglossa and 

other moths also came on board that evening, as well as a large 

beetle. We also had visits from birds — Larks, Chaffinches, and 

a Starling accompanying us in the Mediterranean to Port Said — 

and quite a number of spring migrants joining us on the journey 

home. House- Sparrows came on board when we were rounding 

Ushant, quite forty miles from land, on May 1st. 

It would be tedious to go through the numerous delightful 



NOTES MADE DURING A CRUISE TO THE EAST. 263 

excursions made during the cruise, for there were many such, 
but some account of our stay in Ceylon may be interesting. The 
first thing to attract the notice of a naturalist would assuredly 
be the number of Grows (Corvus splendens) and Brahmini Kites 
in Colombo Harbour. They are both invaluable scavengers, and 
consequently nobody thinks of disturbing them. The tameness 
of the Crows was extraordinary, and the ship's cat had a most 
tantalizing time with them, as they did everything but allow 
him to catch them. I never saw a Kite perched in the rigging, 
though they were constantly round the ship. The Crows would 
sit anywhere and everywhere. 

From Colombo I made my first excursion into the jungle, 
accompanied by one of the sailors, a most interesting and 
helpful companion. I caught an early train to a place called 
Padukka, some twenty-five miles from Colombo, and from there 
we proceeded in a bullock-hackory towards Labugama, where 
are the reservoirs containing the water-supply for Colombo. 
The first thing of note was a large Eat- Snake, lazily sunning 
itself; they also are protected by the natives, being great de- 
stroyers of vermin. 

Butterflies and a few day-flying moths were to be seen, 
among the butterflies the most noticeable being the stately 
Ornithoptera clarsius, but they were flying at a great height, and 
were quite unapproachable. Many fine species were captured, 
including some beautiful members of the "Blue" family. Large 
arboreal wasp-nests were common, and many termite mounds 
were to be seen. 

The well-known scarcity of life during the heat of the day 
in tropical countries was most emphatically manifested here — 
not a butterfly in the sun, and only a few on the wing seeking 
resting-places in the dense jungle —not a bird on the move ; all 
retire till the burn of the midday sun has lessened. 

We returned in time for dinner, and on changing my clothes 
I found several well-filled leeches adhering to my person, but 
have not suffered any discomfort from their presence. It was at 
this same place that I noticed a curious phenomenon on our 
return journey in March. A certain handsome day-flying moth 
{Dichromia orosia) was to be seen commonly among the thin 
scrub beneath the palm trees, but its flight was very erratic and 



264 TEE ZOOLOGIST. 

swift, making it almost impossible to capture. I then stood still 
for some time watching them, and noticed that every time they 
came to a palm tree they circled round and round the stem, 
mounting all the while, till an altitude of some fifteen or twenty 
feet was reached, and then reversing the action almost to the 
ground, when they would start off again on their mad flight until 
another palm tree appeared in the course, and then the same 
thing happened. By standing at the foot of a tree in a main line 
of flight I caught a number without any difficulty, though pre- 
viously I had been unable to catch any. 

We had a delightful visit to Kandy, the difference in elevation 
making a most noticeable change in the fauna. Kandy is a fine 
centre for collecting, the walks in the immediate neighbourhood 
are good, Lady Horton's Walk in particular being productive of 
fine "stick-insects" and "mantids," including the curious cobra- 
mantis. I visited this walk with a lantern one evening, and 
caught a number of moths, and was much struck by the number 
of flying phosphorescent insects which presented a most curious 
spectacle among the trees. On another occasion we went to a 
place called Haragama, about nine miles from Kandy, and 
situated near a fine river, a locality which is always good for 
insects, and on this river-bed we had very good reason to con- 
gratulate ourselves. Several large Sphingid moths (Acherontia 
lachesis) were poked out of the crevices of a gigantic banyan 
tree, and some magnificent Buprestid beetles were sunning them- 
selves on another tree. Several species of larvae were collected, 
including those of Doleschallia basaltide, one of the " leaf " 
butterflies, and Talicada nyseus, a very pretty little Lycsenid 
butterfly, abundant round Kandy. The larva of this butterfly 
constructs quite a cocoon for its pupa. 

From Kandy we all returned to Colombo to join the ' Val- 
halla ' for a trip to Trincomalee. This place is indeed a 
naturalist's paradise, having, as it has, good collecting ground 
up to the water's edge. I noticed two things in particular at 
Trincomalee — one was the much smaller number of individual 
butterflies, though there was no apparent diminution in point of 
species ; the other was the extreme abundance of Menelaides 
hector as compared with the western side of the island, where 
Lartias ronudvs was much the commoner insect, though I only 



NOTES MADE DURING A CRUISE TO THE EAST. 265 

saw an odd specimen at Trincomalee. M. hector swarmed all 
over the water as well as land, all, or nearly all, in fresh con- 
dition, and nearly all of them males. On an island in the fine 
harbour I managed at last to catch Ornithoptera darsius (male 
and female). The island proved a first-rate locality for many 
things, and especially Hymenoptera. We had here several 
comparatively unsuccessful hauls with the seine-net, but, as we 
were under the guidance of a native, it is more than probable 
that we were not shown the best localities. Fish were extremely 
abundant, and any morning one could see the native fisher- 
men returning with well-filled baskets, containing everything 
from the Hammer-headed Shark to a fish no larger than a 
whitebait. 

We returned to Colombo before proceeding further East, and 
after remaining a short time there started for Singapore, with a 
stop at Pulo Way, an island off North Sumatra, for coal en route. 
This island is a Dutch possession, and the coaling company a 
private one ; the same company owns the floating-dock, into 
which we went on our return journey. This enabled us to spend 
several days on shore, and a number of nice captures were made. 
The common Danais chrysippus, most cosmopolitan of butter- 
flies, and a species of Euplcea were in countless numbers along 
by the sea, many of them sitting on the wet sand. Many 
coloured fish of every kind were swarming round the dock, and 
Sharks were plentiful in the harbour. We made an expedition 
to the mainland one day by the small local steamer, which takes 
about three and a half hours to do the crossing, following close 
in under the island for the first hour or so, a most interesting 
looking place. There were some fine Turtles swimming about 
in the vividly clear water. Oleleh, the port for Kota Eaja, the 
capital of Achin, is not an interesting place, but Kota Eaja itself 
is a nice little town right under the mountains in which the dis- 
contented Achinese dwell. Butterflies did not seem numerous, 
but moths were flying at some flower-beds in the public garden, 
amongst them Chcsrocampa celerio. The Sumatran Toad is 
apparently a very sophisticated creature, and we were much 
amused at the behaviour of certain individuals. The verandah 
where we sat after dinner was tenanted by several of them, each 
stationed under a lamp, and making a hearty meal off the insects 



266 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

which fell to the ground after burning their wings or otherwise 
damaging themselves. It was interesting to note that a new- 
comer was instantly driven away by the old tenant, and had to 
wait about some distance away on the chance of something 
eluding his more happily placed rival. Moths and some nocturnal 
wasps of the genus Dorylus formed the majority of victims, and 
we saw one Toad eat at least a dozen wasps in a very short 
time. 

After a short stay in Singapore, the next port of call, and a 
most delightful cruise round the island to Johore, we left on 
Feb. 8th for Borneo. We arrived at the mouth of the Sarawak 
Kiver about noon on the 10th, but were unable to go up that day 
as the tide was low, so started up the following morning about 
ten o'clock, and thus had the scenery quite at its best. The 
nipa palm (than which, I believe, no finer palm exists, if size of 
frond is any criterion) and the mangrove were easily first in 
point of number, and there were several decaying tree-trunks 
covered with masses of orchids, many of them in full bloom. 
We anchored some miles below Kuching, the capital, the reason 
for this being that we should probably have difficulty in turning 
round further up. That evening many Monkeys came down to 
drink and wash by the river, bringing some quite young ones 
with them ; they were no other than the curious Proboscis 
Monkey, which feeds on plants and roots growing in the mud. 
Another species of Monkey was common in the forest, and I saw 
several troops of them the following day. We were unfortunately 
unable to remain for long in this interesting place, and after 
calling again at Singapore, where I obtained two young Orang- 
utans, quite newly caught, we started up the Straits of Malacca, 
calling at several places on our way. 

The yacht lay at anchor in the Klang Kiver of Selangor, 
while I made an expedition to the central range of mountains, 
stopping in the Government rest-house at Semangko Gap. This 
place is at a considerable elevation, and the rest-house itself is 
on the very boundary between Selangor and Pahang, the division 
of the watershed being in the garden of the rest-house. The 
glorious scenery and wealth of life will ever live in my memory, 
and I am glad to think that I was able to make the most of my 
short visit, thanks to Mr. H. C. Robinson, of the Kwala Lumpur 



NOTES MADE DURING A CRUISE TO THE EAST. 267 

Museum, who was also stopping in the house, and put his great 
local knowledge at my disposal. Cicadas making weird noises 
like penny trumpets, Pigeons " booming," and the melodious 
cry of the " Wa-wa," or Gibbon, were a few of the sounds to be 
heard. 

On rejoining the yacht we started off to Penang, where the 
heat was intense. A short stay only was made there, and then 
on to Pulo Way, and so to Colombo, after which the trip, so far 
as collecting was concerned, was a thing of the past. 

I regret to have to state that both the Orangs died before 
reaching Cowes, though one of them lived until Gibraltar was 
passed ; but a charming little Gibbon, which Lord Crawford 
obtained in Borneo, came triumphantly through the changes of 
temperature, and is now in the Zoological Gardens, and in the 
very best of health. 



268 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



MAMMALIA. 

Occurrence of the Grey Seal (Halichcerus grypus) in the Mersey. — 
An adult male Grey Seal was shot in Paddington Lock, on the 
Woolston New Cut of the Eiver Mersey, over two miles, by the river, 
above Warrington Bridge. It was driven into the lock and killed on 
June 17th, 1908. For two or three days before it was killed two 
Seals had been noticed between Atherston Quay and Warrington 
Bridge, and several unsuccessful attempts were made to shoot them. 
In order to reach the Cut the Seal must have ascended Howley Weir, 
Latchford, which it probably did at high tide. The animal, which I 
examined in the flesh, measured : — From nose to tip of tail, 7 ft. 6 in. ; 
from nose to longest toe of hind foot, 8 ft. ; length of fore flipper, 
14 in. ; length of index toe-nail, 2 \ in. ; girth of body posterior to fore 
flippers, 4 ft. 8 in. ; length of head, 14 in. ; length of incisor teeth, 
f in. ; length of hind flipper, 15 in. ; width of hind flipper, 18 in. ; 
length of tail, 7 in. The teeth were not crowded, nor were they dis- 
tinctly tuberculated ; the nasal opening was typically large. Mr. 
T. A. Coward has seen the skin and skull, and confirms the identifica- 
tion ; he has seen the Grey Seal off the coasts of Lleyn and Anglesey, 
where it has occurred on several occasions, and is of opinion that the 
species may breed on the North Wales coast. This is the second 
recorded instance of the occurrence of the Grey Seal in the Mersey, 
the previous one being in the winter of 1860-61, when one was cap- 
tured in the Canada Dock, Liverpool (Proc. Liv. Lit. & Phil. Soc. xv. 
p. 134, 1860-61 ; Proc. Liv. Biol. Soc. hi. p. 263, 1888-9). The present 
specimen has been obtained for the Warrington Museum. — G. A. 
Dunlop (Warrington Municipal Museum). 

AVES. 

Mimicking Song of Ckiffchaff. — It may interest your correspondent, 
Col. H. Meyrick, to know that when at Bettws-y-Coed in April, 1905, 
I heard a very similar "combined" song. The bird began with a 
normal " chiff chaff," three or four times repeated, then suddenly 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 269 

broke off into the Willow- Wren's descending scale, but always, before 
this was completed, the bird returned to the Chiffchaff's note, again 
three or four times repeated. It did this many times, but unfortu- 
nately I was unable to tell definitely whether it was a Chiff chaff or 
Willow- Wren, as it was up in the top of a tall willow tree. Could it 
possibly be due to intercrossing of the two species ? The curious 
thing both about this bird and that observed by Col. Meyrick is that 
this combined song, if I may so call it, though slightly different in the 
two cases, was always repeated in exactly the same way. This seems 
to show that it was due not to any mimicking power but to some 
inherent peculiarity, such as might be produced by intercrossing. — 
J. S. Huxley (Balliol College, Oxford). 

Muscicapa atricapilla in Ireland. — In Mr. E. P. Butterfield's in- 
teresting notes on the Pied Flycatcher (ante, p. 223) he says : — " It is 
locally common in some parts of Wales, and the same remarks are 
applicable to Yorkshire and Westmorland, but further north it becomes 
more scarce ; whilst in Scotland it is a scarce breeding species, and in 
Ireland, where it was first recorded in 1875, it is still more so." In 
order to correct this misstatement of its breeding in Ireland, I beg to 
refer Mr. Butterfield to the ' Birds of Ireland,' where he will find that 
the bird has never been found breeding in this country ; and since 
I obtained the first recorded specimen in April, 1875, only six 
others have been obtained, and all by my friend Mr. E. M. Barrington 
from lighthouse stations on the coasts of Kerry, Cork, and Wex- 
ford during the autumn migration. — Robert Warren (Moy View, 
Ballina). 

Ortolan Bunting at Plaistow, E. — I have much pleasure in record- 
ing a male Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana). It is in fine adult 
plumage, and was obtained by Mr. R. M. Presland, George Terrace, 
Beekton Park, on May 6th, 1908. I have had it preserved by Mr. 
E. Houghton, naturalist, Shrubland Grove, Dalston. I also wish to 
record a male specimen of the Woodchat- Shrike (Lanius pomeranus). 
It was shot at Camber, near Rye, by Mr. Thomas Sorrell, of Hastings, 
Sept. 15th, 1907.— J. A. Clark (57, Weston Park, Crouch End, N.). 

Cypselus melba at Lynmouth, North Devon. — My brother and I 
recently saw an Alpine Swift, between seven and eight p.m. It was 
flying at a low altitude over our house, flew along the sea-wall, and 
returned back over our heads ; so we distinctly saw the grey under 
side. Our attention was drawn to it in the first instance by its size. 
There was a good deal of sea-fog at the time, and apparently it had 
lost its way. — -T. H. Briggs (Rock House, Lynmouth). 



270 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Cuckoo's Eggs. — During a hurried visit which I paid to Mr. 
Thomas Jackson, ' Ship Hotel,' Overton, near Morecambe, on June 
16th, he informed me that two Cuckoo's eggs had recently been found 
in the nest of a Meadow-Pipit, but with no eggs of the owner at the 
time these were found. One, however, was subsequently laid. He 
also let me see a Cuckoo's egg which had recently been found in the 
nest of a Sky- Lark built in the churchyard, and told me he has found 
the Cuckoo's egg in the nest of Greenfinch and Linnet, and also in 
the Bay's, Pied, and Grey Wagtail, Grasshopper- and Eeed-Warbler, 
Tree-Pipit, Kobin, and Eedstart. He further informed me that 
during a forty years' experience of bird's-nesting he had never found a 
Cuckoo's egg in the nest of a Hedge- Sparrow, which coincides exactly 
with my experience in this district. Although the Whinchat is by no 
means scarce in the Overton district, Mr. Jackson knows of no 
instance of this species having been selected as fosterer, thus differ- 
ing in this respect from many districts. — E. P. Butterfield (Bank 
House, Wilsden). 

Peregrine Falcons and Buzzards in Cornwall. — During May and 
June I spent some of my leave in Cornwall, and went to my usual 
bird haunts. I am very pleased to be able to say that our two largest 
birds of prey keep up their numbers ; in fact, the Buzzard is almost 
certainly increasing. I have visited two Peregrines' eyries, and have 
heard of two more, whilst a fifth couple had mated, but the male was 
shot by a well-known West Country farmer. In the spring of this 
year also two Falcons were shot near .... by two local farmers 
within a short time of each other. The former bird shot was evidently 
a male, as on Sunday I saw the remaining bird alone, a very fine 
one, and, judging by size, a female. A resident also told me the bird 
has always been seen alone since the shooting affair, so she has 
evidently failed to find a mate. On June 14th I visited an eyrie 
which defied the efforts of some fishermen (so one told me) to get at 
the eggs. The Falcon flew out, screaming loudly. A pair of Buz- 
zards were circling round at the time ; one was immediately flown at 
by the Peregrine, and there was a very real collision. The larger 
bird stopped wailing, and flew away with all speed. Peregrines — 
especially the male bird — in stooping to Buzzards, generally avoid 
coming in contact by swooping above just without touching. Two of 
the eyries I consider safe now, as very few people know anything 
about them, but three eggs were taken by some fishermen from a 
more accessible nest. The usual price is five shillings each egg. 
Four were sold to a man two years ago for £1, and four more 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 271 

were obtained just after he left. I have never known so many Pere- 
grines nesting before. It is remarkable how they keep near the same 
locality year after year, though not the exact spot, doubtless owing 
to persecution. The pair I visited on the 14th had their eggs taken 
(four in number) last year, but through building about one hundred 
yards away this year are secure from egg-stealers. I know of two 
pairs of Buzzards building in woods, one wood being very small 
indeed. They have built in the same wood for about seven or eight 
years, but in the larger wood this is the first time. I climbed up to one, 
and found two very young birds and one egg unhatched in the 
middle of May. The remains of a rabbit were at the side of the nest. 
I have climbed up to the three different nests built by these birds during 
the above years many times, and have invariably found some portion 
of a rabbit in the nest. During this spring most of the tall trees in 
this wood have been cut down, including the one they built on last 
year, and now there are not more than three trees of sufficient size 
for the big birds to build upon. They have chosen one standing by 
itself. During this spring I have seen at least a dozen pairs of 
Buzzards. Many of their nests are inaccessible, so there is no likeli- 
hood of the bird being exterminated in Cornwall for many a long day 
to come. This is more than can be said of the much rarer Peregrine, 
both because of the destruction they do amongst the chickens and the 
keen demand for their eggs. Peregrines are distinguished as "Blue 
Hawks" by the local people, whilst Buzzards are called "Kits." 
Few sights give me so much pleasure as watching a pair of Pere- 
grines. What marvellous powers of flight ! They often stoop to 
Buzzards, their object being to drive them away, and will constantly 
fly at them till this result has been achieved. — H. P. 0. Cleave 
(18, Leigham Street, Plymouth). 

The "Drumming" of the Snipe. — In his valuable paper on the 
"bleating" or "drumming" of the Snipe, published in a late number 
of the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' Mr. P. H. Bahr 
relates his observation, believing it to be new, that during the 
" bleating " the two outer tail-feathers are spread well in front of the 
other twelve so as to stand quite apart from them, and comes to the 
conclusion that by this means the "drumming" is produced. Per- 
haps I may be allowed to point out that I made a precisely similar 
observation many years ago (June, 1889) in Selkirkshire, and in a 
note sent to this Journal at the time (Zool. 1889, p. 315) recording 
the fact, suggested that it might have to do with the production of the 
sound. A sketch of the "drumming" Snipe which I made on the 



272 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

spot agrees perfectly with Mr. Bahr's illustration. — William Evans 
(38, Morningside Park, Edinburgh). 

Some Rare Kentish Birds. — It may perhaps be of interest to 
chronicle the facts relating to the Little Bustard (Otis tetrax) killed 
in the Isle of Thanet in 1902, as I do not think full details have ever 
been published. For about a fortnight prior to its death this bird was 
frequently observed in some fields adjoining Stone House School, 
Broadstairs, remaining in that district in spite of its being sadly per- 
secuted by local sportsmen. On or about Dec. 20th, while shooting, 
Mr. Thomas Pemble happened to flush the Little Bustard from a field 
of swedes, and as it rose well within shot it was promptly killed. The 
specimen is still in Mr. Pemble's possession, where I have examined 
it. On Feb. 23rd of this year Mr. Wise shot a Fulmar (Fulmarus 
glacialis) off Kingsgate. This Petrel is extremely rare on the coasts 
of Thanet, and this is the first occurrence known to me. About a 
week or so earlier the same gentleman secured a Hen-Harrier (Circus 
cyaneus) in the livery of an immature male, also, I believe, from the 
neighbourhood of Kingsgate. From time to time Hoopoes (Upupa 
epops) are seen in Thanet, usually in the spring, and were they not 
almost invariably killed (for their peculiarly conspicuous plumage 
gives them practically no chance of escape) they would probably 
remain to breed. This spring one was seen in different private 
gardens round Westgate for about three weeks, but has now unfortu- 
nately disappeared, although I have not heard of it being shot. — 
Collingwood Ingrabi (Westgate-on-Sea). 

Birds which do not usually Perch. — When leaving Overton I crossed 
the fields to Morecambe, and whilst walking alongside a ditch I saw a 
Sky-Lark perched on a sallow tree, and when flushed off by my near 
approach it immediately settled on another sallow. I have never 
before seen this species perch on trees, except once on the Sussex 
coast near Hastings a few years ago, and once in this district we had 
one which had a nest near Bingley Wood, and frequently alighted on 
the top of a thorn-hedge previous to feeding its young. Soon after 
the arrival of the Wheatear this year I saw one perched on the top 
of a thorn-hedge, which is not a common occurrence here, and when 
walking over Stainburn Moor, near Harrogate, on June 10th, a Snipe 
was perched on one of the arms of the telegraph-posts, calling to its 
mate for a considerable time. I have known odd individuals of the 
Common Sandpiper perch with great facility in their nesting haunts 
when intruders are about their nests, or, even more, their young. — 
E. P. Butterfield (Bank House, Wilsden). 



( 273 ) 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



The Senses of Insects. By Augustb Forel. Translated by 
Macleod Yearsley, F.R.C.S. Methuen & Co. 

This is a far more important publication than its title im- 
plies. It can in no sense be accepted as a purely entomological 
treatise, for it raises the primary question in animal psychology. 
Are instinct and reason distinct entities, or are they simply 
terms of a mental equation ? Either the genus Homo has no 
connection with the evolution of other animals, and possesses a 
mental capacity underived and specially created, or otherwise 
his reason, though far beyond, is not inseparable from the 
instinct of other animals. This is a problem that can perhaps 
be neglected by the ordinary zoologist, but it cannot be avoided 
by the psychologist. Either all other animals than man are 
simply automata, or human intelligence is a derivative. As 
Dr. Forel remarks: "Language and books are crammed with 
words which are taken for things," and "reason" and "instinct" 
are words used to denote a fundamental difference while they 
only express items of a close relationship. This is not a con- 
clusion of the materialist, but will be a postulate of the theologian 
in the near future. 

Dr. Forel's book, however, is not a disputation but a store of 
observations, his study of the senses of insects is profound, and 
he adds many new facts of his own discovery. He also advises 
caution in the method by which we attempt to gauge the sensory 
impressions of other animals : " We have the bad habit of 
calling odoriferous substances {Reichstoffe) the substances which 
are odoriferous for us. But the study of all animals very quickly 
shows us that the differences between the animal species are 
enormous, that a substance may be extremely odorous for one 
species and not so for another, and vice versa. The dog, whose 
sense of smell is of extreme delicacy for certain tracts that we 
are incapable of perceiving, is insensible to the scents which 
Zooi. 4th ser. vol. XII.. July, 1908. Y 



274 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

affect us in the highest degree, &c. It is very quickly observed 
in insects that the faculty of perceiving certain emanations is 
intimately allied to their course of life, to their wants, and to 
dangers which they have to avoid. The female of each species 
is odorous to her male. A plant that attracts a certain insect 
from very far off leaves others indifferent, and is absolutely in- 
odorous to us," &c. This argument strikes at the root of many 
of the generalisations now so frequently met with in popular 
bionomics. 

This volume is a real addition to our knowledge, and not in 
an entomological sense alone, though no entomologist should 
neglect its perusal. Prof. Forel is not infallible ; he is some- 
what emphatic with those whose conclusions are not in agree- 
ment with his own, but he has nevertheless given us the best 
book on the subject. 

Animal Life. By F. W. Gamble, D.Sc, F.K.S., &c. 
Smith, Elder & Co. 

This volume describes many phases of animal life, its sub- 
jects are of a selected nature, and it is written, as we are informed, 
from "the evolutionary standpoint "; from that standpoint the 
book must be read and appreciated. Evolution is a conception ; 
it cannot be reduced to a formula, nor does it lend itself to the 
limits of a dogma. We can state facts that support it, and can 
find none that contradict it, but the most able evolutionist is the 
one who possesses the largest mental concept of the cosmic pro- 
cess, and not he who uses the most extensive terminology to 
express it. It belongs to no one science ; it qualifies alike the 
thought and action of humanity as it accounts for man himself. 
The biologist, however, may be said to work under this concep- 
tion ; his facts are meaningless without it, his conclusions 
cannot escape it ; the more he learns, observes, or discovers, a 
mighty hidden movement unfolds itself. Some devote their 
lives to the study of a single evolutionary manifestation, and in 
thus demonstrating a point not infrequently limit the conception 
of the whole. Dr. Gamble's book is a short sketch of a wide 
biological area ; it is extremely suggestive, and gives an impulse 
to the evolutionary idea rather than adding to evolutionary 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 275 

dogmas. The modern historian is now as much an evolutionist 
as the biologist, but his facts are more limited in time ; he 
cannot precede man ; the biologist goes back to a hoary antiquity. 

Our space will not allow us to follow Dr. Gamble throughout. 
We will confine ourselves to his discussion on the colour of 
animals. His views on " sympathetic coloration in animals " is 
in the main what others have expressed by " assimilative " or 
"environmental " coloration. He gives some valid reasons against 
our regarding colour as produced solely for protective purposes. 
Observers have been led "to seek in protection the entire signi- 
ficance of cryptic colouring ; to regard the avoidance of enemies 
or the near approach of prey as the reason for its existence ; 
whilst to those who are not close observers the general vague 
resemblance between animals and their surroundings is illogically 
regarded as explicable for the same reason. But if we look back 
on the history of animal coloration ... we realize that the pig- 
ments of animals are older than the effect they produce, and that 
the old nutritive, purifying, and respiratory uses of colour are 
the basis for the more recently evolved protective, warning, or 
mimetic values of coloration." 

The volume is usefully illustrated, but the title • Animal 
Life ' has been already used by Jordan and Kellogg for a similar 
work published in 1901, and noticed in our volume for that year 
(p. 275). 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 



In celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the famous joint 
communication by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, " On 
the Tendency of Species to form Varieties, and on the Perpetuation 
of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection," a special 
meeting of the Linnean Society of London was held on July 1st at 
the Institution of Civil Engineers in Great George Street. The 
President of the Society, Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, occupied the chair, 
and there was present a large and distinguished company representa- 
tive of learned and scientific societies, as well as the Danish and 
Swedish Ministers, and the following members of the Darwin family : 
— Sir George and Lady Darwin, Dr. Francis Darwin, Major Leonard 
Darwin, and Mr. William Darwin. There were also present Dr. 
Alfred Eussel Wallace, whose name is inseparably associated with 
that of Darwin in the great event which provided the occasion for 



276 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the celebration, and the venerable Sir Joseph Hooker, one of the 
two friends to whom Darwin first confided his epoch-making con- 
clusions. 

The President, in welcoming the delegates and guests, said that 
they were met to celebrate what was without doubt the greatest event 
in the history of the Linnean Society since its foundation. Nor was 
it easy to conceive the possibility in the future of any second revolu- 
tion of biological thought so momentous as that which was started 
fifty years ago by the reading of the joint papers of Mr. Darwin and 
Dr. Wallace, communicated to the Society by Sir Charles Lyell and 
Sir Joseph Hooker. In Darwin's contributions the now classic term 
" natural selection " was used for the first time. In Dr. Wallace's 
paper the same idea was expressed with equal clearness. With both 
authors the key to evolution was at the same time the key to adapta- 
tion, and the great characteristic by which living things were dis- 
tinguished. Darwin and Wallace not only freed us from the dogma 
of special creation — a dogma which we now found it difficult to con- 
ceive of as once seriously held — but they afforded a natural explana- 
tion of the marvellous indications of design which had been the 
great strength of the old doctrine ; and themselves, with their 
disciples, added tenfold to the evidence of adaptation. Any new 
development of the doctrine of evolution must be prepared to face 
fairly and squarely the facts of adaptation. He was proud to welcome, 
on behalf of the Linnean Society, the illustrious gathering which had 
assembled to commemorate an event so unpretentious in its circum- 
stances, so profound in its significance. The presence of Dr. Wallace, 
one of the two creators of the theory, and of Sir Joseph Hooker, who 
brought it into the world, was in itself enough to render the meeting 
memorable. While regretting the absence of Prof. Weismann and 
Prof. Haeckel, those valiant champions of evolution, he rejoiced to 
welcome Prof. Strasburger, who represented in the present day the 
great school of Hofmeister, who helped to make straight the way for 
' The Origin of Species.' 

The ceremony of presenting the special Darwin- Wallace medals 
was then entered upon. 

In making the presentation first to Dr. Alfred Eussel Wallace, the 
President said that Dr. Wallace's brilliant work both in natural 
history and geography had often received distinguished recognition. 
In asking him to accept the first Darwin- Wallace medal, the Linnean 
Society was really offering him his own. There was nothing in the 
history of science more delightful or more noble than the story of the 
relations between Darwin and Wallace — the story of a generous 
rivalry in which each discoverer strove to exalt the claims of the 
other. It was a remarkable and momentous coincidence that both 
should have independently arrived at the idea of natural selection 
after the reading of Malthus's book, and it was a most happy inspira- 
tion that Dr. Wallace should have selected Darwin as the naturalist 
to whom his discovery should be communicated. Like Darwin, Dr. 
Wallace was, above all, a naturalist, a student, and lover of living 
animals and plants. It was to such men — those who had learnt the 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 277 

ways of Nature in the open — that the doctrine of natural selection 
especially appealed, and therein lay its great and lasting strength. 

Dr. "Wallace, who was very cordially received on rising to re- 
spond, said that since the death of Darwin in 1882 he had found 
himself in the somewhat unusual position of receiving credit and 
praise from popular writers under a complete misapprehension of 
what his share in Darwin's work really amounted to. It had been 
stated not infrequently in the Press that Darwin and he discovered 
natural selection simultaneously, while a more daring few had declared 
that he was the first to make the discovery, and that he gave way to 
Darwin. To avoid further errors it would be well to give the actual 
facts. The one fact that connected him with Darwin was that the 
idea of "natural selection " or " survival of the fittest," together with 
its far-reaching consequences, occurred to them both independently. 
But what was often forgotten was that the idea occurred to Darwin 
in October, 1838, nearly twenty years earlier than to himself, and 
that during the whole of that twenty years Darwin had been labori- 
ously collecting evidence and carrying out ingenious experiments and 
original observations. As far back as 1844, when he (Dr. Wallace) 
had hardly thought of any serious study of nature, Darwin had 
written an outline of his views which he communicated to his friends 
Lyell and Hooker. The former strongly urged him to publish his 
theory as soon as possible lest he should be forestalled, but Darwin 
always refused till he had got together the whole of the materials for 
his intended great work. Then at last Lyell's prediction was fulfilled, 
and without any apparent warning his (Dr. Wallace's) letter reached 
Darwin like a thunderbolt from a cloudless sky. How different from 
this long study and preparation, this philosophic caution, this deter- 
mination not to make known his fruitful conception till he could back 
it up by overwhelming proofs, was his own conduct ! The idea came 
to him, as it came to Darwin, in a sudden flash of insight. It was 
thought out in a few hours, and was written down with such a sketch 
of its various applications and developments as occurred to the mind 
at the moment. Then it was copied on to letter paper and sent on to 
Darwin, all in one week. He was the young man in a hurry ; Darwin 
was the painstaking and patient student. Such being the facts, he 
should have had no cause of complaint if the respective shares of 
Darwin and himself had thenceforth been estimated as roughly pro- 
portional to the time that each had bestowed upon their theory when 
it was first given to the world — that was to say, as twenty years was 
to one week. If Darwin had listened to his friends and had pub- 
lished his theory after ten years, fifteen years, or even eighteen years' 
elaboration of it, he would at once have been recognized, and should 
ever be recognized, as the sole and undisputed discoverer and patient 
investigator of the great law of "natural selection" in all its far- 
reaching consequences. It was a singular piece of good luck that 
gave him any share whatever in the discovery. During the first half 
of the nineteenth century many great biological thinkers and workers 
had been pondering over the problem, and had even suggested in- 
genious but inadequate solutions. Why did so many of the greatest 



278 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

intellects fail while Darwin and he hit upon the solution ? A curious 
series of correspondences both in mind and in environment led Dar- 
win and himself, alone among their contemporaries, to reach identi- 
cally the same theory. First and most important, in early life both 
Darwin and he became ardent beetle-hunters. There was no other 
group of organisms that so impressed the collector by the almost 
infinite number of its specific forms, and their innumerable adaptations 
to diverse environments. Again, both Darwin and he had " the mere 
passion of collecting," an intense interest in the mere variety of living 
things. It was this superficial and almost childlike interest in the 
outward forms of living things which happened to be the only one 
that could have led them to a solution of the problem of species. It 
was the constant search for and detection of often unexpected differ- 
ences between very similar creatures that gave such an intellectual 
charm and fascination to mere collecting, and when, as with Darwin 
and himself, the collectors were of a speculative turn of mind, they 
were constantly led to think on the why and the how of this over- 
whelming, and at first sight purposeless, wealth of specific forms 
among the very humblest forms of life. Then a little later both 
Darwin and he became travellers and observers in some of the richest 
and most interesting portions of the earth, and thus had forced upon 
their attention all the strange phenomena of local and geographical 
distribution. Thenceforward the mystery of how species came into 
existence began, in Darwin's phrase, "to haunt" them. Finally, 
both Darwin and he, at the critical moment when their minds were 
freshly stored with a considerable body of personal observation and 
reflection bearing on the problem to be solved, had their attention 
directed to the system of " positive checks," as expounded by Malthus 
in his 'Principles of Population.' The effect of this was analogous to 
that of friction on the specially prepared match, producing that flash 
of insight which led them immediately to the simple but universal 
law of the " survival of the fittest " as the long-sought effective cause 
of the continuous modification and adaptation of living things. He 
attached much importance to the large amount of solitude which he 
and Darwin enjoyed during their travels, and which gave them ample 
time for reflection. This view of the combination of certain mental 
faculties and external conditions that led Darwin and himself to an 
identical conception also served to explain why none of their pre- 
cursors or contemporaries hit upon what was really so very simple a 
solution of the great problem. He accepted the crowning honour 
conferred upon him that day as a too liberal recognition of the 
moderate amount of time and work he had given to explain and 
elucidate the theory, to point out some novel applications of it, and 
extend those applications even in directions which somewhat diverged 
from those accepted by his honoured friend and teacher — Charles 
Darwin. 

The President, in presenting the medal next to Sir Joseph Hooker, 
said it was with profound pleasure that they welcomed one whom 
Darwin fifty years ago wrote of as " our best British botanist, and 
perhaps the best in the world," words which had gained in force with 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 279 

the half century that had elapsed since they were written. Sir Joseph 
Hooker's early appreciation and unswerving support of a doctrine too 
often misunderstood did more than any other circumstance to ensure 
a fair hearing among true men of science for the theory of the origin 
of species by means of natural selection, leading ultimately to its 
general acceptance. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, who was loudly cheered on responding, said 
that, considering the intimate terms on which Mr. Darwin extended 
to him his friendship, he thought that on that occasion it would be 
appropriate if he could from his memory contribute to the knowledge 
of some important event in Darwin's career. He had selected as such 
an event one germane to this celebration, and also engraven on his 
memory — namely, the considerations which determined Mr. Darwin 
to assent to the course which Sir Charles Lyell and he suggested to 
him — that of presenting to the Society, in one communication, his 
own and Mr. Wallace's theories on the effect of variation and the 
struggle for existence on the evolution of species. They had all read 
Francis Darwin's fascinating work as editor of his father's ' Life and 
Letters,' where they found a letter addressed on June 18th, 1858, to 
Sir Charles Lyell by Mr. Darwin, who stated that he had that day 
received from Mr. Wallace, written from the Celebes Islands, a sketch 
of a theory of natural selection as depending on the struggle for 
existence so identical with one he himself entertained, and fully 
described in MS. in 1842, that he never saw a more striking co- 
incidence. After writing to Sir Charles Lyell, Mr. Darwin informed 
him (the speaker) of Mr. Wallace's letter explicitly announcing his 
resolve to abandon all claim to priority for his own sketch. He (the 
speaker) could not but protest against such a course, no doubt remind- 
ing him that he had read it, and that Sir Charles knew its contents 
some years before the arrival of Mr. Wallace's letter, and that the 
withholding of their knowledge of its priority would be unjustifiable. 
He further suggested the simultaneous publication of the two, and 
offered, should Mr. Darwin agree to such a compromise, to write to 
Mr. Wallace, fully informing him of the motives of the course adopted. 
In answer Mr. Darwin thanked him warmly for his offer to explain 
all to Mr. Wallace, and in a later letter stated that he was disposed 
to look favourably on the suggested compromise, but that, before 
making up his mind, he desired a second opinion as to whether he 
could honourably claim priority, and that he proposed applying to 
Sir Charles Lyell for this. It might be interesting to recall that the 
last ordinary meeting of the session of the Linnean Society was held 
in the middle of June. The occasion of the meeting on July 1st was 
exceptional, being due to the death of the eminent botanist, Eobert 
Brown. As a mark of respect to that great past President, the 
ordinary meeting of June 17th was adjourned, and a special meeting 
called in order to elect a successor to the vacancy on the Council 
caused by his decease, George Bentham being nominated in his place. 
The usual election of Council and officers had taken place at the 
anniversary meeting only a month before, and, oddly enough, among 
the new members of that body was Charles Darwin. Other papers 



280 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

were read at the special meeting of July 1st, but the whole corre- 
spondence relating to the two papers on the evolution of species was 
subsequent to June 17th ; indeed, the joint letter from Sir Charles 
Lyell and himself communicating them to the Society was only 
written on June 30th. Thus the death of Eobert Brown was the 
direct cause of the theory of the origin of species being given to the 
world at least four months earlier than would otherwise have been 
the case. He concluded by asking their forgiveness for intruding 
upon their time and attention with the half-century old, real, or 
fancied memories of a nonagenarian as contributions to the history 
of the most notable event in the annals of biology that had followed 
the appearance, in 1735, of the 'Systema Naturae' of Linnaeus. 

Lord Avebury wound up the proceedings with some recollections 
of Darwin, with whom his acquaintance began more than sixty years 
ago. In the parish of Down Mr. Darwin was much beloved. He was 
rather a puzzle, no doubt, to the villagers. One of his friends 
once asked the gardener how Mr. Darwin was. " Oh," he said, " my 
poor master has been very sadly"; and added confidentially: "I 
often wish he had something to do. I have seen him stand doing 
nothing before a flower for ten minutes at a time. If he only had 
some regular work I believe he would be much better." He received 
the highest honours from the Eoyal Society and the Institute of 
France, and in both cases 'The Origin of Species' was expressly 
excluded from the award. This was remarkable in two ways. It 
showed that even apart from ' The Origin ' his other work was entitled 
to the highest scientific recognition ; and if we are now astonished 
that 'The Origin' should have been excluded, we must remember 
the novelty of the views propounded. In fact, almost all — one might 
say all — authority was against him. At first, with few exceptions, 
not only the theological but even the scientific world was against 
him. A few years of study and reflection changed all this. It has 
changed also the religious dread with which his conclusions were 
received, and Mr. Balfour told us a few days ago that he looked to 
science as the great influence which was to raise and improve the 
condition of man. 

[As the Official Eeport of the Linnean Society has not yet been 
published, we have relied on the reports given by the ' Times ' and 
f Daily Telegraph.' We have also to thank Mr. B. Daydon Jackson, 
the General Secretary of the Society, for considerable kind assist- 
ance.] 



>urth Series. 
il.XIL.No. 140. 



August 15th, 1908. 



No. 806. 




(Tlontbly Jourr?a 



OF 



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oridort: 

West, Newman ^C? 5-t Hatton 6 ar aen. 
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Crown 4to t Cloth, gilt, extra.. Pp. 144. Price 10s. 

^ With Twelve full-page Coloured Illustrations and Eight Un- 
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* 

80 pp., cloth, gilt, price 2s. 6d. 

FAMILIAR INDIAN BIRDS 

BY 

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Illustrated by Half-tone Blocks from the Drawings of 
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London: WEST, NEWMAN d CO., 64, Hatton Garden, E.C. 



THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 806.— August, 1908. 



PEICES OF ANIMALS: 1896-1908. 

By Capt. Stanley S. Flower, 
Director of the Giza Zoological Gardens, Egypt. 

The prices at which wild animals change hands in Europe 
may perhaps at first sight appear a matter of little zoological 
interest, but a record of these may in time be of historical im- 
portance as helping to show the relative abundance and ease or 
otherwise of importing and breeding many species of mammals 
and birds which are already (or unfortunately appear in the near 
future to be) doomed to extinction from various causes. 

A record of the prices paid a century, or even sixty years, ago 
would now be of decided value. It is chiefly for this reason that 
the present list has been compiled ; but the reader must bear 
in mind that it is of necessity very incomplete, being limited to 
my own personal experiences : my hope is that its publication 
may induce other zoologists, who may have had greater oppor- 
tunities, to place on record the prices which have come to their 
notice. 

For convenience of comparison I have limited the prices 
quoted to the last twelve years, 1896 to 1908, and in each case 
the prices are (unless otherwise stated) those for delivery in the 
principal cities of Western Central Europe, such as London, 
Liverpool, Marseilles, Eotterdam, Hamburg, &c. 

Besides being perhaps of zoological-historical interest, these 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., August, 1908. z 



282 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

notes may possibly also be of present use to professionals and 
amateurs. But it must be remembered that the values in wild 
animal dealing vary probably more than in any other trade, in 
accordance with supply and demand ; if, for instance, an in- 
dividual or an institution wants to buy a Lion at short notice, 
and no one is wishing to sell, they may have to pay some hundreds 
of pounds for an animal that at another time its owner would be 
willing to part with for practically nothing in order to save the 
daily cost of keeping it supplied with food. 

"Fancy " prices are not included in these notes, though in 
actual trading one is at times quite ready to pay them, or at any 
rate to "allow " for them : as it is a curious fact that the general 
public that will crowd to see, and will pay to see, a Tortoise that 
they hear has cost a hundred golden sovereigns, will take no 
interest in the same reptile should it have been known to have 
changed hands for a ten pound cheque ! 

The amateur must not expect to be at all times able to buy 
beasts or birds for the prices mentioned below. These are, to 
the best of my knowledge, all genuine prices, either of actual 
business transactions or of offers to sell : but, as in many cases 
the offers are of surplus stock, the prices are below the actual 
values of the animals named. 

In some years' experience, in three continents, both as a 
buyer and a seller of wild animals, and also in the capacities of 
an intermediary and a looker-on, I have been unable to help 
noticing the tendency, both of many amateurs and also of the 
salaried officials of some zoological institutions, to beat down 
and decry the prices asked for specimens by the professional 
zoological collectors and dealers : this is a regrettable and short- 
sighted policy. In the long run, and taking all risks into con- 
sideration, the pecuniary profits on zoological trading are very 
small — if any. In most cases the collector and dealer carries 
on his work, not from the money that accrues to him from it, 
but from the fact that it is the only way in which he can afford 
to gratify his love for, and his interest in, zoological pursuits. 

There are people in Europe who say, " What an exorbitant 
price to ask for a dead butterfly," or who write, "An absurd 
sum to pay for a young Elephant" : but if these same people 
could only realize the accumulated experience required, the 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 283 

trials to health and patience, the expenses and the trouble in- 
curred by the professional collector in the jungles of Borneo, or 
in the swamps of Central Africa, to make it possible for them to 
have the chance of obtaining the desired specimen, they should 
be willing not only to give the price asked, but more also " for 
the good of the cause." 

The order in which the animals are enumerated, and the 
names used for them, are, for convenience of reference, as far 
as practicable, in accordance with Dr. P. L. Sclater's ' List of 
the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens of 
the Zoological Society of London,' 9th edition, 1896. 

The prices throughout are quoted in pounds sterling, or where 
necessary shillings. 

Class MAMMALIA. 
Order PRIMATES. 
Family Simiid^e. 

The prices at which Anthropoid Apes change hands are most 
variable, so much depends on the health and probability of life 
of the animal. £100 may be asked for a Chimpanzee, which 
some days later may be only worth the price of its uncleaned 
skeleton. 

£40 to £75 may be taken as the value of a healthy young 
Chimpanzee in Europe. 

I have never been offered the chance of buying a Gorilla, nor 

of an Orang-utan or a Gibbon (in Europe), so cannot quote any 

prices. On the Suez Canal one sometimes gets exceptional 

opportunities ; I once purchased a nearly full-grown male 

Orang-utan for £6, and at another time a young female for 

£14. 

Family Ceecopithbcid^. 

Newly imported Monkeys of the commoner and smaller species 
of this family may be frequently purchased for from fifteen 
shillings (or even less) to £1 each. 

Of the genus Semnopithecus (or Presbytis) , practically the only 
species that is imported at all regularly to Europe is the Entellus 
or Hanuman Monkey, best known as the Langtir : on arrival 
they may be bought for £2 apiece, but I have no doubt that a 
really acclimatized specimen, if put up for sale, would fetch a 
much higher price. 

z2 



284 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

For our present purposes the genus Cercopithecus may be 
roughly divided into four sections : — 
1st. Value £1 to £1 10s. or £2 each :— 

The Grivet-Vervet Monkeys, C. cynosurus, griseo-viridis, 
callitrichus, lalandii, and pygerythrus : and Sykes's Monkey, 
- C. albigularis. 
2nd. Value £2 10s. to £3 each :— 

C. petaurista, nictitans, cephus, talapoin, patas, and mona. 
3rd. Value £3 10s. to £6 each :— 

C. diana, schmidti, ivolfi, and campbelli. 
4th. Value £6 and upwards : — 

C. neglectus (or brazzce) ; particularly fine individuals of the 
more showy species, mentioned in the 2nd and 3rd sections ; 
and examples of newly described species. 

Cercocebus fuliginosus, the Sooty Mangabey, may be bought 
at from £1 or £1 10s. to £3 or £3 5s. each, according to size. 

C. collaris and C. csthiops, the only other Mangabeys at all 
frequently imported, for from £2 to £3 each. 

Of the genus Macacus, there are three species which are 
brought from Southern Asia to Europe in enormous numbers, 
and can be bought for from fifteen shillings up to £2 each. These 
are : the Bonnet Monkey, M. sinicus ; the Common Macaque, 
Kra, or Jew Monkey, M. cynomolgus (now generally called M. 
fascicularis) ; and the Ehesus or Bandar, M. rhesus. 

The Pig-tailed Monkey, or Broh, M. nemestrinus, is also fre- 
quently imported ; small specimens are generally sold for £1 
each, adult males for as much as £5 each. 

Other species of Macacus comparatively seldom enter the 
market : the only notes (for Europe) I have are : — 

M. silenus, Wanderoo. £1 10s. 

M. maurus, Moor Macaque. £3 15s. 

M. rufescens, Keddish Macaque. £5. 

M. inuus, Barbary or Rock Ape. ;£4. 

The Black Ape of Celebes, Cynopithecus niger, is not often 
to be obtained : young individuals have been offered at £3 each. 

The true Baboons, genus Cynocephalus (or Papio), for trade 
purposes fall at once into two sections : — 

1st. The Chacma, Anubis, Doguera, Sphinx, Yellow, and 
Arabian Baboons : which can be obtained from £2 each and up- 



PBIGES OF ANIMALS. 285 

wards. Females and half-grown males are worth £4 to £6 each ; 
large males £8 to £12, £15 or £20, according to size and con- 
dition. £25 is the highest sum that I have been asked for an 
Anubis Baboon in Europe. 

2nd. The Drill and the Mandrill : quite young examples of 
these showy animals can exceptionally be obtained for £3 each, 
but £4 to £7 each is a more usual value. Adult males at times 
fetch very high prices, £50 to £100, and I believe even more. 

Family Gebidm. 

The common species of Capuchin, or American "Bingtail," 
Monkeys, Cebusfatuellus, capucinus, and hypoleucus, are gener- 
ally worth about £2 each. 

The only other Monkeys of this family that I have been 
offered are : — 

Chrysothrix sciurea, Squirrel Monkey. £3 10s. 

Ateles paniscus, Eed-faced Spider Monkey. £5. 

A. ater, Black-faced Spider Monkey. £3 and £5. 

Lagothrix humboldti, Humboldt's Woolly Monkey. £15. 

Nyctipithecus vociferans, Douroucouli. £2. 

Family Hapalime. 
The common Marmosets, Hapale jacchus and H. penicillata, 
sell from £1 to £2 each. 

Family Lehurid.2e. 

During the last five years an enormous number of Lemurs 
have been imported into Europe from Madagascar, and their 
values have greatly decreased. The Black and White Euffed 
Lemur, Lemur varius, may be still worth £3 or more, but the 
Black Lemur, L. macaco, the common Brown Lemur, L.fulvus 
(L. brunneus of Sclater's list), and the Eing-tailed Lemur, L. 
catta, only from £1 10s. to £2 apiece. 

The Mouse-Lemurs, Microcebus, may be purchased from £1 
upwards, and the "Bush-babies," Oalago, from £2 to £3. 

I once bought a Bosman's Potto, Perodicticus potto, from a 
Hamburg dealer for only £3 10s., and I have recently been 
offered in the same city an Aye-aye, Chiromys ?nadagascariensis, 
for £45. 



286 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Order CAENIVORA. 
Family Felid^. 

Felis leo. — Contrary to popular opinion, Lions are of little 
value, compared to the cost of their feeding. Wild bred, im- 
ported animals, in good condition, are worth from £60 to £100. 
Menagerie-bred Lions sell for smaller sums ; one Zoological 
Gardens was offering cubs for £10 each in 1907. The smallest 
sum I have ever been offered a live Lioness for, in Europe, 
was £3 15s. ; the largest sum I have seen asked for a Lion was 
£250. 

F. tigris. — Tigers and Tigresses are worth far more than 
Lions and Lionesses. The range of price also appears to be 
much smaller : my notes give £100 to £125 for Tigers, £75 to 
£112 for Tigresses. 

F. pardus. — Spotted Leopards, African or Asiatic, male or 
female, are of about equal value. £35 is the highest figure I have 
seen an individual Leopard valued at. Ordinary good speci- 
mens are worth £25 to £30 each, but in order to clear surplus 
stock they are often quoted at from £15 to £20 ; cubs even for 
less. £10 is the lowest figure I have noted in Europe. 

Black Leopards are worth considerably more than Spotted 
ones : I have not sufficient data to give exact figures, but per- 
haps their value may be taken as three times that of Spotted 
Leopards. 

F. uncia, Snow-Leopard or Ounce. — £75 to £150 each, asked. 

F. nebulosa. — The Clouded Tiger I have only once noted in a 
trade-list : £50 was asked for a three-year-old female with 
damaged lower canine teeth. 

F. temmincki, Golden Cat. — £10 (once). 

F. bengalensis, Tiger Cat.— £5 (once). 

F. lynx. — The European Lynx seems to command high 
prices : £20 apiece for kittens, and £25 to £35 each for older 
animals. 

F. caracal, Caracal Lynx. — £7 10s. (once). 

F. concolor. — Pumas are very frequently offered for sale, for 
from £5 upwards. As with Lions, those specimens bred in 
European menageries are of less value than imported animals. 
£15 to £18 apiece seems the general price for good Pumas, but 
exceptionally fine females go up to £20, and males up to £25. 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 287 

F. onca. — Young Jaguars sell for £25 to £35 each. I have 
noted £45 asked for a female, and as much as £80 for a male 
Jaguar. 

F. pardalis. — Ocelots appear very variable in value, anything 
from £1 10s. to £9. 

F. canadensis, Canadian Lynx. — £25 for a pair (once) : that 
is to say, only half the value of the European Lynx ! 

Cyncelurus jubatus. — The Chita, or Cheetah, appears rarely to 
come into the market. I have only two specimens noted, an 
eight-months-old cub for which £25 was asked, and an eighteen- 
months old female for which £37 10s. was asked. 

Family Viverrice. 
Ten years' notes of the prices of the commonly imported 
species of Civet Cats, Genets, Paradoxures or Musangs, Ichneu- 
mons or Mongeese, and Meercats show a monotonous con- 
sistency of value ; averaging about £1 to £1 5s. per animal. 
Naturally the smaller and commoner species are the cheapest, 
ranging down to fifteen, twelve, or even ten shillings per head, 
while the larger and more showy species, such as Viverra civetta, 
may go up to £3 and £4. 

Family Hy^inid^. 

Hycena crocuta. — The Spotted Hyaena is apparently not very 
easily obtainable alive. I have only noted it once on a trade- 
list, when £30 was asked. I may mention that, while resident 
in Africa, I have from time to time been asked by correspondents 
to get Spotted Hysenas for them, but so far I have never been 
able to oblige them. The Giza Zoological Gardens, in Egypt, 
from 1891 to 1907, have only received four specimens, all four 
presented, and all four males ; so there has been no opportunity 
of breeding this interesting species, as has been done at times in 
European Zoological Gardens. 

H. striata. — The Striped Hysena, on the other hand, is at 
times a drug on the market : prices vary from £3 to £10 per 
animal. 

Family Canidje. 

The price of European Wolves varies from ten shillings to 
£4, but is usually about £2 per animal. White Wolves are 



288 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

more valuable ; I have noted £2 10s. for a cub and £5 for an 
adult. American Wolves appear to be worth rather more than 
European ones. Dog- Wolf hybrids I have seen quoted at £3 15s. 
each. 

Most Jackals, whether Asiatic or African, fetch very small 
prices in Europe, from ten shillings to £1 a head. The Black- 
backed Jackal, Canis mesomelas, may however go up to £2. 

There is such a considerable trade in the common European 
Fox that it almost more pertains to ordinary commerce than to 
the wild-beast business : I have noted cubs quoted at from four 
to eighteen shillings each, and adults up to £2 a head. Various 
species of American Foxes, including Canis virginianus, C. azarce, 
and C. cancrivorus, appear to be imported to Europe, and sold at 
from fifteen shillings to £1 each. 

The Arctic Fox, Canis lagopus, is quoted at from £2 10s. to 
£3 15s. a head. 

The more aberrant Dogs seldom come into the market. The 
Kaccoon-like Dog, Canis procyonides, I have once seen offered for 
£2 5s. ; £30 was asked in 1907 for a male Asiatic Wild Dog, 
Cuon alpinus ; and the Cape Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus, if in 
good condition, always commands a high price, from £20 to £25 
for puppies up to £45 for an adult male. 

Family Mustelid^. 

Besides the Ferret, which does not come within the scope of 
this article, there is only one member of this family that is at all 
often offered for sale, that being the European Badger, Meles 
taxus, which seems to maintain a steady price of ten to fifteen 
shillings for young animals and fifteen shillings to £1 for 
adults. 

Other prices for Mustelidce that I have noted are : — 

Mustelafoina, Beech-Marten. — Five shillings. 

M. putorius, Polecat. — Five shillings. 

Gulo luscus, Glutton, or Wolverine. — £15. 

Galictis barbara, Tayra. — £5. 

G. vittata, Grison. — £1 5s. to £1 15s. 

Ictonyx zorilla, Cape Striped-Polecat. — £1 10s. to £2. 

Mellivora capensis, Batel, or Honey-Badger. — £6. 

Lutra vulgaris, European Otter. — £3 15s. 



PBICES OF ANIMALS. 289 

Family Procyonidje. 

Eaccoons, Procyon, and Coatis, Nasua, are regularly imported 
from America, and seem to command a steady sale in Europe 
both to public menageries and to private fanciers at from £1 to 
£2 a head. 

The Kinkajou, Potos flavus (or Cercoleptes caudivolvulus) is, 
however, deservedly a greater favourite : I have seen it quoted at 
£3, but £5 is more like its value, and some individuals are 
certainly worth even more. 

Family Ursid^e. 

For our present purposes Bears may be divided into Polar 
Bears and other Bears. 

Of Polar Bears I have no personal experience ; I have been 
offered (and declined) them at the following prices : £25, £35, 
£40, £42 10s., and £50. 

The other Bears, usually imported to Europe, fetch very 
small prices. Unless the supply very much exceeds the demand, 
I cannot understand this : for they are as a rule hardy beasts in 
captivity, easy and very cheap to feed, and often great favourites 
both with their keepers and the public visitors. One factor that 
may perhaps keep down the dealer's prices is that many people, 
in India and elsewhere, obtain Bear-cubs as pets, and later, 
when the young Bear begins to get too masterful for a private 
household, the owners are only too willing to present their pet 
to some public Zoological Garden. Personally, in the last ten 
years I have had twelve Bears in my charge, and only one was 
purchased, and that only for £4 ! 

Bears, of various species, appear to be very subject to blind- 
ness in captivity : blind Bears appear on dealers' price lists at 
£2 10s. and upwards : one would imagine that their skins and 
flesh were worth more. 

The Brown Bear, Ursus arctos, is generally offered for sale at 
from £5 to £8 per animal, but I have noted £10 asked for a 
female and £11 for a male. 

The Malay Bear, U. malayanus, is often offered for £5, but 
may go up to as much as £12 or £13. 

The Sloth Bear, Melursus. ursinus, is of rather greater value ; 



290 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

prices range from £5 to £15, and I have seen as much as £25 
asked. 

I regret that I have no data concerning the prices of any of 
the American Bears. 

Family Otariid^e. 

The Californian Sea-Lion is sold for from £40 to £50 a head 
in Europe. The other species rarely come into the market. 

Family Phocid^e. 

I have hardly been able to ascertain anything as to the values 

of Seals. The common European Seal, Phoca vitulina, I once 

saw on a price list quoted at £4 : and a travelling showman was 

once very anxious to sell me a Mediterranean Seal, Monachus 

albiv enter, for £100 ! ! ! 

Order CHIROPTEEA. 

Family Pteropodimi. 

The African Fruit-Bat, Rousettus leachi (Cynonycteris collaris 

of Sclater's list) used to be sold by the Zoological Society of 

London for £1 5s. each : these were specimens bred in their 

menagerie. 

Order RODENTIA. 

Family Sciueid^;. 

The prices of Squirrels present little of interest, ranging from 
the common Indian Palm- Squirrel at ten shillings a head to the 
great Malabar Squirrel at £2 to £2 5s. 

The European Marmot I have noted priced at £1 5s., and the 
American "Prairie Dog" at £1 a head. 

Family Castorid^;. 

The only Beavers I have ever seen offered for sale are the 

Canadian ones bred in the Hamburg Zoological Gardens, which 

are priced at from £15 to £17 10s. each. If such prices could 

be maintained, the breeding of Beavers in Europe should be a 

profitable business. 

Family Octodontid^;. 
Myopotamus coypus, the Coypu-Ptat, frequently figures in 
price lists at from eighteen shillings to as much as £3 per head. 

Family Hystricid^e. 
Hystrix cristata. — The various races of Porcupines which it is 
convenient to group under thie name vary in price, according to 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 291 

the age and condition of the individual, from £3 to £12 10s. : 
but £4 to £5 is an ordinary price to give for a common Por- 
cupine. 

H. javanica. — £3 to =£3 15s. seems a fair price for the smaller 
and crestless Asiatic Porcupines. 

Erithizon dorsatus. — The Canadian Porcupine during the 
last two years appears to have been imported fairly freely into 
Europe, and prices range from £1 10s. to £3 15s. 

Sphingurus villosus. — This Brazilian Porcupine I have only 
once seen mentioned in a price list, at £3. 

Family Chinchillid^i. 
Chinchilla lanigera, the Chinchilla. — £2 10s. (once). 
Lagostomus trichodactylus, the Viscacha. — £2 (once). 

Family Dasyproctid^e. 
The Paca, Ccelogenys, though sometimes quoted lower, is worth 
from £3 to £5 apiece. The Agouti, Dasyprocta aguti and D. 
azarce, is worth from £1 10s. to £Z each. 

Family Caviid^;. 
The Mara, Dolichotis patachonica, I have seen quoted at from 
£5 to £7 10s. each, and the Capybara, Hydrochcerus, at from 
£3 10s. to £15 each. 

Family Leporid^;. 
The South German and Austrian dealers offer European 
Hares at from five to eighteen shillings each, according to sex, 
time of year, &c, and European Babbits at from eighteenpence 

to two shillings each. 

Order UNGULATA. 
Suborder HYRACOIDEA. 
Family Procaviimi. 
The only species of Hyrax that seems to find its way into the 
hands of European dealers is the South African Procavia capensis : 
I have seen it quoted at from £2 to £5 each, but it frequently 
seems to be " out of stock " when one, in answer to an advertise- 
ment, wishes to buy it ; I have only once been successful 
enough to actually buy some, which was from a Hamburg 
dealer, at the price of £4 per Hyrax, which I consider very 
reasonable. 



292 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Suborder PROBOSCIDEA. 
Family Elephantid^e. 

The subject of Elephants, in which I have personally been 
much interested for several years, is too large to go into within 
the limits of this article. Their values depend on several quite 
different factors from those of the ordinary menagerie animal, 
which is never supposed to leave its cage. I will only mention 
here that according to recent price lists young Asiatic Elephants 
are worth in Europe from £200 upwards, and young Africans 
from £350 upwards. 

Suborder PERISSODACTYLA. 

As stated in the preface this article, being limited to my own 
personal experiences, I very much regret being unable to give 
any information as to the values of Ehinoceroses or Tapirs, and 
only the following few prices for members of the Equidce : — 

Equus prjeivalskii, Asiatic Wild Horse. — £100 to £130 each. 

E. caballus var., Shetland Pony.— £10 to £12 10s. 
„ „ Javanese Pony. — £20 to £27 10s. 

E. asinus var., Sardinian Donkey. — £3 to £7 10s. 

E. " tceniopus," African Wild Donkey. — £5 to £7. 

E. "hemionus" Asiatic Wild Donkey. — £22 10s., asked. 

E. burchelli. — The various subspecies of Burchell's Zebra form 
the large majority of all the Zebras to be seen in Zoological Gar- 
dens : their price is usually fairly stable at £100 per head, but 
it varies from £80 or £90 to as much as £150, for specimens of 
the rarer varieties. 

Suborder ARTIODACTYLA. 
Family Bovidje. 

The variety of prices among this great family, which includes 
the Cattle, Antelopes, Goats and Sheep, is perhaps the most in- 
teresting to be met with amongst all the families of Mammals : 
and it must be remembered how far from complete this list, of 
necessity, is, some of the finest species (for instance the Greater 
Kudu) not being mentioned. 

Cattle. 

Bos indicus. — Various races of the domestic Indian Cattle, 
commonly called Zebus in Europe, are frequently offered for sale 
by Zoological Gardens and dealers, at every sort of price, accord- 
ing to age, size, sex and breed, from £2 10s. to £40 per head. 



PBICES OF ANIMALS, 293 

B. (Bison) bonasus. — I have only once seen a specimen of the 
European Bison offered for sale — it was a bull — for which £250 
was asked. 

B. (B.) americanus. — The American Bison figures on price 
lists fairly regularly, at from £50 to £100 per head. £37 10s., for 
a four months old bull calf, is the lowest price I have noted, and 
£150 for a rive years old bull is the highest price I have seen 
asked. 

B. (Pcephagus) grunniens. — As the Yak breeds freely in 
European menageries, it does not fetch a large price when sold : 
usually about £12 10s. to £15 a head, going up to £17 or £18 at 
most. Bulls and cows appear to be of equal value. 

B. (Bibos) frontalis, Gayal. — £75 asked for an adult cow 
(once). 

B. (B.) sondaicus, Banting. — £40 asked for a young male 
(once). ; 

B. (Bubalis) buffelus. — For domestic Indian Water-Buffaloes, 
generally bred in Europe, I have noted the following prices : 
£7 10s., £10, £15 and £17 10s. 

B. (Anoa) depressicornis. — The Anoa I have only twice seen 
priced, once £15 (for a young female), and once £25. 

Antelopes. 
Bubalis {Damaliscus) albifrons, Bless-bok. — From £40 or £50 
each, to at times perhaps as much as £75. 

B. (D.) pygargus, Bonte-bok. — £100 for a bull (once). 
Connochcetes gnu, White-tailed Gnu. — £75 to £100 each : 

young animals sometimes cheaper, i. e. £60 apiece. 

C. taurinus, Brindled Gnu, and its local races, such as the 
White-bearded Gnu.— £100 to £125 each. 

Cephalophus monticola, Blue Duiker. — £5 (once). 
C. grimmi, the Duiker. — £7 10s. to £12 10s. each; 
Baphicerus melanotis, Grys-bok. — £12, asked (once). 
R. tragulus, Stein-bok. — £10 and £12, asked (twice). 
Cobus ellipsiprynnus, Southern Waterbuck. — £75 (once). 
C. unctuosus, Western Waterbuck. — £35 to £60 each. 
Cervicapra isabellina, Isabelline Keedbuck. — £8 to £12 each. 
C. bohor, Bohor Beedbuck. — £15 (once). 
C. redunca, Nagor Keedbuck. — £15 (twice). 



294 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Gazella dorcas, Dorcas Gazelle.— £4 15s. (once). 

G. rufifrons, Korin Gazelle. — £7 10s. to £15 each. 

G. bennetti, Indian Gazelle. — £5 and £6. 

G. subgutturosa, Persian Gazelle. — £8 (twice). 

G. scemmerringi, Soemmerring's Gazelle. — £15 to £20 each. 

G. euchore, Spring-bok. — £15 to £20 each. 

Saiga tatarica, Saiga Antelope. — £20 for young fawn (once). 

Antilope cervicapra, Indian Blackbuck. — Males £4 to £10, 
females £8 to £13 15s., each. 

Hippotragus niger, Sable Antelope. — £125 to £150 each : 
lately (1908) two yearling males have been offered for only £100 
each. 

H. equinus, Eoan Antelope. — £130 to £150 each. 

Oryxleucoryx, Sabre-horned Antelope. — £32 10s. each (twice). 

O. beatrix, Princess Beatrice's Antelope. — £50 each, and up- 
wards ; the highest price I have noted asked is £120. 

Addax naso-maculatus, Addax Antelope. — £80 (once) : £100 
asked per head. 

Orias carina (or Taurotragus oryx), Eland Antelope. — £150 to 
£175 each. 

Strepsiceros imberbis, Lesser Kudu. — £25 asked for a young 
female (once). 

Tragelaphus sylvaticus, Bush-buck. — Male, £20 (once). 

T. gratus, Congan Sitatunga, or Marsh-buck. — This Antelope 
has bred so freely in European Zoological Gardens during the 
last few years that its value seems to have gone down from 
£30 or £37 10s. to £10 or £15 per head. 

Portax picta (or Boselaphus tragocamelus), Nilgai, or Nylghaie. 
—£12 to £20 each. 

Goat- Antelopes. 

Rupicapra tragus, Chamois. — £6 10s. to £9 each. 

Goats. 

Capra megaceros, Markhoor. — £40 to £100 asked for fine 
males. 

C. {Hemitragus) jemlaica, Thar. — £10 to £25 each, according 
to age, &c. 

C. (II.) hylocrius, Nilgiri Wild Goat. — £25 for a yearling male 
(once) . 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 295 

Sheep. 

Ovis musimon, Muflon. — £5 to £12 10s. each. 

0. vignei (or 0. cycloceros), Punjaub Wild Sheep. — £10 to £15 
each. 

0. naliura (or 0. burrhel), Bharal Wild Sheep. — £15 to £25 
each. 

0. lervia (or 0. tragelaphus), Arm, or Barbary, Wild Sheep. — 
£3 to £16 each, according to age, sex, &c. 

0. amnion, Argali Wild Sheep. — £100 per head, asked (once). 

Family Giraffid^e. 
Supply and demand affect the price of Giraffes quicker than 
in the case of smaller animals : before the reopening of the 
Egyptian Sudan in 1898-1899 there was a time when it was im- 
possible to buy a Giraffe for £1000 ; then, about 1903-1904, 
when a few specimens had been brought down the Nile to Cairo 
and a much larger number exported from the Sudan via Suakin, 
the value of these animals went down to about £300 or £350 per 
head — in fact, to a price that did not pay the expenses of cap- 
turing them and sending them to Europe ; so that certain 
traders (not real animal dealers), who had purchased Giraffes as 
a speculation, actually slaughtered their animals and realized 
what money they could by the sale of their skins and flesh rather 
than go to the expense of keeping the beasts alive till they 
could be sold at remunerative prices. I would remark here that 
there is a very great difference between the genuine dealer in 
wild animals, who is at heart a zoologist and a lover of beasts, 
and the merchant who simply, from time to time, trades in them 
as he would in cotton, tin, or guano, simply with the object of 
making money. The fair value of a healthy young Giraffe at 
the present time in Europe should be £400 to £500. 

Family Cervid^. 

Compared to Antelopes, Deer are of but little value, as the 
following prices will show. 

Cervulus muntjac, Muntjac, or Barking Deer. — Usually £10 
each, male or female. 

C. elaphus, Pied Deer. — Although, when wishing to dispose of 
surplus stock, young B,ed Deer may be offered for as little as 



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296 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

£2 to £3 apiece, the regular Central European prices for good 
animals may be taken as follows : — 

Males. — Calves . . . £4 to £5. 
Antlered 2 points, Spiesser, 
,, 4 ,, Gabler, 
,, 6 ,, Sechsender, 
,, 8 ,, Achtender, 
,, 10 ,, Zehnender, 
„ 12 „ Zwolfer, 
,, 14 ,, Vierzehner, 

Females. — £4 to £7, according to age. 

White Eed Deer apparently fetch good prices for menagerie 
purposes. I have noted a white hind offered for £13 10s. 

C. elaphus corsicanus. — I have once seen the " Sardinian " 
Bed Deer quoted at £30 per pair. 

C. elaphus maral. — Of the Eastern Eed Deer I have only two 
notes— a male calf for £7 10s., and an adult male for £20. 

C. canadensis. — The American Wapiti Deer, and its Asiatic 
allies, asiaticus (or eustepha?ius) , luehdorfi, xanthopygus, &c, cause 
a certain amount of confusion, and some amusement, to the 
animal trade ; experts differ as to which race is which, and 
owing to the various hybrids which have been bred in captivity, 
both among the different Wapitis and also crossed with Eed 
Deer, it is doubtful if the matter will be ever entirely cleared up. 
Young animals appear to be worth £8 to £12 apiece, and adults 
£20 to £35. It is true that more than once a pair of these fine 
Deer have been advertized for sale for £100, but at any rate, in 
one case I know the vendors reduced this to £40 ! 

C. mantchuricus, Manchurian Deer. — £15 each. 

C. sika, Japanese Deer. — £3 15s. to £8 10s. each, though 
£12 10s. has been asked for a female. 

G. duvaucelli, Barasingha Deer. — £30 to £40 asked for im- 
ported adult males. 

C. unicolor (or C. aristotelis and C. equinus), Sambur. — £5 to 
£10 each. £15 asked for specially good animals. 

G. porcinus, Hog Deer. — £3 to £6 each. 

C. hippelaphus, Javan Deer. — £6 to £10 each. 

G. moluccensis, Moluccan Deer. — £2 10s. to £8 15s. each. 

C. axis, Axis, or Chital, Deer. — £6 to £10 each : but fawns 
may sometimes be purchased for £3 10s. apiece, and I have 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 297 

noted as much as £12 10s. asked for a male, and £13 15s. for a 
female. 

C. dama, Fallow Deer. — The range of prices I have noted for 
this species is £1 8s. to £7 10s. The ordinary values are : — 
Males, £2 to £7 each, according to age. 
Females, £2 to £5 ,, ,, ,, 
White individuals, 20 per cent. more. Black individuals, 10 per 
cent. more. 

Alces machlis. — I once noted a two-year-old male Elk offered 
for £40. 

Capreolus caprcea. — The Koe sells in Central Europe for from 
£2 to £3 per head : though fawns may sometimes be purchased 
in July for £1 5s. each, and for particularly fine adults as much 
as £B 10s. may be required. 

Of the American Deer, Cariacus virginianus, C. mexicanns, 
C. paludosus, C. gymnotis, C. campestris, C. rufus, &c, I have 
unfortunately but little knowledge : prices vary from £2 5s. for 
young animals born in European Zoological Gardens up to as 
much as £25 for adults. 

Rang if er tarandus. — The Keindeer I have seen thrice on price 
lists ; young animals at from £3 15s. to £9 each. 

Family Tragulid^. 
The Mouse-Deer, or Chevrotains, of the more commonly im- 
ported species from India and Malaya, sell for about £2 each. 

Family Camelim:. 

Lama huanacos, Wild Lama, or Huanaco. — £5 to £20 each. 

L. glama (or peruana), Domestic Lama. — £7 10s. to £22 10s. 
each : white individuals being the most valuable. 

Camelus dromedarius, Arabian Camel. — £20 to £45 each : as 
with the Lama, apparently white animals are most favoured in 
Europe. 

C. bactrianus, Bactrian Camel. — £17 10s. to £50 each : white 
animals again being of more value than brown. 

Family Hippopotamidje. 

Hippopotamus, whether imported from Africa or bred in 
Zoological Gardens, command a very high price, £500 to £550 
apiece, for even quite young animals. 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., August, 1908. 2 a 



298 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Family Sum&. 

Phacochcerus africanus. — I have only noted two quotations for 
Warthogs : £7 10s. for a four months old male, and £14 for a 
female. 

Sus scrofa. — The following may be taken as ordinary prices 
for European Wild Swine: — Young (Frischlinge), £1 15s. to 
£2 10s. each. Young (Uberlaufer), £4 to £4 5s. each. Sows, 
£5 to £6 each. Boars, £5 10s. to £6 10s. each. 

Babirusa alfurus. — The Babirusa, or Wild Pig of the Celebes, 
has recently been offered at £40 and £50 a head, but I am not 
aware whether or not any specimens changed hands at these 
prices. 

Potamochoerus africanus. — The African Bush-Pig is not un- 
frequently offered for sale at prices varying from £7 10s, to £15 
per head for young animals, but as much as £17 10s. and £20 
have been asked. 

P. penicillatus. — The Bed Biver-Hog is a more expensive 
animal, being valued at from £25 to £40 per head. 

Dicotyles tajagu and D. labiatas. — The American Wild Pigs, 
or Peccaries, appear to be of very little value in Europe, com- 
pared to African or East Asiatic Pigs. The Collared Peccary has 
been quoted at from £1 15s. to £2 5s. per head, and the White- 
lipped Peccary at from £2 to £2 10s. 

Order EDENTATA. 
Family Bradypodidze. 
The Sloth, Cholcepus didactylus, changes hands in Europe at 
from £17 to £20. 

Family Dasypodidzb. 
The Common Armadillo, Dasypus villosus, may sometimes 
be purchased in Europe for as little as £1 (only fifteen shillings 
has been asked !), but £2 to £3 is a more usual price. The only 
other Armadillo of which I have any personal experience is the 
long-tailed Cabassus (or Xenurus) unicinctus ; a Hamburg dealer 
once sold me a fine pair of these animals for £10. 

Family Myrmecophagidze. 
Myrmecophaga jubata i Great Ant-eater.— £30, young; £40, 
adult. 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 299 

Order MARSUPIALIA. 
Family Macropodid.^. 

The following values for Kangaroos are taken from price lists. 
I have been told by an Australian correspondent that during the 
last few years the value of Kangaroos has very much increased, 
but so far I have not observed any indication of this in European 
sales : — 

Macropus giganteus, Great Grey Kangaroo. — £12 10s. to £30 
each. 

M. giganteus melanops, Black-faced Kangaroo. — £20 each 
(twice). 

M. antilopinus, Antilopine Kangaroo. — £40 each (twice). 

M. robustus, Wallaroo. — £7 10s. to £15 each. 

M. robustus cervinus, Cervine Kangaroo. — £20 to £35 each. 

M. rufus, Eed Kangaroo. — £10 to £25 each. 

M. ualabatus, Black-tailed Wallaby. — £7 10s. each (once). 

M. ruficollis bennetti, Bennett's Wallaby. — £5 to £8 15s. each. 

M. dorsalis, Black-striped Wallaby. — £2 10s. to £5 each. 

M. agilis, Agile Wallaby. — £5 to £7 10s. each. 

M. eugenii, Dama Wallaby. — £10 asked for a female (once). 

M. billardieri, Bed-bellied Wallaby. — £5 to £9 each. 

Petrogale penicillata, Brush-tailed Bock- Wallaby. — £4 to 
£7 10s. each. 

Onychogale unguifera, Nail-tailed Wallaby. — £5 asked for a 
male (once). 

O.frenata, Bridled Wallaby. — £3 to £10 each. 

Bettongia gaimardi, Gaimard's Bat-Kangaroo. — £1 (once). 

B. lesueuri, Lesueur's Bat-Kangaroo. — £2 (once). 

Potorous tridactylus, Common Bat-Kangaroo. — £1 (once). 

Family Phalangerid^j. 
The more commonly imported species of Australian Opossums, 
or Phalangers, of the genera Trichosurus and Petaurus, are gene- 
rally worth from £1 to £1 10s. apiece in Europe. £3 15s. is the 
highest sum I have seen asked for one of these animals. 

Family Phascolomyid^. 
The Wombat.— £10 (twice). 

Family Peramelidze. 
Perameles obesula, Short-nosed Bandicoot. — £2 each (once). 

2 a 2 



300 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Order MONOTREMATA. 
Family Echidnid^. 
Echidna hystrix, Echidna. — £4 (once). 

Class AVES. 

Order PASSERES. 

The vast majority of the species of Passerine birds that 

come into the market show little variety of price : usually from 

five shillings to £2 per bird : ranging down to one shilling, and 

up to £2 10s. Very showy birds,, such as members of the 

families Paradiseidce and Cotingidcs, of course command much 

higher prices : as do newly imported species of other families, if 

there happens to be airy competition among amateurs to secure 

them. 

Order PICARLE. 

Of the very varied assortment of birds retained for convenience 
in this Order, there are but few species that can often be obtained 
from dealers. The delightful African Mouse-birds or Colies, 
Colius, cost about £2 each. The Australian Laughing King- 
fishers, Dacelo, from £1 to £2. The African Ground-Hornbills, 
Bucorvus, from £5 to £10. The handsome Toco Toucan, Rham- 
phastos toco, £4: to £4 10s. ; the smaller Toucans from £1 10s. to 
£3. The Touracous, Turacus and Schizorhis, £4 to £5. 

Order PSITTACI. 
Generally speaking, Parrots, as birds (and apart from any 
tricks of speech that they may have acquired), are worth from 
£1 to £3 each. Except : on the one hand certain species for 
which higher prices must always be given, as, for instance, the 
Ganga Cockatoo, Ccdlocephalon, £3 10s. to £5, and the larger 
Macaws, Ara and Anodorhynchus, £3 to £12. As is well known, 
the Black Cockatoos are even more valuable ; I have seen £45 
asked for a pair of Calyptorhynchus stellatus. And it must be 
remembered that, as in the case of all other birds, newly, or 
very rarely, imported species of Parrots command high prices, 
according to the competition to possess them. 

On the other hand, certain species of small Parrots, that 
come regularly into the market, can be bought for less than £1 : 
as the Cockateel, Calopsittacus novce-hollandice, which sells at 
from four to six shillings a bird ; the horribly screeching Grey- 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 301 

breasted, or Quaker, Parrakeet, Myopsittacus monachus, five to 
fifteen shillings ; the common Green Parrakeets of the genus 
PalcBornis, five to fifteen shillings ; the Madagascar Love-birds, 
Agapornis cana, two to six shillings ; and the Budgerigar, 
Melopsittacus undulatus, two to four shillings per normally 
coloured bird, and five to ten shillings per yellow bird. 

Order STRIGES. 

The only Owl that is at all frequently offered for sale is the 

Grand Duke, or European Eagle-Owl, Bubo maximus. Young 

birds may sometimes be obtained for £1 8s., but £2 10s. to £3 

is the usual price. 

Order ACCIPITRES. 

The values of the Falcons and their allies for purposes of 
falconry hardly come within the scope of this article. For 
purely menagerie purposes the smaller birds of prey fetch low 
prices, rarely exceeding thirty shillings apiece. 

The commoner Eagles and Old-World Vultures, such as 
Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Helotarsus ecaudatus, Haliaetus albi- 
cilla, Aquila chrysaetus, A. imperialis, A. ncevioides, A. clanga, 
Vultur monachus, Gyps fulvus and Gypohierax angolensis, are 
worth from £1 to £1 each. Barer species, such as the Hawk 
Eagles, Spizaetus coronatus and S. bellicosus, and the Sociable 
Vultur, Vultur auricularis, from £5 to perhaps £10 each. The 
Lammergeier, Gypaetus barbatus, is still more expensive, the 
prices of which I have notes ranging from £7 10s. to £25. 

The Secretary Birds, Serpentarius reptilivorus and S. gambi- 
ensis, are, however, probably the most valuable birds of prey, but 
I have no data available. 

Of the American Vultures, I have only the following notes : — 

Cathartes atratus, Black Vulture. — £1 10s. to £2 10s. 

Sarcorhamphus gryphus, Condor. — £35 for an adult pair (once). 

Gypagus papa, King Vulture. — Young birds £4 to £8, adults 
in full colour £15 each. 

Order STEGANOPODES. 
Pelecanus onocrotalus, the Pelican. — £2 10s. to £5 each. 
P. rufescens, Bed-backed Pelican. — £3 15s. to £5. 
P. conspicillatus, Australian Pelican. — £12 10s. each (once). 
Sula bassana, Gannet. — £2 (once). 



302 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Phalacrocorax carlo, the Cormorant. — Six to ten shillings 
each. 

Order HEEODIONES. 

Of Herons, I have notes of prices varying from five shillings 
for Ardea cinerea to £5 for A. goliath. 

Most of the Storks, Spoonbills and Ibises are presumably so 
attractive to purchasers that when specimens come into dealer's 
hands they can be at once disposed of, as I have only seen the 
following ten species advertised for sale : and on several occa- 
sions when wishing to purchase I have been unable to do so, 
though prepared, if necessary, to give a higher price than that 
advertised : — 

Ciconia nigra, Black Stork. — ,£1 5s. (once). 

C. alba, White Stork. — Six shillings to £1. 

C. (Dissura) maguari, Maguari Stork. — £2 to £5. 

Mycteria americana, American Jabiru. — £20 (once). 

Leptoptilus crumeniferus. — The Marabou is from time to time 
offered for sale, at every sort of price from £2 to £15 per bird. 

Platalea leucorodia, Spoonbill.— Ten shillings to £1 10s. 

P. ajaja (or Ajaja rosea), Eoseate Spoonbill. — £3 to £5 15s. 

Ibis strictipennis, Australian Sacred Ibis. — £4 to £5 15s. 

I. (Carphibis) spinicollis, Straw-necked Ibis. — £3 15s. 

I. (Plegadis) falcinellus, Glossy Ibis. — £1 10s. (once). 

Order ANSERES. 
Suborder ODONTOGLOSS.E. 
Phoenicopterus roseus, Flamingo. — £2 to £3 5s. each. 

Suborder PALAMEDE^E. 
Chauna cristata, Crested Screamer. — £3 10s. to £4 each. 

Suborder ANSERES VERM. 

Cygnusmusicus, Whooper Swan.— £4 5s. to £6 5s. each. 

C. bewicki, Bewick's Swan. — £7 10s. (once). 

C. olor, Mute Swan. — £1 to £2 each. 

C. nigricollis, Black-necked Swan. — Though young birds have 
been offered for as little as £2 apiece, £5 to £10 each are more 
usual prices. 

C. atratus, Black Swan. — £2 to £4 each. 

C. coscoroba, Coscoroba Swan. — The price of these little Swans 
varies very much in different years, from £2 to £6 per bird. 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 303 

Anseranas semipalmata, Magpie Goose. — <£2 to £5 each. 

Plectropterus gambensis, Spur-winged Goose.— £Z to £4. each. 

Mxsponsa, Carolina, or Summer-, Duck.— £1 15s. to £2 10s. 
a pair. 

M.galericulata, Mandarin Duck. — £1 10s. to £2 10s. a pair. 

Bernicla canadensis, Canada Goose. — £1 10s. to £3 a pair. 

Chlcephaga magellanica, Upland Goose.— £1 5s. to £4: each. 

Chenalopex cegyptiacus, Egyptian Goose. — Six shillings to £1 
each. 

Tadorna cornuta, Burrow Sheld- drake. — Nine shillings to £1 
each. 

T. casarca, Buddy Sheld-drake. — £1 10s. each. 

T. variegata, Variegated Sheld-drake. — £4 to £5 each. 

T. tadomoides, Australian Sheld-drake. — £5 each (once). 

Anas boscas, Wild Duck. — Four shillings each. 

A. superciliosa, Australian Wild Duck. — £1 to £1 5s. each. 

A. poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck. — £1 to £3 each. 

Chaulelasmus streperus, Gadwall. — Ten to fifteen shillings 
each. 

Mareca penelope, Wigeon. — Four to ten shillings each. 

Dafila acuta, Pintail. — Six to eight shillings each. 

D. spinicauda, Chilian Pintail. — Fifteen shillings to £1 6s. 
each. 

Querquedula circia, Garganey Teal. — Six to eight shillings 
each. 

Q.formosa, Japanese Teal. — £3 each (twice). 

Q. crecca, the Teal. — Four to eight shillings each. 

Spatula clypeata, Shoveler. — Six to ten shillings each. 

Metopiana peposaca, Eosy-billed Duck. — £1 to £2 each. 

Fuligula cristata. — £1 each (once). 

F. rufina. — £1 10s. each and upwards. 

F.ferina. — Nine to ten shillings each. 

Somateria mollissima, Eider Duck. — £3 15s. to £5 each. 

Order COLUMB^. 
The Pigeons and Doves show little variety in value ; six shil- 
lings to £1 10s. includes all the prices per bird that I have noted 
for thirteen different species. The Christmas Island Fruit-Pigeon, 
Carpophaga whartoni, has been offered at £8 a pair, but I do 
not know for certain whether it sold at that price. 



304 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The giant Crowned Pigeons of the genus Goura are, as might 
be expected, on quite a different commercial footing to the other 
members of the Columbce. Goura coronata in 1907 was offered 
for as little as £5 a pair, but usually during the last ten years 
they have been worth £8 to £10 a pair. As much as £60 has 
been asked lately for a pair of G. victories, but £30 a pair is a 
more ordinary price for these magnificent birds. 

Order GALLING. 

Suborder ALECTOEOPODES. 

Family Tetraonidje. 

The following prices for Grouse have been supplied by three 

different firms in South Germany and Austria, who state that 

they can only supply these birds in the latter part of the year, 

between the months of August and December. 

Tetrao tetrix, Black Grouse. — £1 15s. to £2 each. 
T. urogallus, Capercaillie. — £2 10s. and upwards per bird. 
T. bonasia, Hazel Hen. — £1 to £1 10s. each. 
Lagopus scoticus, Eed Grouse. — Eighteen shillings to £1 10s. 
each. 

L. mutus, Ptarmigan. — £1 to £1 10s. each. 

Family Phaslinid^. 

The aviculturist who wishes to buy live birds of this family 
can give practically any price he wishes, according to the species 
he selects, from one to two shillings for a Common Quail up to 
£20 or more for an Argus Pheasant. 

European Partridges, Perdix cinerea, apparently cost two to 
six shillings each, and are cheapest from August to October. Hen 
Partridges are generally 25 per cent, dearer than cocks. 

The Californian Quail, Callipepla califomica, sell for six to ten 
shillings each. 

Various species of Pted-legged Partridges of the genus Caccabis 
are priced at from eight shillings to £1 each, and the more com- 
monly imported species of the Indian Partridges of the genus 
Francolinus at from fifteen shillings to £1 10s. each. 

On comparing the prices of Pheasants that have come to my 
notice in England, Germany and Austria during the last ten 
years, I find that the species fall into the following five groups. 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 305 

These birds are so well known that it is sufficient to give the 
specific names only : — 
1st. Under £2 a pair : — 

colchicus, torquatus, picta and nycthemerus. 
2nd. £2 to £4 a pair : — 

versicolor, satscheuensis, reevesi, amlierstice and melanonotus. 
3rd. Over £3 and up to £10 a pair : — 

mantchuricum, mongolicus, ellioti, wallichii, prcelatus, sivinhoii 
and caboti. 
4th. £10 to £20 a pair :— 

impeyanus, scemmerringi, vieilloti, satyra and temmincki. 
5th. £20 to £25 a pair :— 

fiobilis. 

Ordinary Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, cost fifteen shillings to 
£1 5s. each, White birds £2 10s. to £4, Black-winged £2 10s. to 
£5, and Javan Pavo muticus (or spicifer) £5 to £7 10s. per bird. 

Though odd birds of the Peacock Pheasant, Polyplectron 
chinquis, may sometimes be obtained for as little as £1 10s., 
from £11 to £16 are asked for pairs. 

Guineafowl vary from five shillings apiece for Numida mele- 
agris to £6 a pair for N. (Acryllium) vulturina. 

Suborder PERISTEROPODES. 
The commoner species of Curassows and Penelopes appear to 
be worth from £3 to £6 12s. each, and the Brush-Turkeys, Tale- 
galla lathami £3 15s. to £6 5s. each. 

Order FULICARLE. 
Although the ordinary European Moorhen and Coot are only 
worth about six shillings apiece, the more showy species, such 
as the Giant Piails, Aramides, the Weka Kails, Ocydromus, and 
the Purple Coots, Porphyrio, sell for from £1 to £2 each. 

Order ALECTOEIDES. 

The birds of this order include some of the greatest favourites 
both for public collections and for private fanciers, and practi- 
cally all command high prices. I have, unfortunately, no notes 
of the values of Bustards, Trumpeters, and some of the rarer 
Cranes, nor of the Sun-Bittern, Kagu or Courlan. 

Cariama cristata I have seen once priced at £3 15s., and once 
at £4. 



306 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Of the Cranes, the Demoiselle, Gras virgo, is by far the cheapest, 
and can sometimes be bought for £2 apiece. 

The Grey Crane, G. communis, is the next cheapest at £5 
each, then leucogeranus at from £6 to £8, and australasiana at 
from £8 to £10. 

The Saras, antigone, varies from £7 to £12 10s., the Stanley, 
paradisea, £10 to £17, and the Crowned Cranes, Balearica, from 
£12 10s. to £20 each. 

Order IMPENNES. 

The South African Jackass Penguin, Spheniscus demcrsus, 
appears to be the only species procurable in Europe. I have 
purchased them in Hamburg at £5 each. 

Order CEYPTUEI. 
Tinamous, of various species, are frequently offered for sale 
at from fifteen shillings to £3 10s. per bird. 

Order CASUARII. 

Young individuals of the Ceram Cassowary, Casuarius galea- 
tus, may sometimes be obtained for from £8 to £10 each; adult 
birds cost from £12 to £22. The other species of Cassowaries 
are all more expensive ; bicarunculatus and uniappendiculatus are 
priced at from £20 to £40. 

Young Emus, Dromceus novce-holkmdice, cost from £5 upwards, 
and adults £16 to £27 per pair. 

Order STEUTHIONES. 
The ordinary grey Rhea americana is worth from £6 to£12 10s. 
per bird, but white specimens from £12 10s. to £25 each. 

The value of Ostriches is too big a subject to enter into in this 

article. 

Class BEPTILIA. 

Practically all Eeptiles that come into the market can be 
bought for from one shilling (in the case of the commonest 
European species) up to £3 apiece. 

It is such large specimens as are in demand for public exhi- 
bition that cost more, and these very rapidly mount in price in 
proportion to their size : as the following examples show : — 

Giant Tortoise of Aldabra, Testudo elephantina : 

Length, 1-08 metres (or 3 ft. 6|- in.). Weight, 80 kilos (or 
176 lb.). Price, £37. 



PRICES OF ANIMALS. 307 

Length, 1*28 metres (or 4 ft. 2 in.). "Weight, 112 kilos (or 
246 lb.). Price, £50. 

Length, 1*32 metres (or 4 ft. 4 in.). Weight, 145 kilos (or 
319 lb.). Price, £90. 

Length, 1*33 metres (or 4 ft. 4 in.). Weight, 166 kilos (or 
365 lb.). Price, £100. 

Crocodiles, Alligators, and Caimans, at about 3 ft. 3 in. (or 
(l'OO metre) in length, pass the £3 value, and if they are healthy 
and likely to do well in captivity they double their price much 
sooner than their length. As a matter of fact, specimens exceed- 
ing six or seven feet in length seem generally to be unprocurable 
at any price. 

An American firm has sent me various quotations for Alligator 
mississipjnensis delivered at New York, which may be summarized 
as from four shillings to £140, according to size. 

Eight foot Alligators they offer at £9 to £12. 
Ten „ „ „ £18. 

Eleven ,, ,, ,, £30. 

Twelve ,, ,, ,, £45. 

Thus the first twelve inches of an Alligator's life are only worth 
four shillings, but if he goes on growing the time comes when each 
extra twelve inches are worth £15 and upwards. 

The large Lizards, like the Crocodiles, pass the £3 limit 
when about three feet in length. A Ehinoceros Iguana, Metopo- 
ceros comutus, of 3 ft. 3 in. is worth about £5, and a Varanus 
salvator of 5 ft. 9 in. as much as £10. 

The Pythons and Boas pass the £3 limit when about seven 
feet in length. 
From 7 to 10 ft. long they are worth £3 to £5. 

„ 12 to 13 „ „ „ £8 15s. to £17 10s. 

„ 14 to 15 „ „ „ £20 to £35. 

After fifteen feet they increase in value at about £5 per foot. For 
a 24-foot Snake £100 has been asked. 



308 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



MONTAGU'S HARRIER IN SURREY. 
By Collingwood Ingkam. 

Much interest was evinced last year when a pair of Montagu's 
Harriers (Circus cineraceus) were found nesting in Surrey, "within 
fifty miles of the Metropolis." These birds were first described 
as Hen-Harriers (C. cyaneus) ('British Birds,' January, 1908), 
but were finally and satisfactorily identified as belonging to the 
former species (op. cit., April, 1908; also 'Field,' December, 
1907). It transpires that this pair succeeded in rearing two 
young, but one of these was subsequently shot by a keeper. As 
this man was afterwards prosecuted, and a certain amount of 
publicity was given to the event, it is only fair to his employer 
to state that he had no authority for killing the bird ; indeed, 
his master is such a keen ornithologist and a lover of nature 
that I am sure he regrets the incident as much as anyone. 

With regard to the status of the various species of Harriers 
in Surrey, that gentleman has very kindly supplied me with the 
following facts, all of which are of the utmost value, considering 
the number of years he has made observations in the district : — 
" I have not actually located a Harrier's nest here till last year, 
but feel sure some birds were hatched off in 1906, as there were 
five about before the nesting-time in 1907. There have been 
three about here all last winter, but these were probably Hen- 
Harriers, as, according to authorities, Montagu's Harrier does 
not stay with us in winter. There has been no year for twenty- 
two years that I have not seen Harriers about our commons ; I 
cannot say whether they were Hen-Harriers or Montagu's, as I 
never shot one, and they are difficult to distinguish on the wing. 
It is quite possible these birds never reared their young here, as, 
until recently, no one dreamt of protecting them, and the cruel 
and deadly pole-trap (now happily made illegal) accounted, 
I know, for several every year. I have never allowed pole-traps 
on my shooting, but about fifteen years ago I found a Hen- 



MONTAGU'S HARRIER IN SURREY. 



309 



Harrier in a pole-trap just over my boundary with one leg shat- 
tered. This I spliced with a quill-toothpick and a thin strip of 
my pocket-handkerchief, holding the bird between my knees and 
keeping the rest of the handkerchief over its head. The bird flew 
away gaily, and I threw the trap to the bottom of a pond. The 
birds shot by my keeper last year were an adult female Hen-Harrier 
in April and a young Montagu in August. I heard of a third 
bird being killed in the neighbourhood, but do not know whether 
it was young or old, or of which kind, as the keeper promptly 
buried it or sold it, and did not know himself what it was. It 




Nest and Eggs of Montagu's Harrier. 



was after the decease of this third bird that there were three 
constantly about, which either I or my keeper could easily have 
killed." 

In another letter he says : — " The Marsh-Harrier is scarce, 
and I only saw one about here this year, but I can see Hen- or 
Montagu's Harriers any day." 

All this seems to show that Harriers would undoubtedly re- 
establish themselves in England if they were left unmolested. 
During the second week of June this summer another nest of 



310 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Montagu's Harrier was found in Surrey — now one of the most 
densely populated counties in the United Kingdom — and was 
seen by me on the 13th and 14th of that month. As the site of 
this nest was very similar and quite close to that chosen last 
year there is no need for me to write a full description of it. 
Every effort was made to protect this pair, and a " watcher " was 
put on duty by the Eoyal Society for the Protection of Birds. 
Unfortunately, although everything seemed to be progressing 
favourably, for some reason the eggs did not hatch. On July 
11th the female commenced to show signs of abandoning incuba- 
tion, and she remained away from the nest most of that day. 
She was also absent throughout the following day, but was seen 
flying about in the vicinity of the nest. Previous to this the 
male had not been observed for some time. 

It has been suggested that the eggs failed on account of the 
heat and the want of rain for twenty days. This theory is 
hardly tenable when it is realized that Montagu's Harrier is a 
more or less southern species, and breeds freely in Spain, while 
it also nests in North-west Africa, all of which countries are, 
of course, hotter and drier than any part of England. 

Notes by Inspector Burroughs. — From June 13th to July 12th 
the nest was carefully watched by Inspector Burroughs, and 
very interesting observations were made. The following is a 
digest of his notes : — 

It appears that the duty of incubation fell entirely to the 
female. She did not seem to have any recognized feeding-time, 
but was seen to leave the nest at various hours during the day — 
it was once as late as four in the afternoon before she was 
observed to rise. If frightened or disturbed in any way she 
would fly off hurriedly, sometimes uttering a cry that sounded 
like "chee-chee-chee." On these occasions she would go right 
away, remaining absent for half an hour or so before returning, 
which she usually did very warily. Approaching within twenty 
or thirty yards of the nest she would alight on the ground and 
run the remainder of the distance through the heather. "When, 
however, she left of her own accord her behaviour was quite 
different ; she would then rise gracefully, and, after circling over 
the ground for a short time, finally make away across the neigh- 
bouring hills. Sometimes a " chirping " cry would be emitted. 



MONTAGU'S HARRIER IN SURREY. 311 

The bird usually returned in about thirty or forty minutes, and 
if no danger was apparent would drop straight down to the nest. 
Occasionally she would bring back a twig or something similar 
in her bill, which was added to the nest, and by the end of the 
third week the structure was noticed to be considerably deeper 
and larger in size. 

The male generally put in an appearanccabout midday, when 
he would fly overhead and call to the female by means of a single 
note, which he repeated at intervals of about half a minute, until 
she left the nest and joined him. Sometimes he brought her 
food, which she took from him in mid-air. By its small size 
this probably consisted entirely of mice, and was certainly not 
chicken, pheasant, partridge, or rabbit, unless indeed these were 
brought in very small pieces. The two birds would frequently 
go away together. 

In the evening, about seven o'clock, the male occasionally 
paid a second visit to the nest, but at these times he never 
remained long. Early in July his visits became much more 
frequent, but on the 7th he disappeared for several days. About 
this time the female grew very restless, and was repeatedly 
on and off the nest. On the 11th she left her eggs at nine a.m., 
and, after flying round for a short while, was not seen again 
until eight p.m., by which time, of course, the eggs were stone- 
cold. Both birds were observed in the vicinity of the nest at 
eight next morning, but soon after this they disappeared and 
were not seen again. 



312 THE ZOOLOGIST 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



AVE S. 

Irregular Appearance of Blackbird. — For the last three years a 
Blackbird (Turdus merula) with a white head has visited my garden 
at curiously regular intervals. From careful observations I am con- 
vinced he is the same individual. He always turns up about the 
middle of July ; this year he appeared on the 19th. He only stays a 
few days, and then disappears till October, when he repeats the visit 
and remains till the beginning of November. After that I see no 
more of him till the following July. I never see or hear of him any- 
where else in this neighbourhood. I read in the papers recently that 
a similar bird had been seen in Merionethshire, and possibly it may 
be the same, as judging from the time between his visits he must 
make a wide circuit. I have always considered Blackbirds to be rather 
domestic in their habits, but this particular member of the tribe is 
evidently a confirmed rambler. — R. H. Ramsbotham (Elmhurst, 
Garstang). 

An Early Flock of Starlings.— On June 21st, while rambling in 
Jlichmond Park, I saw a flock of about one hundred Starlings (Stumus 
vulgaris) near the Roehampton gate. Is not this an early date for 
them to congregate ? I have looked up Sharpe and Newton, but do 
not see any mention of earlier date than autumn, and was not aware 
of them doing so myself. — ■ Frank A. Arnold (139, Hamilton Road, 
West Norwood). 

Hoopoe in Northamptonshire. — A Hoopoe was shot in South 
Northamptonshire, not many miles from Brackley, in the first week 
of May, 1908.— 0. V. Aplin (Bloxham, Oxon). 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse in Yorkshire. — During the first week of June 
three Sand-Grouse (Syrrhaptes paradoxus) were observed in a field of 
young corn in the eastern portion of Cleveland. Shortly afterwards 
one of them was picked up dead, and I have had an opportunity of 
examining this specimen, finding it to be a male in excellent plumage. 
The other two birds were seen at intervals until the middle of June, 
when they both disappeared. — T. H. Nelson (Seafield, Redcar). 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 313 

Ornithological Notes. — T am sending a few notes which may he of 
interest to readers of ' The Zoologist.' On Jan. 6th last I saw a 
Goosander (male) fly over Vauxhall Bridge at about four p.m. I was 
watching some Gulls, when, looking up, I suddenly saw this bird 
flying just over me up the river, and not more than about thirty or 
forty feet above the bridge, so that I could see the peculiar bill and the 
colouring perfectly. As it was flying so low, I think it must have 
risen close by, and evidently dropped again the other side, and perhaps 
dived, as on crossing the bridge I could not see it anywhere. I sup- 
pose this is a rare bird in the Metropolis, but the day in question was 
one with a strong south-west wind, immediately succeeding the bitter 
cold at the New Year, which might perhaps account for its appear- 
ance. I see in ' The Zoologist ' there have been several records lately 
cited of the Chiffchaff singing like a Willow- Wren, or vice versa. On 
April 5th, 1907, I was watching and listening to a Chiffchaff singing 
its usual song within a few feet of me, in a small copse near St. 
Leonards-on-Sea, when I was astonished to hear from (as I then felt 
sure) the same bird a feeble but unmistakable Willow- Wren's song. 
There were two or three birds about, but they were all Chiffchaffs, 
and I did not hear the Willow- Wren at all in this particular spot till 
some five days later. The bird was singing its usual note close to me 
both before and after, but I only heard the Willow- Wren song once ; 
it was very feebly uttered, and I believe began with the usual " chiff- 
chaff " repeated once or twice. (I do not know whether a further in- 
stance of this will be of interest, but am mentioning it in case it is.) 
Be this subject, is not the Chiffchaffs note almost (if not) the same as 
the first note or two of the Willow- Wren's song ? — H. G. Attlee 
(153, Beechcroft Eoad, Upper Tooting, S.W.). 

Notes on Nest-Boxes. — We have had the Great Tit, Blue Tit, 
Creeper, Nuthatch, Tree-Sparrow, House- Sparrow, Starling, and 
Tawny Owl in our nest-boxes this season, but the Stock-Dove has 
not come to us this year. Three Bobins' nests have been built in old 
kettles, though the birds have not been very successful in rearing 
their broods ; one nice lot were stolen when about half-fledged, pro- 
bably by a rat. One of the Great Tit's nests might fairly be described 
as " a fine specimen of the red variety," being made almost entirely 

i of material collected from an old rug or carpet. This was spoiled by 
the mice which use the boxes in winter, and sometimes nearly fill 
them with acorns ; these marauders had made such a hopeless mess 
of the nest with fragments of eggs and their contents that it was use- 

J less for a museum specimen. Two pair of Nuthatches hatched off in 
Zool. Mh ser. vol. XII., August, 190^. 2 B 



314 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

boxes, the nests in both cases being made entirely of the bark of the 
Scotch fir, in which the eggs were buried. Of Tree- Sparrows we had 
seven or eight nests, and House- Sparrows, not content with occupy- 
ing three or four boxes intended for more respectable tenants, spoiled 
our only House-Martin's nest. That the Starlings here only rear one 
brood in a season is pretty certain, as so many breed in our boxes that 
we have ample means of observing their ways. A Tawny Owl laid 
three eggs in an old cask and hatched them all ; two young birds got 
safely away, and the third disappeared — how, I know not, as it was 
too small to have got out, and a human robber would have cleared off 
the whole brood. Another pair nested in the church-tower again, 
and hatched two out of three eggs ; this pair of Owlets also got away 
safely after one had got out of the nest and been replaced, while the 
third egg, which contained a dead young bird nearly hatched, now 
represents the species in the type-collection of eggs in the Ipswich 
Museum. Mr. Oliver Pike was staying with us while the hen was 
sitting, and successfully " shot" her as she flew from her nest with a 
cinematograph camera ; we afterwards went up the tower, where he 
got a fine picture of the nest and eggs by magnesium light. Before 
we finished operations the old bird came back, but just too late to get 
a photograph of her. On one occasion I found no fewer than five 
rats around the nest, none of which could have been dead for more 
than a day. No bird-music gives me more genuine pleasure than that 
of the Tawny Owl, whether it be the squealing of the owlets in the 
dense foliage of midsummer or the far-reaching shout of the old birds 
on a frosty winter night. Unfortunately, as I am one of the most 
unmusical of mortals, the pleasure of comparing the notes of our Owls 
is denied to me. A reference to Gilbert White's tenth letter to his 
correspondent Barrington, in which he describes the records of a 
neighbour " said to have a nice ear," will show that in the notes of 
Owls and Cuckoos there is an interesting, if not a new, sphere of 
observation for musical naturalists. — Julian G. Tuck (Tostock Eectory, 
Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk). 

Erratum. — ' Zoologist,' 1908, page 131, line 27, for "Southwold" 
read "Sudbourne." — J. H. Gueney (Keswick Hall, Norwich). 



( 315 ) 



EDITOKIAL GLEANINGS. 



" Pakasitology," a Supplement to the 'Journal of Hygiene,' has 
recently appeared (vol. i. no. 1), and is published at Cambridge, at the 
University Press. 

When the ' Journal of Hygiene ' was founded it was announced 
that papers on Parasitology "in relation to hygiene and preventive 
medicine" would be published in its pages. It has, however, been 
felt for some time that the Journal was becoming unduly burdened 
with papers dealing with the anatomy of mosquitoes, fleas, protozoa 
and other parasites — of great importance in themselves — but having 
only an indirect relation to hygiene and preventive medicine. 

The remarkable development of parasitology in recent years, and 
the increase in our knowledge of the part played by parasites in 
human and animal diseases, demand a means of publication, in the 
English language, of original papers dealing with the subject in its 
widest sense. It is proposed in future to relegate all such papers to 
"Parasitology." 

The fundamental discoveries upon the modes of infection in 
plague, malaria, sleeping sickness, yellow fever, ankylostomiasis, 
elephantiasis, and other important diseases affecting man and animals, 
render it evident that the co-operation of specialists in different 
fields is required for the proper elucidation of the complex problems 
which surround the causation of these diseases. The successful 
study of such diseases as are carried through the agency of inverte- 
brate hosts demands, therefore, not only investigations into the pro- 
cesses which occur in the affected vertebrate, but also observations 
on the structure and life-history of the pathogenic organism, and of 
the alternative host or hosts which serve to spread the disease. 
Thus a knowledge of the structure and biology of mosquitoes, biting 
flies, and ticks is necessary for a comprehensive knowledge of the 
etiology of malaria, trypanosomiasis, spirochetosis, and piroplas- 
mosis, and a knowledge of fleas and their habits is essential in the 
study of plague. Further, recent discoveries relating to parasitic 
worms, especially those which produce filariasis, ankylostomiasis, and 
various intestinal diseases, have given a great stimulus to the study of 
the entozoa. 



316 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The first part is devoted to an elaborate and fully illustrated 
" Eevision of the non-Combed Eyed Siphonaptera," by Dr. Karl 
Jordan and the Hon. N. C. Eothschild. 



In the Eeport of the Board of Scientific Advice to the Govern- 
ment of India, 1907, Dr. Annandale has contributed some interesting 
facts as to the progress of Indian zoology during that year. One of the 
most important features is the Survey of the Invertebrate Fauna of 
Stagnant Water. Additional collections of microscopic freshwater 
animals have been made in Calcutta, Eastern Bengal, the United 
Provinces, and the Simla Hill States by the Superintendent and the 
Museum Collector, and have been sent for determination to Prof, von 
Daday, of Buda Pesth, while a large number of specimens of aquatic 
and semi-aquatic insects have been obtained from the same districts. 
The aquatic Hemiptera have been sent to Mr. W. L. Distant for 
description in a supplement to his volumes on the Order in the 
' Fauna of British India,' the Chironomidce (Midges) to the Abbe 
Keiffer in Germany, and the Neuroptera to Prof. Needham in the 
United States, while arrangements are being made regarding the 
working out of the aquatic beetles in France. The AnophelincB 
among the mosquitoes have been identified in the Museum, while the 
Gulicina will be identified in England by Mr. Theobald. 

The work has not, however, been confined to the collection of 
specimens and their transmission abroad for identification, for in- 
vestigations have been made into various obscure points in the struc- 
ture and biology of the freshwater sponges (of which several new 
species have also been described), such as the process of budding, 
the nature of the inhalent pores, commensalism, and the production 
of gemmules. 

Even more important than the fauna of freshwater ponds is that of 
the brackish pools in the Ganges delta, especially in the neighbourhood 
of Port Canning. Large collections have been made in such ponds, 
and it is hoped shortly, with the aid of the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, 
Dr. J. G. de Man, Mr. E. A. Smith, Mr. W. L. Distant, Col. Godwin 
Austen, M. Eegimbart, and Prof, von Daday, to publish a complete 
fauna. It has been possible, thanks to the work done nearly forty 
years ago by the late Dr. F. Stoliczka, of the Geological Survey of 
India, to trace a very rapid and extraordinary change in the structure 
and habits of a sea-anemone {Metriclium schillerianum) which occurs 
in certain brackish ponds of recent origin at Port Canning, while the 
other elements in the fauna to which this remarkable species belongs 
have proved of great biological interest. 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 317 

We have received the Eeport on the Sarawak Museum for 1907, 
written by the Curator, Mr. John Hewitt. Many difficulties have 
to be surmounted in a Bornean Museum. Thus we read of the 
collections : — " On the whole these are in very good condition. The 
show-cases of Mammals and Birds are now in the lower rooms, and 
the Ethnographical collection occupies almost the whole of the upper 
floor. Prom time to time, as opportunity arises, such birds or mam- 
mals as have faded are replaced by fresh specimens, and in the Ethno- 
graphical collection the cement-dusted sun-hats give place to new 
ones. The problem of insect attacks on soft wood has been solved, I 
hope, by washing with jodolite all specimens which are liable to 
attack. The stand for one bird-case has had to be replaced, as the 
wood of which the old one was made has been eaten. This wood was 
young nireh. During the year collections have been made at Matang, 
Santubong, Quop, Bidi, and on the Baram Eiver, the latter still a fine 
region for botanists or entomologists." 

We understand that Mr. Hewitt is relinquishing his post as 
Curator, and that he will be succeeded by Mr. Guy Marshall, the well- 
known naturalist of Matabeleland and Mashonaland. To supplement 
experiences and observations in Africa by a sojourn in Borneo may 
result in Mr. Marshall doing still greater things. 



The Eeport of the Trustees of the Australian Museum, Sydney, 
for 1907, has been issued. The following extract refers to a very 
excellent work connected with this Museum: — " The gallery lectures 
and demonstrations for teachers and students have been continued. 
There is not at present accommodation to make these available for 
the general public, and they are therefore prepared only for teachers 
and students. Tickets for public school teachers are distributed 
through the Department of Public Instruction. Private school 
teachers and students receive tickets from the Secretary of the Museum 
on application. The course consisted of : — Parasites and Messmates, 
by Mr. T. Whitelegge ; attendance, 7. The Birds of the County of 
Cumberland, part 1, by Mr. A. J. North ; attendance, 19. The Great 
Barrier Eeef, by Mr. C. Hedley ; attendance, 34. The Sacred Beetle 
or Scarab, by Mr. W. J. Eainbow ; attendance, 12. Crystals, by 
Mr. C. Anderson ; attendance, 4. Australian Stone Implements and 
Objects, by Mr. W. W. Thorpe ; attendance, 8. Australian Mammals, 
by Mr. A. E. McCulloch ; attendance, 8. The Birds of the County of 
Cumberland, part 2, by Mr. A. J. North ; attendance, 17. The 
Depths of the Sea, by Mr. C. Hedley ; attendance, 85. Pelagic Life, 



318 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

by Mr. C. Hedley ; attendance, 64. A Botanico-Entornological Study, 
by Mr. W. J. Eainbow ; attendance, 26." 



The Fourth International Fishery Congress will convene in the 
city of Washington, United States of America, from the 22nd to the 
26th of September, 1908, to deliberate on important matters relating 
to fishing and fish culture, and to submit propositions for the benefit 
of the fisheries to Governments and to State, provincial, and local 
authorities. The Congress will be organized and conducted in con- 
formity with the decisions for the regulation of the international 
fishery congresses decreed in Paris in 1900. The membership of the 
Congress will consist of Government, State, and provincial representa- 
tives, delegates from home and foreign societies, corporations and 
persons invited by the management of the Congress, and persons at 
home and abroad who are deemed to have an interest in the purposes 
of the Congress, and express a wish to take part in it. All members 
have a right to vote, to participate in the discussions, and to make 
independent propositions. In case a corporation should be repre- 
sented by several delegates, the members of this delegation have the 
right only to one vote, which shall be cast by the delegate designated 
to the presiding officer. The delivery of the card of admission gives 
to members the right to take part in all the enterprises and excursions 
projected by the Congress, to receive all the publications, and to wear 
the insignia of the Congress. The members of the Congress are 
required to conform to its regulations and decisions. The member- 
ship fee is fixed at two dollars for each person, excepting the official 
representatives of Governments, who become members by virtue of 
their credentials. 

In response to invitations extended by the Government of the 
United States, twelve national Governments have already signified 
their purpose to be officially represented, and delegates have been 
appointed by the governors of many of the states of the United 
States. In view of the small number of the nations which have 
formally indicated their inability to officially participate, and the large 
number of persons who will attend as individuals or as representa- 
tives of important fishery societies, the Congress promises to be im- 
portant in its representative character, size, and the value of its 
proceedings. 

All persons interested in the fisheries, fish culture, and fishery 
administration, or in scientific investigations and experiments related 
to the fisheries, are invited to attend the meetings and take part in 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 319 

the discussions. To those who cannot attend the meetings of the 
Congress an invitation is extended to submit papers on subjects 
relating to the fisheries, mailing them to the Secretary-General of the 
Congress in season to reach him prior to the opening meeting. For 
the guidance of those desiring to participate in this manner, a scheme 
of subjects is submitted, but the papers need not be restricted to the 
titles suggested. 

During the week beginning September 20th the headquarters of 
the Congress will be established in the New Willard Hotel, Washing- 
ton, D. C, where information relating to hotel accommodation, 
transportation, places of interest, and other matters will be avail- 
able. All communications and inquiries before that date should be 
addressed to the Secretary-General of the Congress, Bureau of 
Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

Some days ago a curious sight was witnessed by the river- watcher 
and another gentleman on the banks of the Eiver Helmsdale, in 
Sutherland. A Salmon, estimated to weigh between 20 lb. and 30 lb., 
was seen floating on its back and struggling in the water.' On closer 
inspection it was seen that a large Eel had entwined itself about the 
Salmon's tail, and was holding it in a vice grip. With the Eel round 
its tail, the Salmon was helpless in the water, as its only means of 
propulsion was rendered useless. Such fights, it is said, are by no 
means uncommon, and the Eel generally comes off victorious. — 
Shooting Times and British Sportsman, Aug. 1st, 1908. 



Caddis Larva and Water-lilies. — •" On an evening in the end of 
June of this year I noticed a Water-Eat busily engaged diving in our 
garden pond and bringing to the surface what I then thought was a 
piece of decayed wood, about an inch in length. The Eat nibbled the 
"wood" with apparent enjoyment. For fully twenty minutes I 
watched the little creature's ceaseless industry. This year the water- 
lilies are sickly plants, and, to ascertain the reason why, the pond was 
emptied, when to our astonishment every root of every plant was 
riddled like a honeycomb, and the beds out of which they grew littered 
with the Eats' succulent morsels of " decayed wood," which, on exami- 
nation, we discovered to be the larvas of the caddis-fly. How to 
destroy this pest and save the water-lilies was a vexed question. 
However, on revisiting the pond late in the evening, the mud bottom 
and water-plants were almost hid from view with birds, all too busy 



320 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

to be scared away. They were feasting riotously on the caddis. The 
pond was left dry for a week, and the larvas of the caddis-fly has dis- 
appeared like magic. Sparrows deserve the greatest share of credit for 
clearing this pest away ; their success in opening the hard case which 
encloses the larva was amazing. Picking it up in their bills they 
struck the case time after time on the slate-lined sides of the pond 
until it was broken and they could swallow the grub. As this is the 
first year the larvae of the caddis-fly have been so abundant in the 
pond as to injure the water-plants, are we to attribute the cause to 
the absence of the Trout, which were formerly in the pond?" — 
"L. H. S.," in Scotsman. 



OBITUABY. 



Peofessoe Alpeed Giaed. 

" The death is announced of one of the most eminent of French 
zoologists, M. Alfred Giard, professor at the Sorbonne, and member 
of the Academie des Sciences. He was born on August 8th, 1846, 
and died on the anniversary of his birth. He was educated at the 
Ecole Normale Superieure, and was Professor of Natural History at 
the Institut Industriel of Northern France, 1873, and of Zoology at 
Lille, 1880 ; and Maitre de Conferences at the Ecole Normale, 1887 ; 
whilst the Chair of ' Evolution des Etres organises ' was created for 
him by the City of Paris. In 1896 he was elected President of the 
Entomological Society of France, and in 1900 was elected to the 
Academie des Sciences. He published several learned works, and 
contributed many papers to the 'Bulletin Scientifique du Nord,' of 
which he was the editor." 

(We have taken this concise and accurate notice from the pages of 
the 'Athenaeum,' August 15th, 1908.) 



irth Series. 
,. XII., No. 141. 



September 15th, 1908. 



No. 807. 




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THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 807.— September, 1908. 



VERTEBRATES OF WALES AND IRELAND. 
By H. E. Forrest. 

In ' The Zoologist,' 1903, I published a paper contrasting the 
avifauna of North-west Wales with that of the opposite counties 
of Ireland. From the details therein given it was seen that a 
considerable number of species which are common in Wales are 
absent or very rare in Ireland. In some few instances the con- 
verse of this was noted. 

In the present paper I propose to deal in a similar way with 
the other Vertebrates — Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians, and 
Freshwater Fishes.* 

To take these groups collectively has this advantage — that it 
emphasizes the difference in the factors which govern the geo- 
graphical distribution of Birds and of the other Vertebrates. 
Whilst the former can pass through the air in any direction, the 
latter can travel only by land or along rivers. 

Geologists tell us that the British Isles were formerly con- 
nected with the neighbouring parts of Europe by land. Subse- 
quently subsidence took place, the lowest-lying parts becoming 
submerged first. The sea between England and the Netherlands 
is shallow, as also is the sea between England and the Isle of 
Man, but to the west of this is a deep channel (over fifty 
fathoms) which is continuous along the whole length of Ireland. 

* Marine species are omitted, as they are common to the seas of both 
countries. 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., September, 1908. 2 c 



322 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

When the subsidence of the land began, this deep channel would 
be the earliest portion to sink beneath the waves, so that Ireland 
would become an island whilst Great Britain was still a part of 
the mainland. A further subsidence submerged more low-lying 
land, and converted Great Britain also into an island. 

The land animals of these islands would naturally be identical 
with those of Western Europe so long as they were actually 
united with the mass of the continent, but the species have 
changed somewhat from time to time. For instance, the Lem- 
ming was at one time common over the whole of Western 
Europe, including the British Isles, but has since vanished from 
the greater portion of its ancient habitat. 

It is evident that any changes in the species of land animals 
would affect these islands so long as they were connected with 
the Continent, but not afterwards. As Ireland was separated 
from the mainland before Great Britain, any species which 
reached the latter at a later period would be unable to reach the 
former on account of the sea intervening, whilst the occurrence 
of a species in Great Britain but not in Ireland would be pre- 
sumptive evidence that it reached here whilst the latter was still 
connected by land with the Continent, but after Ireland had 
become an island. It also follows that species found in both 
countries are longer established, or " of older family," than 
those found only in Great Britain. 

These considerations add largely to the interest and import- 
ance of the facts to be now adduced.* 

Fishes. 

Pope or Buff. — Occurs in the Severn and tributaries, the 
Dee, and canals in the border counties of Wales. Unknown in 
Ireland. 

Boach. — Common in the eastern counties of Wales, rarer in 
the west. Unknown in Ireland. 

Budd. — Occurs in a few scattered localities in Wales. Abun- 
dant in Ireland, where it takes the place of the Boach. 

Dace. — .Common in the Severn and Dee with their tribu- 
taries. Unknown in Ireland. 

* Full local details are given in the writer's ' Fauna of North Wales.' 



VERTEBRATES OF WALES AND IRELAND. 323 

Minnow. — Common throughout Wales. Occurs in Ireland, 
but is said not to be indigenous ; introduced a century ago. 

Bleak. — Found in rivers in the border counties of Wales. 
Unknown in Ireland. 

Tench. — Fairly common in the eastern counties of Wales. 
Occurs in Ireland, but is believed not to be indigenous. 

Grayling. — Common in the Dee, Severn, and some tribu- 
taries. Unknown in Ireland. 

Bateachians. 

All the Newts occur both in Wales and Ireland, but the 
Common Frog is said not to be indigenous in Ireland, although 
known there for the last two centuries ; whilst the Toad is absent 
from that country. 

Reptiles. 

St. Patrick is popularly credited with having banished all 
Beptiles from the Emerald Isle. The only species found there is 
the Common Lizard. The Adder, Ring Snake, Blindworm, and 
Sand Lizard are unknown in that country. In Wales all except 
the last-named are common. 

Mammals. 
, Mole. — Abundant in all parts of Wales. Unknown in Ire- 
land. 

Common Shrew. — Abundant in the lowlands of Wales. Un- 
known in Ireland, where its place is taken by the Lesser Shrew 
— a rare species in Wales. 

Water Shrew. — Not uncommon in the Welsh lowlands. Un- 
known in Ireland. 

Serotine, Barbastelle. — Neither of these Bats occur in North 
Wales, though found further south. They are unknown in 
Ireland. 

Noctule. — Common in Wales. Recorded in N.E. Ireland, 
but probably in error ; no recent occurrence. 

Greater Horseshoe Bat. — Two examples have been recorded 
in North Wales, and it is common in certain parts of the South 
of England. Unknown in Ireland. 

Polecat. — Formerly common, and still met with in fair 
numbers in the wilder parts of Wales. Unknown in Ireland. 

2c 2 



324 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Weasel. — Common in Wales. Unknown in Ireland. 

Stoat.— Common in both countries, though the Irish Stoat 
is by some zoologists regarded as a distinct species, Putorius 
hibemicus. 

Wild Cat. — Extinct in Wales. Unknown in Ireland, though 
it probably occurred early in the historic period. 

Common Hare. — Common in Wales. Unknown in Ireland,* 
where its place is taken by the Irish Hare — a form of Mountain 
Hare. This last has also been introduced into Wales. 

Dormouse. — Fairly common in the eastern counties of Wales ; 
rarer in the west. Unknown in Ireland. 

Harvest Mouse. — Of rare or doubtful occurrence in Wales 
and the neighbouring counties. Unknown in Ireland. 

Field Vole, Bank Vole, Water Vole. — All common in 
Wales. Unknown in Ireland. 

Roe Deer. — Extinct in Wales in the wild state. Unknown 
in Ireland. 

A glance through the above list reveals some striking 
anomalies. The absence of Snakes from Ireland «s so familiar 
that it passes without comment, but that there should be no 
species of Vole, no Mole, no Weasel, nor Polecat is indeed 
remarkable. 

In my former paper on the Birds of the two countries I 
refrained from offering any theory to account for the facts. 
May not the successive cutting off from the mainland of, first, 
Ireland and then Great Britain, account for some of the pheno- 
mena ? 

Take, for example, such a comparatively sedentary bird as 
the Tawny Owl. May it not have established itself in Great 
Britain whilst still connected with the Continent, but after 
Ireland had been cut off by the sea? The same argument 
might apply to the Woodpeckers and other birds that do not 
habitually cross the sea or perform regular migrations. The 
idea is not a new one. It has been advanced by several writers, 
but more particularly by Mr. Charles Dixon in his book on the 
' Migration of Birds,' in which he applies it as a principle to 
account for the routes taken by birds on migration, these follow- 
ing the ancient land-connections between North Africa and South 
* Introduced recently into Ireland. 



VERTEBRATES OF WALES AND IRELAND. 325 

Europe, &c, by inherited instinct. Their ancestors of long ago 
originally took this route because it was over land connecting 
the northern and southern countries which they inhabited re- 
spectively in the warm and cold seasons of the year, till the 
following of this route at each returning time of migration 
became a fixed habit with the whole race. 

Applying this to such a species as the Tree-Pipit (common 
in North Wales, but unknown in Ireland), we might suppose 
that this bird extended its 'range to Britain whilst still part of 
the European mainland, but after Ireland had become an island. 
When Great Britain became also an island the Tree-Pipit con 
tinued to come to its native district from force of habit, but 
never went on to Ireland, because the instinct to go there had 
not been implanted in the species by old custom. Of course, all 
this is theory, but it certainly accounts for much that is puzzling 
in the geographical distribution of birds in these districts. 

I have to thank Capt. G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton for revising 
the notes on the Mammals of Ireland. 



326 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE OBNITHOLOGY OF OXFOKDSHIBE, 

1907. 

By 0. V. Aplin, F.L.S. 

January 9th. — Mistle-Thrush singing.. 

11th. — A Kestrel at Swalcliffe. 

13th. — Song-Thrush singing, the first this year. 

15th. — Song-Thrushes have returned in some numbers, and 
burst into song at once. 

19th. — Bullfinches have been numerous this winter, and very 
destructive to the buds, but there have been fewer about since 
the December snow. 

22nd.— Wind to N.E., and temperature fell rapidly. Early 
in the afternoon a small flock of Peewits, in boomerang forma- 
tion, passing over and going at a great pace down wind, showed 
what weather was coming. The weather from this date was 
severe until Feb. 9th, and cold until the 15th. A week later 
there was another shoit spell of frost. About 8.30 p.m. a Brown 
Owl was sitting on the point of small flagstaff in front of the 
house. This point is several inches long, and about the size of 
an average little finger. 

26th. — Song-Thrushes hard up, but have not gone again. 
Great flocks of Larks. 

27th. — Coal-Tit with spring note. 

February 6th. — Birds feeding greedily on holly-berries, and 
Bedwings within three feet of my window. 

7th. — A lot of Wild Ducks reported flying over Banbury this 
evening. 

9th. — Milder weather. Song-Thrush resumed song. 

10th. — Lark sang for first time since autumn. 

11th. — Stock-Dove cooing. Song-Thrushes tried to some 
extent to outstay the frost, and are here now in lessened num- 
bers ; one picked up dead. Fieldfares, about the 6th inst., 



OBNITHOLOGY OF OXFORDSHIRE. 327 

having cleared off the holly-berries in gardens, disappeared. Red- 
wings have been very scarce since the December snow. Some 
Blackbirds left. Some Mistle-Thrushes either left or died. 

22nd. — Crows pairing. 

27th. — Chaffinches and Blackbirds opened song ; a Brimstone 
Butterfly seen. 

28th. — Nuthatch, with rapid trill, at Wickham ; we have 
none here now. 

March 6th. — Yellow Bunting singing. Peewits, with breeding 
notes, on the arable fields. Rooks have some big nests ; they 
usually begin cawing about the nests about the middle of 
February, or, as an old man said, " about bean-sowing." 

10th. — Thermometer 50° in shade for, I believe, the first time 
since Nov. 29th. 

12th.— Apricot blossom. 

18th. — Seven or eight Golden Plovers in Cherwell valley 
opposite Bodicote. 

20th. — A daffodil in flower under south wall. 

22nd. — Some Fieldfares have returned. 

24th. — Wheatear in ploughed field on Milcomb Hill, and a 
few fresh-looking Meadow-Pipits. 

26th. — Three Tardus nests building. 

27th. — My son Gilbert heard the Chiffchaff at the back of the 
house, where I heard it next day. 

28th. — Examined a Crested Grebe in full plumage, shot at 
Tusmore on the 25th. It weighed 2£ lb. 

April 4th. — Mistle-Thrush's nest with three eggs. 

10th. — Some silent Willow-Wrens. 

14th. — The Thrush family and Starlings now feed largely on 
the abundant crop of ivy-berries, and their droppings, full of 
seeds (which turn pink), are very remarkable. The berries are 
so well ripened that they drop off easily, and lie thick under 
some trees — a circumstance I never noticed before. A good and 
well-ripened crop of these berries is a most important thing to 
fruit-eating birds in cold spring weather. 

15th. — A Water-Rail picked up near the railway station here, 
having evidently struck the wires. 

16th. — Two Peewits' nests, with four eggs each, substantially 
built of old stubble, and one of them forming a conspicuous 



328 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

patch at a distance. They were in fields of young barley, and 
would probably be destroyed by the roll. Redstart. 

21st. — A Swallow about my buildings. 

22nd. — Common Sandpiper near Adderbury. 

23rd. — Whitethroat and Tree-Pipit. Song-Thrush's nest 
with six eggs in shrubbery. 

25th. — Chiffchaffs unusually abundant. 

26th.— Cuckoo. 

29th.— Ray's Wagtail. 

May 2nd. — Have only heard the Cuckoo on two days. 

5th. — Two pairs of Swallows arrived about their nesting- 
places. Up till to-day I had only seen four birds this spring. 
The next day they were in numbers all about. 

6th.— Sedge-Warbler. 

[Left England until 24th. I have had news of a Snipe's 
nest found in South Oxon in April, and several other birds 
seen in April and May. Also of a pair of Bitterns seen and 
heard, and another seen a few miles away in the same district 
in May.] 

27th. — A Water-Rail reported as seen at Wickham Mill 
yesterday. 

29th. — Quail calling on east side of the village. 

Rain in May nearly 3^ in. 

June 1st. — A deluge of rain. At Oxford it is said that *95 in. 
fell in twenty-five minutes. 

3rd. — Ray's Wagtail is rather more numerous than it has 
been for some years. Floods. 

5th. — Two (? pairs of) Nightingales in the parish this year. 

7th. — A second Quail near the village. 

8th. — Nightingale's nest in the oak spinney on the Grove 
estate. Placed under a thorn-bush, on a very bare bank covered 
with dead oak-leaves ; fixed in the forking shoots of a briar. 
Quite exposed, and yet very difficult to see, as it was made exter- 
nally of the same oak-leaves. The bird flitted off close to me, 
but it was a quarter of an hour before I found the nest ! Inter- 
nally the nest was formed of felted decayed leaves, and lined 
with a little grass and hair. It contained one newly hatched 
young one, one damaged hard-sat egg, and one addled egg down 
in the bottom of the lining. This cold wet season will cause 



ORNITHOLOGY OF OXFORDSHIRE. 329 

many small hatchings. The male was singing three days before, 
but to-day I only heard the high clear "whit." 

9th. — A Linnet's with five eggs in an ivy-covered arch in the 
garden — a curious position. 

18th. — The Kedshanks are reported as breeding at their old 
place, and others a few miles lower down the river. Others have 
been seen on Otmoor, and one of them, which I afterwards saw, 
was shot about the latter end of May. 

A very cold and cloudy and rather wet month. In the 
longest evenings the birds sometimes left off singing twenty-five 
minutes before their usual time. Ked-backed Shrikes have bred 
or been seen about their three or four usual haunts here. 

July 11th. — The weather this month, so far, almost wintry. 

15th. — Saw at Oxford a locally taken Keed-Warbler's nest 
containing three eggs, and a Cuckoo's with a distinct bluish 
tinge in the ground colour. 

17th. — In the flat uplands north of Wroxton saw a female 
and a male (not one pair) Ked-backed Shrike. Many Corn- 
Buntings about there. Mistle-Thrushes flocked. 

19th. — Two Nuthatches at Great Tew. Chiffchaff still sings. 
A flock of Starlings descended early one morning this summer 
on a patch of strawberries just ready to gather near the station 
here, and cleared them all off. 

28th. — A Nuthatch in the big oak here. It is now a long 
time since any were seen here. 

About two inches of rain fell on thirteen days this month. 

August 6th. — Song-Thrush sang, 4 a.m. 

8th. — Young Bullfinches now about the garden. The old 
birds, I believe, have bred both in front and at the back of the 
house. Last year there was a nest in a box-bush. 

10th. — Among the swarm of Swifts in the air this evening it 
was easy to detect young birds by their shorter, less curved, and 
proportionately broader wings. 

11th. — Great numbers of Swifts on the wing. 

13th. — Many Garden Warblers in garden now. They cer- 
tainly are eating insects and caterpillars as well as fruit. 

17th.— Some diminution in the number of Swifts, but still 
quite a number here. Coal-Tit with spring note. 

19th. — About a score of Swifts. Harvest began here— oats. 



330 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

25th. — Many House-Martins on the roof nearly every morn- 
ing since about the 10th. A great deal of Eobin song now. 

29th. — A few Swifts every evening up till to-day, when I could 
only see one. 

30th. — A brood of young Bullfinches about the garden con- 
stantly cry with a husky creaking "peep," quite different to that 
of the old ones. In the nest-dress the top of the head is brown, 
face, throat, and neck warm brown. 

Eain this month over two inches on seventeen days. A most 
cold, ungenial summer. 

September. — Blackbirds have been most destructive to apri- 
cots and plums. 

3rd. — A flock of a dozen Corn-Buntings. 

10th. — So far as one can see (so little corn cleared yet), a very 
bad Partridge year — probably the worst since 1879. No Meadow- 
Pipits in the roots yet. 

13th. — Still none. Great congregations of Martins on the 
roof now. A record crop of plums, the trees breaking down under 
the weight of the fruit. Blackbirds simply live on them. 

18th. — In two small adjoining pieces of clover four Land- 
Bails flushed and killed ; all young birds, but certainly not 
bred here. Some Meadow-Pipits in the roots for the first 
time. 

20th. — No Martins on roof for several days, and less about. 

21st. — I think a great part of our Swallows and Martins have 
already gone. 

23rd. — A flock of about two hundred Peewits on uplands near 
Barford. 

27th. — Chiff chaff singing. 

28th. — A good many Martins on roof this morning, probably 
composed of a second batch of broods. 

30th. — I heard at 7 p.m. the unmistakable cry of one or 
more Oystercatchers passing low down over my garden ; dark 
and cloudy evening. 

Fine warm month. 

October 3rd. — Large gathering of Martins on roof, and I think 
no further diminution in numbers yet. 

7th. — Great many Swallows and Martins congregating in 
afternoon. 



OENITHOLOGY OF OXFORDSHIRE. 331 

8th. — Wren sang. 

9th. — Eeport of Woodcock killed in first week of month. 

12th. — Harvest late ; beans still being cut. A few Swallows 
and Martins here. 

15th. — Six or seven Martins together. 

16th. — A very heavy rainfall, causing floods. 

19th.— Two Martins. 

21st. — A Eing-Ouzel near Tew. Lots of Tortoiseshell Butter- 
flies about. 

24th. — Great many Starlings hawking for flies in the warm 
noon. 

25th. — About a score of Fieldfares flew over, going S.W. 

27th. — News of a Peregrine killed at Stanton Harcourt, and 
another adult at Middleton Stoney Park during the past week ; 
both, from their size, appear to have been females. Also of an 
adult male and a young Hobby, killed about a month or six 
weeks ago near Sandford, where I have no doubt they bred. 

29th. — Song-Thrush sings a little. 

Nearly 5^ in. of rain this month ; wind chiefly from S.W., 
and season very mild. 

November 3rd. — Some plums still on wall-trees. 

13th. — Wood-Pigeons only just fully fledged. 

16th. — Song-Thrushes singing fairly well the last week. 

21st. — Redwings for first time. 

25th. — A good many now. 

28th. — Heavy floods. 

29th. — When we were having a stubble-field at the top of the 
hill above Milcomb gorse driven, the beaters sent a Jack- Snipe 
(which was killed) over the guns. Later, when walking another 
stubble on a hillside, another got up at our feet. A Wood- 
Pigeon only just full-feathered. 

Rainfall about If in. ; wind N. to a great extent. 

December 4th. — Heavy floods. 

8th.— Report of a young (live) Hobby in Oxford Market, said 
to have been taken near there. 

13th. — Many Fieldfares and Eedwings ; a good crop of haws. 
Rooks have built many nests this autumn. 

17th. — The floods at Oxford are very large, and it is nearly 
isolated on three sides. 



332 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

20th. — Song-Thrushes fairly numerous and in good song. 

21st. — Winter aconite in flower. 

23rd. — Mr. Calvert writes that a few days ago, when he was 
waiting for Wood-Pigeons at Potter's Hill, a Merlin came and 
sat in a tree near him. 

27th. — Hardly a Fieldfare to be seen now. 

28th. — A bitterly cold day, E.N.E., and weather cold and 
dry (except a little snow) until end of the year. Temperature 
nearly the same day and night. Song-Thrushes find a few 
Helix aspersa to hammer. 

Eain on sixteen days to amount of 3g- in. ; wind chiefly S.W. 
until nearly the end of the month. 



( 333 ) 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON BUTTERFLIES AND 
HORNETS (MADE IN FRANCE). 

By Edmund Selous. 

July 9th, 1908. — For the last few days I have watched hornets 
and butterflies feeding on some of the copious exudations of sap 
from the bark of a small, lopped, stunted oak-tree, of no very 
healthy appearance. The outflow, after fermenting, to appear- 
ance, and bubbling, forms, here and there, a white substance, 
in much the same way, apparently, as foam is formed along the 
seashore. It is more substantial than this, but of a very flimsy 
solidity, if solid at all, properly speaking. It is this that the 
hornets (as huge ones as I have ever seen) principally come down 
to feed on, and they are evidently very fond of it. One will not 
suffer another to feed at the same place with her. Sometimes 
one, coming, is driven away by one already there, or the latter 
may be displaced by the new arrival. Two often oppose each 
other, in the air, flying round and sometimes against each 
other with a deep, portentous hum, not pleasant to hear. But 
I have not seen them actually close and use their stings, so 
may doubt if they would ever go so far. But apparently they 
cannot eat amicably, side by side, or even a small space apart, 
as wasps will do. Butterflies— especially now Red Admirals, 
but also the Great Tortoiseshell and others — also very much 
affect these exudations, and, strange to say, the hornets are a 
good deal worried and molested by them, though not in equal 
degree, by all. They dash at and fly round about them, in a 
bold buccaneering manner, as they approach or quit the tree, 
but not when they are quite near it and about to settle, or after 
they have settled. But time after time, to-day, I have seen 
them thus attacked, as I may almost call it, when properly on 
the wing, and almost always by one of the Red Admirals, though 
once a Great Tortoiseshell did so, but not so effectively. The 
butterfly dashes right at the hornet, very swifty and impetuously, 
and then all round about her, with rapid retreats and fresh darts 



334 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

in — a spirited, dashing performance — but never, I think — that 
is, as far as I have seen — actually touches the quarry, which, 
however, is much worried, and, owing to these Eed Admirals' 
much greater powers of flight, quite unable to retaliate. She 
seeks only to get away, either making for the tree, to which she 
is not close followed, or getting under full flight for home or 
elsewhere, when the annoyance soon ceases. It is during the 
heavy uncertain circling in the neighbourhood of the tree that 
she is most liable to be thus molested. 

What exactly the mental attitude of the butterfly is, when 
making these sallies, it is not quite easy to say. It looks, however, 
more like light-hearted gaiety and frolic than real hostile feeling 
towards a rival or possible enemy, which last, however, it may 
be ; even amongst birds enmity has sometimes the appearance 
of sport or play. It is curious to see so formidable and formid- 
able-looking an insect as a hornet thus bluffed, as it were, by a 
butterfly, but the fact is interesting also, in another way, since 
it shows that butterflies have perfectly good and accurate eye- 
sight, and can distinguish form as well as colour. To dash at a 
hornet in flight, nearly but not quite touching her, and then to 
keep dashing about her as she moves, annoying, worrying, 
almost assaulting, but always just avoiding her, there must 
needs be perfect definition of the hornet's outline, and quick and 
sure following of her movements. Further convincing evidence 
of this fact, which is doubted by Mr. Scudder, has been furnished 
by Bates,* Belt,t and Mr. Scudder I himself, as it appears to me. 
If these bold butterflies (always I am speaking of the Bed 
Admiral) do not much fear a hornet in the air, neither do they 
appear to do so when settled on the tree to which they have been 
attracted, and imbibing its juices. Thus I have observed the 
following : — 

(1) A hornet, thus occupied, was driven away by one of 
them flying down upon it, then, returning to the charge, over the 

* Aerial dances of the Heliconii, wherein no two individuals ever touch 
(" Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley," Trans. Linn. 
Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 495). 

f The easy threading, by certain butterflies, of a maze of spiders' webs 
(' The Naturalist in Nicaragua,' pp. 108-9). 

\ Flying off to fight and returning to the same twig or stone (' Frail 
Children of the Air,' p. 183). 



OBSERVATIONS ON BUTTERFLIES & HORNETS. 335 

trunk, was, for some time, kept at bay by repeated quick, power- 
ful flaps of the large painted wings ; but, at last, continuing to 
advance, open-jawed, the butterfly decamped. 

(2) A hornet about to settle on the spot where a Eed Admiral 
sat in possession was driven away by the latter thus flapping its 
wings. 

(3) Another hornet, or possibly this same one, flying up 
again, puts this same butterfly to flight. 

It is by flapping their wings in this manner that these butter- 
flies drive off flies and bluebottles that come near them whilst 
they thus feed on the tree's sap, and though a hornet, as might 
be expected, is able, at last, to impress her personality upon 
them so as to put them to flight, it seems pretty plain that they 
do not see in her anything very terrific or dangerous — in other 
words, her " warning coloration " is apparently lost upon them. 
But this is not strange, since, unless habitually preyed upon by 
hornets, butterflies would not have learnt to fear them, and even 
so, how should any individual learn, except by seeing the fate of 
his fellows ? — for if once seized he would be killed,* and if missed 
would probably hardly take alarm. Birds, indeed, might learn 
by individual experience, yet how many — except some few species 
which may do so habitually — ever attack a wasp or hornet ? Is 
their fear to do so, then, instinctive? But even say that it is, 
how can such instinctive fear have been acquired except as the 
inherited offspring of individual experience ? and since every 
new course or habit must demand some corresponding new move- 
ment — or change — in the brain, would not this, transmitted, 
through inheritance, be an acquired character ? There appear 
to be difficulties in the practical application of the warning 
coloration theory which do not apply to that of protective 
resemblance, including what is called mimicry. Again, birds 
' appear to avoid bees, the colours of many of which are not of the 
warning kind, as much as they do wasps, nor is the one class 
less mimicked than the other. There are many brown bee-like 
flies. 

I had, also, to-day, repeated object-lessons in the pugnacity 
of these hornets, no two, as remarked, ever feeding in the same 
place, but the newcomer either driving the first-established one 

See, however, p. 337. 



336 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

out, or being herself driven away by her. One frequent visitant 
was especially fierce, on one occasion making a most venomous 
rush after the intruder to some way beyond her preserve, and 
she then appeared to me to try and sting her, and possibly may 
have done so. The one thus used crawled for some time on the 
trunk in a way which seemed compatible with this view, and the 
day before I had observed another on a heap of potato-plants, on 
the ground, that for some while was unable to raise herself and 
fly to the tree. Possibly the sap on which she had been feeding 
may have had a stupefying effect on her, but I have not seen 
other evidence of this. This ill-temper and intolerance cannot 
prevail in the nest, and, as hornets are not so very common, it 
seems likely that all those visiting this tree belong to the same 
community. If so, it would seem that the bond of sisterhood 
ceases beyond the city walls. 

July 12th. — Since the last entry I have made a daily visit to 
this tree, and it is curious that I have not again seen any well- 
marked case of a hornet being flown at in the way I have de- 
scribed, either by a Bed Admiral or other butterfly, though there 
are as many here as before. As this kept on taking place on 
that day, over and over again, all the time I was there, within 
a few yards or even feet of me, and was plain beyond all possi- 
bility of mistake or misinterpretation, I do not know how to 
account for the difference, but with birds, too, I have constantly 
had the experience of one day being no criterion for others, so 
that caprice would seem to enter more into animal life than is 
generally imagined. Had I seen any butterfly suffer for its 
temerity, this change would have interested me, but I did not, 
and even, if I had, it could hardly pass for an explanation. 

Two butterflies — both, I think, Red Admirals — were displaced, 
by hornets, from their feast to-day, and certainly with much less 
ado, but this may have been mere accident. 

July 14th. — The hornets that I have hitherto been observing 
are of great size (though no doubt Crabro vulgaris), considerably 
over an inch in length — to judge without measuring — and bulky in 
proportion ; but to-day a much smaller kind, hardly half their 
weight I should think, yet identical, as far as I can see, in every 
other respect, have made their appearance. Yet even these look 
more than twice the bulk of an ordinary wasp — they are con- 



OBSERVATIONS ON BUTTERFLIES d HORNETS. 337 

siderably larger than a queen wasp. There was a good deal of 
antagonism between this smaller sort and the larger ones, and it 
seemed, at first, as if the new-comers were the bolder and more 
pugnacious of the two. They frequently flew at the other kind, 
and, being nimbler on the wing, teased and annoyed them a good 
deal — to the extent, indeed, that sometimes these large hornets 
were chased by the smaller ones, whom they seemed to fear, or, 
at least, to be glad to avoid. This, however, was in the air only. 
On the tree they gradually established themselves as predomi- 
nant, being able to expel undersized intruders on any coveted 
spot, whilst remaining there themselves, though often bothered 
by them. I believe these small hornets are more formidable to 
butterflies than the great ones. Several times they have darted 
angrily at them, when on, or hovering about, the place they wanted 
to come to, and once out of the corner of my eye I saw one fly 
from the tree, in a slanting line, to the ground, evidently borne 
down in some way which I could not distinguish. Almost im- 
mediately afterwards, however, as I turned and saw clearly, a 
Red Admiral butterfly struggled out of the grass, and the hornet 
rose, a second or two afterwards, from about the same place. I 
imagine that the hornet had seized the butterfly, and come down 
with it in this way, when the butterfly had managed to disengage 
itself and fly off uninjured— for I could detect no sign of injury. 
Otherwise the hornet, falling for some other reason which I can- 
not suggest, must, by coincidence, have pitched on, or almost on, 
a butterfly, in a not very usual place for one of the kind— in the 
midst of some tangled grass, that is to say. Yet it seems 
strange that, if this hornet had really a butterfly in its grasp, I 
should not have detected this, but only that (as I thought) it was 
hampered in some manner, and constrained to fall. But I was 
watching something else, and it was only, as I say, the merest 
glance out of the corner of my eye. As it was early in the day, 
and these small hornets were quick, brisk, and entirely sober in 
their movements, as was this particular one also after flying 
back to the tree, I am sure that partial intoxication, produced by 
the sap it had drunk, had nothing to do with the incident. 

July 19th. — Yesterday, or the day before, I visited the tree 
again in a high wind, as also to-day, which is windy, too. Pos- 
sibly for this reason I saw no large hornet there on either occa- 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII, September, 1908. 2 D 



338 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

sion, but only the much smaller kind. If the high wind has 
nothing to do with their absence, then I can think of no other 
cause for it except that the smaller hornets have driven the large 
ones away. 

I have noted, now, what I before had a hint of, namely, that 
these small hornets are amicable with one another. Several 
times two have fed together, and, on each occasion, I thought I 
saw them touch antennae, like ants, but whether they did this or 
not, there was an unmistakable little movement — a sort of start 
or thrill — of mutual recognition and tolerance, such as I have 
never seen between the larger hornets, who uniformly drove one 
another away. It is true that one of the various pairs who 
thus, several times, fed together, never stayed more than a very 
short time (perhaps because the other had the best place), but 
there could be no doubt whatever as to the friendliness of their 
feelings, of which their close proximity alone — once almost, if 
not quite, touching — was a sufficient evidence. This is what one 
might expect with inmates of the same nest, but can all these 
large hornets be from different nests ? It is too late in the year, 
I suppose, for them to be queens — as from their size one might 
almost imagine — and, even were it not, who would dream of 
seeing some six or eight hornet queens together ? If then, as 
seems most probable, they represent but one nest in the neigh- 
bourhood, there is a marked difference, as between the two 
species, in the strength of the social tie which binds together the 
members of the same community. 

I saw several examples, this afternoon, of boldness in butter- 
flies (Eed Admirals and Large Tortoiseshells) with these smaller 
hornets. They advanced right up to them, on the tree, flapping 
their wings, with the idea, it seemed evident, of driving them 
away, and though they always, in the end, flew off themselves, 
yet evidently they had no precedent fear of these formidable 
insects. The theory of warning coloration certainly receives no 
illustration in their case. It also struck me that the Great 
Tortoiseshell butterfly, by closing — that is to say, putting up — 
its wings, so that only their dark under surfaces were visible, 
ceased to be noticed by the hornets, though there was little or no 
sign of its doing so, instinctively, in relation to such an end, 
when in proximity to any one of them. But the habit is a 



OBSERVATIONS ON BUTTERFLIES & HORNETS. 339 

frequent one, and the disappearance, by it, of the butterfly in 
question, when sitting on this tree-trunk, almost as complete, 
sometimes, as in the case of the Leaf Butterflies of India and the 
Farther East. 

These smaller hornets were still on the tree to-night, after 
dark, at about nine, but neither then, nor during the daytime, did 
I see any of the large ones. 

July 20th. — To-day, during a space of time in which formerly 
some half-dozen would have visited and kept flying about and 
feeding at it, one only of the larger species of hornet came to 
the tree, and, flying down on a particular spot where they had 
all been accustomed to feed, alighted, incidentally, right on one 
of the smaller kind, who was busy there. As a result of this, the 
large one incontinently flew right off and away, and did not 
return ; nor did any others of her kind make their appearance 
whilst I was there. Now, in a similar rencontre, during the first 
day or two after the arrival of these smaller hornets on the 
scene, the latter would have flown to some other place on the 
tree, and the larger kind have established themselves in their 
room, or, if not at once, would probably have returned and done 
so, or even if ousted (but this was not the course of things) 
would have remained to feed elsewhere. This frank retreat, 
without even any preliminary circlings about the tree, but 
straight away, is unprecedented, in my experience hitherto, 
except once under quite different and artificial conditions, and 
that was when I rubbed with a Japanese menthal, which I had, a 
certain spot on the tree, to which one of these large hornets 
(there being then no other kind) was in the habit of coming. The 
instant after alighting she flew off in a straight line, without stop 
or stay, exactly as did this other. From the above incident, and 
their absenting themselves shortly (though how shortly I cannot 
say) after the arrival of these smaller hornets, it would seem as 
though the latter were in some way obnoxious to Crabro vulgaris. 
That these are pestered by them I have myself seen, though I 
should not have thought it was to the point of their leaving such 
dwarfs in possession. 

July 21st. — A Great Tortoiseshell came and drank for some 
moments at the same place with a hornet, before the latter 
drove it away, with a hostile demonstration. The hornet was 

2d 2 



340 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

there first. Thus, again, it is evident that there is no initial in- 
stinctive fear of hornets on the part of these butterflies. That 
they give way, after a certain point, is what might be expected 
of an insect that is not a fighting one at all, and unprovided 
with any kind of weapon whatever. But they seem to have no 
more special fear of a hornet than of a fly or beetle, often letting 
it come right down upon them, as they feed, before flying away. 
The hornets often come down upon one another, also, in this 
way.* 

I have seen fresh evidence, this afternoon, of the good fellow- 
ship of these lesser hornets, when two (I have not seen more) 
meet together at the same place, though, as before remarked, 
they never feed long thus, one soon shifting its quarters. But 
there is, each time, a distinct act, or emotion, of recognition, 
following on contact, or close proximity, after which their con- 
duct is quite amicable ; and even before, whilst they only expect 
one another, there is no very threatening deportment. In all 
this they differ from the larger kind, whose behaviour, in this 
connection, was always as before described. Yet it seems most 
unlikely that all of the six or eight, perhaps, of the latter were 
from different nests — the small ones, some four, or perhaps half 
a dozen, no doubt belong to the same. 

That the numbers in each case are not very much greater 
appears to me to be strong evidence (without any experiments) 
that these hornets are not capable of communicating the intelli- 
gence of this tree, which they find so attractive, to one another, 
or even of inducing a comrade to accompany them thither. The 
nest is evidently too far away for many to be led to the feast by 
observing and following the flight of others, and thus, out of the 
whole community, only a few units have by accident come upon 
it ; yet these are more, probably, than would be the case were the 
tree at a great distance. But if news could be brought to the 
nest, or the mere signal " Follow me" be given, there would be 
a continuous stream backwards and forwards. It is difficult, 
therefore, to imagine an experiment more decisive, for that the 

* As such a mistake always seemed to worry the maker of it, it may per- 
haps be taken as evidence of bad sight on the part of hornets. Yet surely 
they should see each other in bright sunlight even though quiescent. Impetu- 
osity might partly explain it. 



OBSERVATIONS ON BUTTERFLIES d HORNETS. 341 

sap exuded by this, probably, diseased tree is peculiarly attrac- 
tive there can be no doubt. There were, for instance, at one 
time, this afternoon, six of the Large Tortoiseshell butterflies 
settled on its trunk, at the same time, either feeding or looking 
for a place — a beautiful sight to see, for the wings of several, if 
not all, would often be spread to the sun at the same time. 
Various flies, too, are always about it, and I once saw a Rose 
Beetle apparently feeding, for a hornet of the large kind, coming 
to the same place several times in succession, walked over him, 
each time, without appearing to notice he was there — the beetle 
keeping perfectly still. When the evening falls a number of 
moths — small for the most part — take the place of the butter- 
flies. 

I have only seen one other tree — also a small lopped oak — 
from which there was a similar but much less extensive exuda- 
tion, and here, too, there were two or three Eed Admirals 
gathered. 

Some days after this I noticed that the flow of sap from this 
tree was much diminished. In consequence, the smaller hornets 
were not coming so frequently, but, a little later, the flow had 
again increased, and was much the same as before. They were 
then correspondingly busy, but I did not again see any individual 
of the larger kind. The failure of the sap is felt by the hornets 
much sooner than by the butterflies, no doubt because the 
slender proboscis of the latter is enabled to deal with it in 
quantities, and in situations insufficient or impracticable for the 
latter. 



342 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE HAIRY ARMADILLO (DASYPUS 
VILLOSUS). 

By Lionel E. Adams, B.A. 

Rambling lately in the wild country up the River Parana, I 
made the acquaintance of this interesting creature in the follow- 
ing manner. 

On the cactus-covered plain I frequently came upon congre- 
gations of mounds of sand about the size of large moles' 
fortresses, and evidently formed in a similar manner, viz. by 
ejection from subterranean workings. The entrances to the 
burrows from which the material had been ejected were at the 
bases of the mounds, and were almost invariably blocked up, 
quite unlike the large open-mouthed burrows of the Vizcacha 
with which I was acquainted. I failed to find any footprints on 
the hard ground, but often found excreta resembling that of 
rabbits but larger. I made inquiries of the country people, and 
was told that the animal which made the mounds was called 
" Touc-Touc." I was, of course, no wiser than before, nor was 
I more enlightened when a comparatively educated man told me 
that the "Touc-Touc" was the same as the " Peludo." This 
word I found in my Spanish dictionary to mean " an oval hairy 
mat," not a bad descriptive name for the species in question, 
though at the time I did not recognize it as such. Some of the 
Guachos called it the "Quirquincho," a term borrowed from the 
Indians of the Chaco. 

However, one day, while walking among some fresh heaps, I 
heard a mysterious sound — " Touc-a-touc, Touc-a-touc, Touc-a- 
touc, Touc, Touc, Touc " — very difficult to locate. Listening 
carefully I approached the direction of the sound, when suddenly 
it ceased. I sat down on a heap to watch and listen, and 
presently the sound began again about ten yards away in a 
different direction. As I listened I perceived that it came from 
underground, and I recognized the appropriateness of the 



NOTES ON THE HAIRY AMIADILLO. 343 

» 

mimetic name " Touc-touc." I was still, however, unable to 
identify the animal. Presently I saw the earth at the base of a 
mound become disturbed and sprays of earth fly upwards upon 
the mound, resembling the showers of earth ejected by a terrier 
in a rabbit-hole. The sprays ceased after about half a minute, 
and a small head was popped up and instantly withdrawn, 
leaving me still unable to identify the owner. The fact was that 
I was expecting some furry animal " like a rat," as the Guachos 
had described the animal to me. I asked one of these men to 
get a spade and dig one of the animals out for me, but he 
explained that the tunnels ramify in all directions for thirty or 
forty yards, and that the animals can burrow faster than the 
spade can follow. However, he offered to catch one for me that 
night, and next morning brought me a specimen of the Hairy 
Armadillo. 

I learnt later that they are easily caught by men who watch 
for them near their burrows at night when they come forth to 
feed ; in the daytime they rarely show themselves. The name 
Armadillo is not known in the " camp," as the wild country is 
called, and few people know the term even in Buenos Aires, 
where it is called " Meluta." 

I brought my captive on board and installed him in a barrel 
half filled with sand ; every day throughout the homeward 
passage I took him for a run about the deck and gave him his 
dinner. As to food nothing came amiss — any boiled vegetables ; 
ship biscuit, which he easily crunched with his horny jaws ; 
tinned meat ; toast ; rice-pudding ; but what he liked best was 
raw meat, which he would come and take from my hand if he 
was near enough to smell it. His power of sight seemed very 
poor, and he always seemed to notice the proximity of food by 
scent. He grew fairly tame, and when I used to visit him in 
his barrel to take him out for his daily run he would scramble 
towards me with a great display of excitement. 

The natives say, and I think rightly, that the sound " Touc-a- 
touc " is made by stamping or digging in the burrows. The only 
vocal sound I ever heard my captive utter was a snuffling whine 
of delight when I gave him slugs and snails (Limax maximus and 
Helix aspersa) in my garden in England. The preference for 
snails is odd, because there are no land mollusca on the arid 



344 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

plain where the Armadilloes live. The natives say they come 
at night to feed on remnants of slaughtered cattle, but their 
natural food is said to be grubs which they dig up with their 
powerful claws. I had no opportunity of testing my captive 
with a snake, but I can imagine that snakes are often killed and 
eaten, as Hudson describes in his 'Naturalist on the Amazon.' 
My attention was drawn to the probability of this as one day I 
drew a piece of rope across him, when he turned and seized it 
with a sudden quickness I should not have thought possible. 

In the Argentine the Armadillo is considered a great delicacy, 
and is said to resemble delicate pork in flavour ; about ten 
shillings is the usual price. 

Fancy baskets are made of the carapace in Buenos Aires. I 
have seen these baskets in England where they are often sup- 
posed to be the shells of crabs ! 



( 345 ) 



EOUGH NOTES IN EAST SUSSEX IN 1908. 
By Hugh Whistler. 

Amongst the woods and hills of East Sussex, within sight of 
the South Downs that form Beachy Head, is situate one of those 
happy hunting-grounds that warm a naturalist's heart — an old 
English deer-park. The scene of these random notes (Ashburn- 
ham Park) is a particularly fine example of its kind — a thousand 
acres of miniature hill and valley. A deer-park for centuries, 
it is well stocked with timber — grand old oaks and beeches, with 
a good sprinkling of elms, a few groups of firs and some fine 
stone-pines. In the midst, surrounded by bracken, is set a 
picturesque old grey house, wherein resides the deer-keeper for 
the time being. It was my good fortune to receive the noble 
owner's kind permission to wander at will over his property — a 
permission of which I was not slow to take advantage. 

April 13th. — A fine sunny day tempted me to commence 
operations, and I rode my bicycle over to one of the lodges, 
known locally as " Tower Lodge " from its shape. In answer to 
my inquiry about Owls, the woman there told me that several 
were to be heard calling at nights in a big ridge of firs just out- 
side the park. A man had been at work woodcutting there one 
day, and after a time had happened to look up and see two 
Brown Owls in a tree above his head, which must have been 
sitting there for hours undisturbed by the noise he was making. 
She also said that once she had been taken to see a nest of 
young Owls in some rocks in the park. Setting off along the 
coach-road I came to a stone bridge built over a stream, which 
runs between steep banks, in such a way as to dam it and form 
a small pond. This pond has a fringe of coarse rushes — an 
abode beloved of Waterhens ; on one side the ground forms a 
steep and very high bank, leaving a path around the water. 
Here amongst the drifts of dry leaves a Snake and some Lizards 
were sunning themselves ; the Lizards darted under the leaves, 



346 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

while the Snake took to the rushes. As I followed the path 
round, a Wild Duck suddenly rose at my feet from a heap of 
the leaves, disclosing a well-concealed nest ; the down and leaves 
were heaped so thickly that the eggs were scarcely visible. 
Thence to the " rocks " on the side of a slope ; they were 
evidently still haunted by some bird of prey, as there were 
plenty of pellets and whitewash, while one ledge in particular 
seemed to be often used. A few Starlings nest in holes in the 
sandstone. 

The groves of trees were alive with Green Woodpeckers and 
Nuthatches, and resounded with the laugh of the former and 
the "pretty dick, pretty dick, dick" of the latter. At one time 
three pairs of the Woodpeckers were in view near one another, 
all engaged in violent flirtations. In an old oak by the road 
there was a small hole, about three feet from the ground, which 
a Nuthatch had plastered up and filled with fragments of dry 
leaves, but as yet there were no eggs. 

Later on I saw an oak in which was a big hollow rotted out 
above the lowest branches ; on going nearer I perceived that the 
ground beneath was littered with large castings, two or three 
inches in length. This looked so promising that it seemed 
worthy of closer investigation, but how was I to get up ? The 
tree, which was too big to swarm, stood on the edge of a bank, 
and its lowest boughs were several feet above my reach. Luckily 
several dead branches were to be seen lying about, and one of 
these I fetched and dropped at the foot of the tree. The crash 
brought out a beautiful Barn Owl, who flew into a neighbouring 
oak, whence, after turning his white face to have a look at me, 
he sailed away. This incident increased my enthusiasm, which 
was still further heightened, while I was collecting more branches, 
by the appearance of a second Owl from the hole. At last the 
pile was completed, and mounting on it I succeeded, with the 
aid of a twig about the thickness of a lead pencil, in getting my 
arms round a bough, when suddenly the erection collapsed, 
leaving me hanging in mid-air. Pulling myself up I found the 
bases of the boughs littered with more pellets which had over- 
flowed from the hollow. The hole was thickly carpeted with 
broken pellets which gave forth an unpleasant odour, and on 
the sodden trampled mass reposed one white egg — a sight which 



BOUGH NOTES IN EAST SUSSEX IN 1908. 347 

well rewarded my hard work. On several occasions I came again 
to visit this curious menage. It was amusing to stand in front 
of the tree and make a noise which would bring a dimly-seen 
white head to peer from the hole, followed by the grand swoop 
of the bird as it left the tree. 

Amongst the other interests of the park is a rookery ; this, 
which consists of about seventy nests, is in two portions. There 
are a few nests in large trees in a hollow, while the most are 
in a fir plantation on the edge of a higher level some slight 
distance away. Climbing up to one nest I found it contained 
one egg and three naked youngsters, one of whom was noticeably 
larger than his brethren ; from there I could pull another nest 
close enough to see that it contained one egg. As I left, one of 
the numerous Books that were in the air hovered high above the 
tree, and then, seeing its treasures safe, gave vent to a couple of 
"caws," exultingly as it seemed, before flying away again. 

April 14th. — To the park again. A Stock-Dove flew out of a 
hole in an oak-tree, so I climbed up ; inside was a slight nest of 
sticks and coarse grass-stems containing one egg. These birds 
are common there and nest in the numerous holes, but as a rule 
they are very hard to get at. One nest I found was at the 
end of a very tall rotten birch-trunk — quite unapproachable. 
Strangely enough Jackdaws are not as common as might be 
expected ; I only remember seeing one — carrying a stick in 
its beak, though plenty are to be seen with the Books outside 
the park. 

April 17th. — Spent the greater part of the day in the park. 
By sitting down and watching a pair of Nuthatches through my 
glasses I found they were preparing a small hole in one of the 
upper boughs of a fair-sized oak. I went up to inspect, and saw 
the wet mud pitted with little holes made by the point of the 
bird's bill. Apropos of Nuthatches, a pair brought off a brood 
this year in the circuit-wall of Battle Abbey above the pavement 
by the main road, yet scarcely any of the passers-by were aware 
of the fact. 

About half a mile from Tower Lodge a Kestrel came out of 
an oak which had been broken off at some little height from the 
ground. At the top was an open hollow, strewn with castings, 
but as yet it contained no eggs. Close to the nest a Squirrel 



348 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

came out from behind a gaping piece of bark, where it had a 
" seat " just like that of a Babbit, made of moss and twigs. In 
another part of the park a second pair of Kestrels evidently had 
a nest — perhaps in a large elm whose top had also been broken 
by some storm. Both birds kept flying round, and once when 
they were near the tree I heard a typical nesting cry. An 
attempt to wait and discover their nest with certainty was 
frustrated by one of the pair who would insist on sitting in 
neighbouring trees and watching me, giving vent to screams at 
intervals. 

Several pairs of Lapwings nest on the stretches of coarse 
grass around the deer-keeper's lodge, and one of the nests I 
found by coming up a steep slope and putting the bird off its 
nest about ten yards from the top. A short search revealed the 
hollow with two eggs. 

April 23rd. — Visited the rookery again and examined several 
nests, finding incomplete and full clutches and j^oung birds. 
One egg in the Kestrel's nest, a rather poor reddish brown 
specimen. 

I was unable to visit the district again until June 4th, when 
I walked over but did not actually enter the park. Just outside 
the paling I met one of the keepers near his cottage, hard by 
Tower Lodge. In answer to my inquiry whether he knew of 
any nests, he asked what kinds I wanted to see. " Oh, Hawks, 
Owls, Nightjars, Kingfishers — anything interesting." He then 
said that he had just come from a wood where he had been 
" lying up " waiting to shoot a male Sparrowhawk by its nest. 
There were some big nests in a clump of larch-trees, and there 
two days before he had killed a female that had suddenly darted 
past, apparently off one of these nests. In order to kill both 
birds he should have shot the male first and then the female ; as 
it was, he had almost given up trying for the cock, and had 
thought of putting a charge of shot into the nest that morning, 
but had finally decided to make one more attempt for the bird 
itself. He was just going home for dinner, but after, if I liked, 
would show me where the nest was. Accordingly we set off later, 
and after a long tramp reached the larches, where he pointed 
out the nest, which he considered occupied ; it certainly looked 
promising ; a big platform of larch and other twigs against the 



BOUGH NOTES IN EAST SUSSEX IN 1908. 349 

trunk about half- way up a larch. So up I went, and with 
some trouble reached the nest, while the keeper contentedly sat 
and smoked below. Putting in my hand I felt eggs; then climb- 
ing higher, I could feast my eyes on five beautiful eggs, which I 
took. They were hard-set, and took about half-an-hour apiece 
to clean — it could not be called " blowing " — in spite of the 
man's assurances that they would be fresh, as the Sparrowhawk 
never laid less than six or seven. Later on he found another 
nest on the same beat containing young. 

We afterwards visited a wood bordering the high road, where 
the keeper told me there were Long-eared Owls, which he 
said had already safely brought off a brood. I flushed one in 
a fir-tree from a ragged old heap of fir-needles that might 
have once been a nest. Our attention was attracted by the 
screams of a Blackbird to another which was sitting up in a 
tree ; he, disgusted by our admiration, flew away as well. The 
man also told me of a Kingfisher's nest from which, I believe, 
a brood was successfully reared. The Deer in the park consist 
of Bed and Fallow Deer. 



350 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



A VES. 



Nesting of the Lesser Redpoll (Linotarufescens) in Sussex. — Last 
year I reported the undoubted nesting of the Lesser Kedpoll in the 
parish of Maresfield (Zool. 1907, p. 352), and am pleased to say 
that a pair again nested at the same spot this year. I first saw Eed- 
polls there on May 19th, when there were either four or five appa- 
rently engaged in courtship. On the 21st there was one pair, the 
female collecting materials for building, which consisted of fine dead 
twigs of birch and willow-down, and on the 26th I discovered the nest 
in a small birch tree. On the 30th the female was sitting, but I did 
not examine the contents of this nest, thinking that any damage done 
to the tree would be likely to lead to its detection. I regret to say 
that the nest was robbed of the young birds somewhere between June 
18th and 25th. However, as the birds remained in the vicinity, it 
seemed most probable to me that they would make another attempt 
to bring off a brood, and though I quite failed to find the nest, yet the 
female was there with the young birds on Aug. 4th. There need be 
very little doubt that others have bred in the immediate district, and 
on July 25th I met with a cock bird at a spot in the parish of Fram- 
fielcl, where the Lesser Eedpoll has only been seen by me during the 
winter months hitherto. — Eobert Moeeis (Uckfield, Sussex). 

Early Flocks of Starlings. — Eeferring to the note on this subject 
(ante, p. 312), I do not consider June 21st an early date for young 
Starlings to be seen in flocks. In this part of the country the Starling 
is the first bird to gather into small flocks. Directly the young broods 
leave the nests they follow the old ones into the fields, and they prefer 
small grass fields surrounded by tall hedgerows. Here they meet 
with other broods, with which they join company, and as day after 
day other broods emerge the flocks grow to some size. It is now a 
good many years since I first noted down these facts. In 1884 young 
birds flew on May 18th, and I saw a flock of sixty or seventy birds on 
June 9th. In the previous year the young broods were following the 
old ones on May 23rd. In 1890 I saw a small flock of twenty or 
twenty-five as early as May 24th. With us the Peewit is the next 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 351 

earliest bird to gather into flocks. In 1885 I saw twenty-two in a 
flock on June 6th, and in 1904 a small flock two days later. Then 
comes the Mistle-Thrush, which may be seen in small flocks (and 
never forms large ones — here, at least) in the first half of July. In 
1883 I counted twenty-nine in a flock on July 8th, and in the follow- 
ing year, on July 14th, I saw thirty-nine together. — 0. V. Aplin 
(Bloxham, Oxon). 

Sandwich Tern on Breydon, Yarmouth. — While taking a trip on 
Breydon water with Mr. A. H. Patterson, the well-known Norfolk 
naturalist, on Sept. 3rd, we had the pleasure of seeing, on No. 16 
stake, a Sandwich Tern (Sterna cantiaca). It allowed us to approach 
within about three or four yards of its resting-place ; it then flew off 
in the rather leisurely manner which is apparently one of its charac- 
teristics. — Frank A. Arnold (139, Hamilton Eoad, West Nor- 
wood, S.B.). 

Prolific Breeding of the Dabchick (Podicipes fluviatilis) and late 
nesting of the Great Crested Grebe (P. cristatus). — On July 27th last 
I visited a pond in the neighbourhood of Oxted, to which several 
pairs of Dabchicks resort annually for breeding purposes. With the 
aid of my field-glass I detected a Little Grebe with two young, sitting 
upon a nest situated about thirty-five yards from the nearest bank, 
the parent bird leaving as I approached more closely, and being 
followed by her chicks, which experienced considerable difficulty, 
being but recently hatched, in forcing their way through the thick 
coating of "duckweed" which covered the surface of the pool. On 
glancing into the nest I was somewhat surprised at making the dis- 
covery that it contained a single egg, which from its unstained 
appearance was evidently freshly laid. A friend visited the locality 
on July 28th, and reported that a second egg had been deposited, and 
on the day following I accompanied him to the pond, but found that 
the number of eggs had not been increased since his last visit. Un- 
fortunately a day or two later our observations were brought to a 
sudden termination by the nest being destroyed. There can be little 
doubt that this species frequently rears two, if not three, broods in a 
season, but the very rapid means of propagation recorded above must 
be somewhat exceptional. The normal laying period of the Great 
Crested Grebe appears to extend from April to June ; it may therefore 
be of interest to record that on Aug. 2nd last I paid a hurried visit to 
one of the Surrey breeding haunts of this beautiful species, and was 
fortunate in discovering a nest containing four partially covered eggs, 
which I judged to be about half incubated. I should mention that at 



352 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the particular nesting-place to which I refer the Crested Grebes are 
protected, and this exceptionally late laying is not likely to have been 
occasioned by the repeated depredations of egg-collectors, although it 
is possible that earlier broods may have been entirely destroyed by 
Pike, of which there must be a large number in the lake. — C. H. 
Bentham (Oxted, Surrey). 

Sabine's Gull. — On Sept. 1st a specimen of Sabine's Gull (Xema 
sabinii) was shot on Breydon. There have been previously only about 
three or four records for this locality. — Frank A. Arnold (139, 
Hamilton Eoad, West Norwood, S.E.). 

Bird Notes from Yarmouth.— During the trip mentioned in my 
note re the Sandwich Tern, some other birds seen were a flock of 
about forty Knots (Tringa canutus), some Common Terns {Sterna 
fluviatilis) , Ringed Plover (JEgialitis hiaticola), Godwits, Common 
Heron (Ardea cinerea), and several species of Gulls. There is very little 
to be seen in the bird line just now, the birds at the present time being 
harassed on all sides by gunners. Around us from almost every quarter 
comes the report of guns, sending destruction to any feathered crea- 
ture that ventures within gunshot. I understand that from March 1st 
to Sept. 1st shooting is prohibited on Breydon. What a pity this 
protection is not extended over the entire year ! Breydon would then 
become an ideal sanctuary for its feathered visitors. Perhaps this 
will be done in the future — when too late. — Frank A. Arnold (139, 
Hamilton Eoad, West Norwood, S.E.). 

Ringed Birds. — The winter quarters and routes of our migrant 
birds are as yet unknown, and there is only one method which 
leads to positive knowledge on this account : the marking of birds by 
aluminium rings, a method which has been tried with success in 
Germany and in Denmark, as a House- Stork marked in Pomerania 
was caught in Africa, 15° S. of the Equator. The Hungarian Central 
Bureau for Ornithology has now also begun the marking of young 
Storks, Herons, Gulls, and Swallows. The aluminium ring is fastened 
around the leg of the bird, and it bears in each case the inscription 
" Budapest," followed by a number which corresponds to the entry in 
the Register-book of the Hungarian Central Bureau for Ornithology. 
Anyone catching such a marked bird, or hearing of the capture of 
such, is kindly requested to send the ring to the Hungarian Central 
Bureau for Ornithology, Jozsef-koriit 65, Budapest VIIL, Hungary, 
accompanied by a notice stating the locality, time, and particulars of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 353 

capture. — Otto Herman (Director of the Hungarian Central Bureau 
for Ornithology, Budapest). 

PISCES. 

Double Flounder. — On Sept. 1st a small boy, who had been fishing 
by the Yare-side for Flounders, brought me a very interesting speci- 
men, 5|- in. in length, both sides of which were of a sooty-black hue. 
The head was notched a short way behind the upper lip, as is some- 
what common to "double" flat-fishes, and in this nick or notch the 
"right" eye remained fixed in such a position that a view on either 
side (did the fish swim in the vertical manner ascribed to freaks of 
this sort) was easily obtained by the fortunate (?) possessor. — Arthur 
H. Patterson (Great Yarmouth). 

INSEGTA. 

The Jumping Bean. — Amongst the many wonders to be seen at 
the Eranco-British Exhibition may be mentioned the so-called Jump- 
ing Beans, which have been imported from Mexico. These beans are 
apparently continually jumping up and down day and night. If one 
of these be cut open the reason is apparent. It is due to a small 
grub which lives within. As there is no hole in the bean through 
which the animal has bored its way, it is evident that the perfect 
insect must have laid its eggs in the flower, which, on ripening into 
the fruit, enclosed the grub. The most satisfactory reason so far 
offered to explain the meaning of this peculiarity is that the grubs 
instinctively feel that if they remain near the tree they will be 
attacked by some enemy. Now, it appears to me far more reasonable 
to suppose that it is a case of " symbiosis" — that is to say, that the 
plant and animal live together, so as to be of use to one another. 
Each bean as sold in the Exhibition is really only a third part of a 
bean, the other two parts each carrying a seed ; and these two parts, 
I understand, are eaten by the natives, whilst the third is sold as the 
jumping bean. One advantage that the plant gets is that its flowers 
are fertilized by the perfect insect when passing from flower to flower 
to lay its eggs. It has been found that the grubs live longer if kept 
in a light and warm place. It appears to me, then, that this is a 
second advantage to the plant, inasmuch as the grub, in endeavouring 
to get into a warm and light place, naturally jumps away from the 
shadow of the tree into the light and warmth of the sun ; thus the 
two seeds, borne away in this manner, obtain fresh soil and sunlight 
to commence their growth. They will be carried still further by 
Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII., September. 1908. 2 e 



354 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

water, if the trees, as I believe, live in a morass. The advantage the 
grub gets is very obscure. That there is an advantage is clear from 
the fact that if a hole be made in the bean the grub, instead of try- 
ing to escape from its prison, does just the opposite, closing the 
window with a web. I should think that as the parent tree must be 
covered with these grubs, they want a fresh dwelling place, and they 
secure this by travelling with the seeds. As soon as the seed com- 
mences to grow the grub has a fresh tree to start on. But the life- 
history of these insects is essential before a reliable account can be 
obtained. As I have only seen the beans for a few hours, perhaps 
someone who may have kept and studied them will bring forward a 
more satisfactory explanation to account for this peculiar pheno- 
menon. — J. P. Lloyd (St. Giles's Vicarage, Norwich). 

[The creature inhabiting the bean is the larva of one of the Tortri- 
cida (Lepidoptera). According to Dr. Sharp : " There are, at least, 
two species of these insects, and two plants harbouring them, known 
in the United States and Mexico, viz. Carpocapsa saltitans living in 
the seeds of Groton colliguaja, and Grapholitha sebastianics living in 
the seeds of Sebastiania bicajpsularis." — -Ed.] 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 



British Association at Dublin, 1908. — The meeting just termi- 
nated at Dublin was under the Presidency of Dr. Erancis Darwin, 
whose Address, though largely dependent on botanical observations, 
was a reaffirmation of his distinguished father's position in the famous 
theory of Natural Selection, as distinct from much of the neo-Dar- 
winism of the present day, and as opposed to many of the conclusions 
of Weismann. 

The Zoological Section was presided over by Dr. Sidney E. Har- 
mer, who 'devoted the larger part of his Address to the problems 
attached to a philosophical study of the Polyzoa, especially those 
relating to an explanation of the functions of the avicularia. Eor a 
proper estimation of this important zoological contribution the Ad- 
dress requires to be studied throughout, but the following extracts are 
a guide to the conclusions of its writer : — ■ 

" The decision of the principles on which the Polyzoa should be 
classified may not be a matter of immediate practical importance, but 
our theories of species cannot be regarded as established until they 
have shown themselves capable of explaining all the cases. Some 
modification of the Mendelian theory seems to me to be capable of 
elucidating the apparently haphazard way in which the several forms 
of avicularia are distributed in the species of Cheilostomata, and it 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 355 

may perhaps be allowed to afford a working hypothesis that can be 
used in systematic study. The results of such a hypothesis would, I 
think, be far-reaching. Whether we are justified in accepting it pro- 
visionally or not, I am convinced that we require some hypothesis by 
which we may regard two specimens as belonging to the same species, 
even though they may differ in what might at first sight seem to be 
fundamental respects. And, vice versa, we require the liberty to 
regard two species as widely separated from each other in the system, 
even though they possess identical types of avicularia. There are 
other questions which might have been considered in the Cheilosto- 
mata, and, in particular, the presence or absence of oral or marginal 
spines and the forms and distribution of the ovicells. The occurrence 
of the latter is, however, probably connected with the presence in the 
young zooecium of tissue which will give rise to an ovary, and this 
implies the consideration of another factor which is very difficult to 
estimate. 

" I must not conclude without at any rate referring to the fact that 
the Polyzoa are by no means the only animals in which dimorphism 
or polymorphism occurs as the result of blastogenic processes. But 
among the Coelenterates, for instance, the occurrence of medusoid 
individuals cannot be considered apart from the question of sexual 
cells. There is, however, one series of cases among Hydroids to 
which allusion may perhaps be made. I refer to the existence of 
pairs of genera such as Corymorpha and Tubularia, Syncoryne and 
Coryne, Poclocoryne and Hydractinia, in each of which pairs the two 
genera are distinguished by the fact that one produces free medusee, 
while the other has sessile gonophores. There is already some 
evidence that the validity of these generic distinctions is open to 
question ; and the free medusoid individual and the sessile gonophore 
might conceivably be related in such a way as to form members of an 
allelomorphic pair. The same phylum contains another striking 
example of dimorphism in the distinction between gastrozooids and 
dactylozooids in many Hydroids ; while in the Siphonophora the 
differentiation of various forms of individual has advanced much 
further. But I have already gone much beyond my evidence, and I 
must bring my remarks to a conclusion by expressing the view that 
the causes which regulate the differentiation of the individuals during 
the blastogenic development of the Polyzoa are well worthy of further 
study, and that our knowledge of the unity of the vital processes 
throughout the animal kingdom gives us reason to believe that they 
are part of some general biological law." 

A most timely protest was made by Mr. G. A. Boulenger " On the 
Abuses resulting from the strict Application of the Rule of Priority in 
Zoological Nomenclature and on the Means of Protecting well- 
established Names." Disapproval was expressed of the extreme 
application of the rule of priority, which in the author's opinion had 
brought about much mischief under pretence of aiming at ultimate 
uniformity. The author protested against the abuse to which this 
otherwise excellent rule had been put by some recent workers, 
encouraged as they were by the decision of several committees who 
had undertaken to revise the Stricklandian Code, elaborated under 



356 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the auspices of the British Association in 1842. The worst feature of 
this abuse is not so much the bestowal of unknown names on well- 
known creatures as the transfer of names from one to another, as we 
have seen in the case of Astaciis, Torpedo, Holothuria, Simia, Cyno- 
cephalus, and many others which must be present to the mind of 
every systematise The names that were used uniformly by Cuvier, 
Johannes Muller, Owen, Agassiz, Darwin, Huxley, Gegenbaur, would 
no longer convey any meaning, very often they would be misunder- 
stood ; in fact, the very object for which Latin or Latinized names 
were introduced would be defeated. It is all very well to talk of uni- 
formity in the future, but surely we must have some consideration 
for the past. Names with which all general zoologists, anatomists, 
and physiologists are familiar should be respected, should be excepted 
from the rule in virtue of what may be termed the privilege of pre- 
scription. If biologists would agree to make that one exception to 
the law of priority in nomenclature, things would adjust themselves 
well enough, and we might hope to see realized some day what we all 
desire, fixity in names, that we may readily understand the meaning 
of all writers, not only over the whole civilized world, at the present 
day and in the future, but back into the past century which has 
marked so great an advance in zoological science. Such a result 
would be attained by protecting time-honoured names of well-known 
animals from the attacks of the revisers of nomenclature. For this 
purpose future committees that may be convened to discuss these 
topics might confer a real and lasting benefit on zoology by deter- 
mining, group by group, which names are entitled to respect, not, of 
course, on the ground of their earliest date or their correct application 
in the past, but as having been universally used in a definite sense. 
This suggestion is not a new one. As far back as 1896, in a discussion 
which took place at the Zoological Society of London, Sir Eay Lan- 
kester, protesting against the digging up of old names, suggested that 
an international committee should be formed, not to draw up a code 
of rules but "to produce an authoritative list of names — once and for 
all — about which no lawyer-like haggling should hereafter be per- 
mitted." Twelve years have elapsed, and nothing of the kind has 
been arranged. On the contrary, the various committees that have 
legislated since have insisted on absolute priority, and we often read 
that such a decision has been arrived at by international agreement. 
It is not so ; a great body of zoologists in this country protest and 
hope that something will be done towards carrying out the proposal 
here briefly set forth, which seems to be the only proper step to take 
in order to prevent the confusion with which we are menaced. 

" An Inquiry into the Feeding Habits of British Birds" was the 
subject of a paper by Mr. C. Gordon Hewitt. It is becoming in- 
creasingly difficult, with the introduction of scientific methods into 
agriculture, horticulture, and forestry, for zoologists studying economic 
problems to form a definite opinion with regard to the economic 
status of many species of the birds of our islands, such as, for example, 
the Book, Jay, Starling, Chaffinch and other finches, and many other 
birds. This difficulty is entirely due to the almost complete absence 
in this country of any precise information as to the food habits of our 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 357 

birds. There exists a large amount of evidence obtained from ob- 
servers, such as fruit-growers, gamekeepers, sportsmen, and others ; 
and, although some of this may be and is useful, much of it has been 
distorted on its way through the prejudiced glasses of the observer. 
What is really necessary in order to obtain as accurate a conception as 
possible of the economic status of any species of bird is the actual 
dissection and recording of the contents of the crops and stomachs of 
a large number of individuals killed, not only in different months of 
the year but also in different localities, since different conditions 
exist in different regions, for example, in Kent and Lancashire. Such 
evidence is the only real and safe guide, and observational evidence, 
after careful selection, must only be taken as supplementary. Very 
little work of this nature has been accomplished in this country, but 
until it is done the regulations with regard to the protection of birds 
will be ever subject to the influence of the personal bias and ignorance 
of the legislators, and such legislation will be on as equally a sound 
foundation as many of the fisheries regulations were until the advent 
of scientific fishery investigations. The Biological Survey Bureau of 
the United States Department of Agriculture furnishes an excellent 
example of the kind of work that should be carried out ; it is collecting 
and publishing a valuable mass of information concerning the feeding 
habits of birds and their nestlings, from which, in the majority of 
cases, they are able to deduce the precise economic value of these 
birds. The Central Bureau for Ornithology of the Hungarian Depart- 
ment of Agriculture is doing similar work. It is proposed to form a 
British Economic Ornithological Committee, as such work can be best 
carried out by a number of biologists working together. At the last 
annual meeting of the Association of Economic Biologists, held in 
April, 1908, the author moved the following resolution, which was 
carried unanimously : — " That this Association, recognizing the great 
need of an organized inquiry into the feeding habits of the birds of 
the British Isles, with a view to obtaining a precise knowledge of 
their economic status, is of the opinion that a committee should be 
formed with the object of carrying on investigations on this subject." 
The Board of Agriculture, recognizing the importance of the subject, 
have promised to help the inquiry. 

Mr. L. Doncaster discussed "Recent Work on Determination of 
Sex." Until rather recent years there was the utmost diversity of 
opinion as to the determination of sex. Some regarded it as depend- 
ing on nutrition, others on the age of the parents or maturity of the 
germ-cells, some as depending wholly on the egg, and others, again, 
on the spermatozoon. Gradually, however, a certain amount of order 
has emerged from this chaos. In the first place, the facts of partheno- 
genesis made it clear that in many cases at least the sex was deter- 
mined irrevocably in the egg before segmentation ; and the same 
thing was shown by such instances as Dinophilm and certain Mites, 
in which the eggs which will yield females are larger than those pro- 
ducing males, although both need fertilisation. The bee and those 
animals which behave similarly, on the other hand, indicate that sex 
may be modified by the spermatozoon, for in them virgin eggs yield 
males, fertilized eggs females ; but here, again, no treatment after 



358 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

fertilisation will turn a female into a male or the reverse. It may 
therefore be regarded as established in very many cases that from the 
moment of fertilisation at least, and sometimes in the unfertilised 
egg, the sex is irrevocably determined. The problem had reached this 
stage when M'Clung, Wilson, and others discovered that in certain 
insects the males and females contain different numbers of chromo- 
somes in the germ-cells before maturation, the females having an even 
number and the males one less. After maturation there are two 
kinds of spermatozoa, one containing the same number as the mature 
egg, and the other having one chromosome missing. It was at first 
suggested that at fertilisation the spermatozoon having the larger 
number caused the egg to develop into a female, that with the smaller 
number male ; but Wilson's later suggestion is that there is selective 
fertilisation, that the eggs are either male or female, and that male 
eggs are fertilised by spermatozoa having no heterochromosome, 
female eggs by those which have it. Morgan has recently found 
that in a species of Phylloxera there are two kinds of spermatids, one 
of which has one chromosome more than the other. Those with the 
smaller number degenerate ; those with the larger develop into func- 
tional spermatozoa, and all fertilised eggs become females. Recently 
important evidence has been obtained from breeding experiments with 
Lepidoptera, fowls, &c. In the moth Abraxas grossulariata there is 
a rare variety, lacticolor, which is found usually only in the female. 
It is a Mendelian recessive, so that when paired with a typical male 
all the offspring are typical grossulariata. 

" Experiments in Inheritance." — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Prof. W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. Douglas 
Laurie (Secretary), Mr. R. C. Punnett, and Dr. H. W. Marrett Tims. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

On the Inheritance of Yellow Coat Colour in Mice. — Reasons for 
this Research. — The primary reason for this research is the unexpected 
result obtained by Cuenot on cross-breeding yellow mice with mice of 
other colours. On mating a yellow mouse with one that was grey, 
black, or chocolate, Cuenot always found yellowness to act as a 
heterozygous Mendelian dominant to the other colour. When yellow 
F hybrids so produced were intercrossed they gave an F generation 
much in accord with expectation, being composed roughly of three 
yellows to one recessive. It is the gametic constitution of these 
extracted yellows which gives cause for surprise, and which is the 
essential point of importance. Eighty-one of them were tested by 
breeding, and it was to be expected that of these twenty-seven or so 
would be homozygous for yellowness, but not even one fulfilled the 
conditions of Mendelian purity. " Or, a mon grand etonnement," 
says Cuenot, "je n'en ai pas trouve une seule ; les quatre-vingt-un 
souris etaient toutes egalement heterozygotes." 

This important and interesting result has attracted explainers of 
different schools. Morgan makes it a text for emphasizing his views 
about " Contamination." Purity, in the Mendelian sense, he denies. 
" Purity," he says, " is dominance over latency." Cuenot, on the 
other hand, supported by Wilson and favoured by Lock, suggests 
that pure yellow-bearing germ-cells of both kinds are indeed formed 



EDITORIAL GLEANINGS. 359 

by heterozygous yellow mice, but that there is a selective fertilisation ; 
so that a yellow-bearing ovum and a yellow-bearing sperm are either 
mutually repellent or mutually sterile, though capable of fertile union 
with germ-cells bearing other colours. Or it may be that yellow is 
due to the association of several factors, as appears to be the case in 
certain colours of sweet peas investigated by Bateson, Saunders, and 
Punnett, and reported on by them to the Royal Society. Castle, 
discussing various alternatives, commits himself to none. Further 
experiments are evidently most desirable. 

" Index Generum et Specierum Animalium," Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. 
W. B. Hoyle, Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham. 
Steady progress has been made with the indexing of the literature 
for the second portion of this Index (1801-1850). Among numerous 
works dealt with, the compiler, Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, specially 
mentions the following : — Boisduval's works on Lepidoptera ; publi- 
cations of the Bologna Academy ; Bonaparte's numerous tracts and 
his ' Conspectus Generum Avium ' ; publications of the Bonn Natural 
History Society ; publications of the Bordeaux Linnean Society ; 
Roret's edition of the ' Suites a Buffon.' The number of index-slips 
increases with great rapidity, and continual effort is needed to keep 
this mass of material in order for reference. The slips already 
arranged constitute a mine of information for monographers and 
others. They are preserved in the Geological Department of the 
British Museum (Natural History), where reference is frequently 
made to them by members of the staff and outside workers, while 
information derived from them is often asked for by correspondents 
at a distance. The Committee would, however, be glad to see still 
more advantage taken of the facilities now offered for the consultation 
of this valuable aid to systematic work. 

Prof. George H. Carpenter contributed a paper on " Some Arctic 
and Antarctic Collembola." The last ten years have been marked by 
great advances in the systematic study of the Collembola, or Spring- 
tails. Collections from many parts of the world have been worked 
out, but the most striking results have been obtained from the 
examination of specimens brought from the Arctic and Antarctic 
regions by various expeditions. The comparative richness of the 
Collembolan fauna of remote northern and southern lands is remark- 
able. In the Arctic, Greenland has about twenty species of Spring- 
tails, Spitzbergen sixteen, and Franz-Joseph Land seven ; while in 
the Antarctic, Kerguelen has five, Graham Land and the South Shet- 
lands four, South Georgia six, the Falklands ten, and South Victoria 
Land at least two. According to the views of most recent students, 
the Poduriclce, and the Isotomince, are nearest to the primitive stock of 
the order, the Entomobryince, the Tomocerince, and the Symphypleona 
being more highly specialized. It is suggestive to find that in both 
the Arctic and Antarctic faunas the primitive sections are w T ell repre- 
sented, while the specialized genera have but very few species. And 
in the more remote and insular regions the higher groups seem 
entirely absent. Of much interest is the presence of two Arctic 



360 TEE ZOOLOGIST. 

Isotomines in our own islands. These are Agrenia bidenticulata 
(Tullb.), a species both Arctic and Alpine, discovered last year in 
Irish and North British mountain streams, and Proisotoma Beselsii 
(Packard), which inhabits the Arctic Eegions of both the Old and 
New Worlds and the coast of Scotland. " Bi-polarity " in the 
Collembola is shown by Wahlgren's recent record of this latter species 
from Terra del Fuego and by the presence of a closely allied form 
[Proisotoma Brucei, Carp.) on the South Orkneys. Such distribution 
indicates a high antiquity (probably Mesozoic) for the species. A 
similar conclusion is suggested by a comparison of the distinctively 
Antarctic Springtails. Several genera are apparently confined to the 
southern regions. Among these Gryptopygus (Willem) is represented 
by identical or nearly allied species in Terra del Fuego, Graham Land, 
South Shetland, South Orkneys, and South Georgia. Turning to 
genera of wider range we find the same Isotoma (I. octo-oculata, 
Willem) present in Graham Land, South Shetland, South Orkneys, 
and Kerguelen, while the Isotoma of South Victoria Land (I. klovstadi, 
Carp.) is closely allied to a Fuegian species. Such distributional 
facts suggest a considerable geological age for the species and a 
former wide extension of the Antarctic Continent. The National 
Antarctic ' Discovery ' Expedition collected from moss at Granite 
Harbour, South Victoria Land, a remarkable Springtail, referable to 
the Poduridce, but showing some striking affinities to the Isotomines. 
This insect — apparently the most southerly terrestrial animal yet 
known — will be described and figured in the forthcoming part of the 
Expedition Reports. 

" The Migratory Movements of certain Shore-Birds as observed 
on the Dublin Coast" were described by Mr. C. J. Patten. "While 
the majority of my observations, extending over twenty years, on the 
migratory movements of shore -birds along the Dublin coast have 
been incorporated in my work entitled ' The Aquatic Birds of Great 
Britain and Ireland,' published at the end of the year 1906, I still 
continue to visit my former hunting-grounds, and, with the aid of 
trustworthy correspondents, have collected further information on 
the subject. To add to my personal observations and to enable me 
to bring before the meeting of the British Association information as 
recent as possible, I selected the Dublin coast this autumn as a sea- 
side resort. I would refer particularly to the Sanderling (Calidris 
arenaria). There is now strong evidence to show that this bird is 
found in adult plumage throughout the breeding- season on that coast. 
The observations of Mr. A. Williams, made in July, 1906, in this 
locality, on the Sanderling are of interest, as there was an unusually 
large gathering of adult birds recorded. In many ways the Turn- 
stone repeats the migratory movements of the Sanderling, and is 
found throughout the year on the Dublin coast in adult plumage. I 
have, moreover, dissected the genitals of the female bird, shot at the 
height of the breeding-season, and have found quite ripe ova. The 
time will, I believe, yet come when this species will be discovered 
breeding on the Irish sea-board, or perhaps along the shores of inland 
lakes." 



ourth Series. \ 
ol. XII.. No. 142. | 



October 15th, 1908. 



No. 808. 




J\ Monthly Journal 

OF 

£ditcd by W.Ii.Distant. 



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West, Newman S,C? 5^ Hatton Garden. 
Simpkin, Marshall $0? Limited. 



PRICE ONE SHILLING. 



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Arnold's illustrations, most of which are coloured, are both beautiful and true to 
life, and altogether the work of this genial sportsman can be confidently recom- 
mended not only to those amateur collectors and shore-shooters to whom it is 
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SO pp., cloth, gilt, price 2s. 6d. 

FAMILIAR INDIAN BIRDS 

BY 

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Illustrated by Half-tone Blocks from the Drawings of 
R. H. BUNTING and H. B. NEILSON. 

This little book is intended mainly for those who live in, or visit, India, 
and who are interested in the birds they are likely to meet in everyday life 
and who wish to learn something about them. The author writes frorr 
personal knowledge and observation. 

"A little book which Anglo-Indians, as well as ornithologists, will accord 
warm welcome. In the compass of some seventy pages he deals in pleasant, gossip 
and withal not unscientific, fashion with feathered life in India." — The Tribune. 



THE INSECT HUNTER'5 COMPANION. Instruc- 

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Hymenoptera by Frederick Smith ; on Breeding Gall-flies by Edward A. Fitch. 
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how to feed ; how to breed the perfect insects ; and numerous similar subjects. 
Price Is. 6d., postage 2d. 



London : WEST, NEWMAN dc CO., 54, Hatton Garden, E.C. 



Zool. 1908. 



Plate II. 







THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 808.— October, 1908. 



A VISIT TO THE TEENERY AT WELLS-BY-THE-SEA. 

By Francis Heatherley, F.R.C.S. 

(Plates II. & III.) 

On our arrival on June 14th both Common and Lesser Terns 
were beginning to hatch out. There were two distinct colonies 
of Lesser Terns — one in the shingle just above high-water mark, 
at a place called the East Point, by the side of an almost silted- 
up creek, and another about three hundred yards to the west on 
an old beach inland of the sandhills. According to Pat Cringle, 
who has succeeded his father as bird-watcher, and whom we 
found an intelligent and observant guide, there were about thirty 
nests in each colony. 

The Common Terns' nests were scattered along about a mile 
and a half of the shore, most of them being amongst the marram- 
grass. When the first eggs were laid Cringle counted nine 
hundred eggs, and he estimated the total number of nests at the 
time of our visit at over one thousand. 

The Common Terns' eggs laid amongst grass had a nest of 
grass ; those laid among the pebbles often had a collection of 
broken cockle-shells, but this was not as markedly the case as 
with the Lesser Terns. Those laid in sand had nothing round 
them, and were the most difficult of all to see. 

The most peculiar nest we saw was one on an old mud-flat 
about two feet from a large patch of purplish-brown moss. The 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII.. October, 1908. 2 F 



362 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

three eggs were surrounded by a band about four inches wide, 
made up of a mosaic of irregular pieces of moss placed side by 
side and right side up. Close to this nest Mr. Frank Southgate 
and I found a nest of the Common Tern containing a chick and 
egg overrun with ants. The chick was quite sore about its back, 
and kept wincing and shaking itself under their attack. After 
freeing them from ants we moved them to a spot about thirty feet 
away, which seemed free from these insects, obliterating the old 
nest made of grass and making a new one. We then retired to 
the neighbouring sandhills, and whilst having our lunch watched 
events through our field-glasses. The old bird pitched momen- 
tarily four times at the old site, the fifth time about ten feet from 
the new nest, and the sixth time quite close to it, and then went 
on to it. On inspecting the nest afterwards we found it again 
overrun with ants. 

Some of the Common Terns held their wings up almost per- 
pendicularly for quite a second before folding them ; some did 
this much more than others. In folding their wings there 
seemed no rule which should lie uppermost. In the same bird, 
at an interval of only a few minutes, the order was changed. 

During two days of our fortnight's stay there was a strong and 
cold north wind, accompanied by widespread mortality amongst 
the chicks. Cringle pointed out that it is not the cold which is 
so fatal as the wind, which, by making ripples on the water, 
prevents the old birds from being able to see to fish. I took a 
good many photographs of the young being fed, and was surprised 
to find how seldom this takes place even in fine weather ; hardly 
ever were the intervals shorter than half an hour. The approach 
of the male with a fish was heralded by the female looking up 
and screaming. Although I could not detect any difference in 
the notes, the young were better informed, for they immediately 
scrambled out from under their mother, waving their wing- 
stumps frantically, and with widely open mouths calling " cheer, 
cheer." Then the male would alight with a whitebait or sand- 
eel held crosswise in his beak, and it was in a flash transferred 
to the nearest chick, who swallowed it head first and retired 
under his mother. Occasionally there would be a long wait 
after the heralding cry, due to the male with the fish being 
pursued by other Terns. Sometimes the male had no fish when 



VISIT TO TEBNSBY AT WELLS-BY-THE-SEA. 363 

he alighed, but put his beak into the chick's mouth and appa- 
rently gave it liquid food. I never saw the old bird eject food on 
to the ground for the young to peck at, as does the Black- 
headed Gull. 

On one occasion the male brought a fish like a big minnow, 
which was as long as, if not longer than, the chick. The chick 
got it half-way down, and there it stuck. The male who was 
watching gave the protruding part of the fish a nip, but it was 
no use, and the chick, dropping it, the male flew away with it, 
but returned in a few seconds, when another chick had a try 
with the same result. This time the old bird, after picking it up 
and flying away, returned, but the fish was not visible. The 
chick looked very comical staggering about, but unfortunately 
for me the incident took place during a sunless interval. We 
several times came across small fishes and shrimps which had 
apparently been dropped during scrimmages, and we tried to get 
the chicks to swallow them, but failed. Once or twice the female 
got off her eggs when the male came down and walked about a 
little, as if to stretch her legs. 

The following day, as this bird had hatched out all her three 
eggs and therefore might not always be in the same place, my 
partner, Mr. Earl, thought it would give me a better chance if 
there were two nests in the field of view ; so he transferred 
another Tern's chick and egg to a spot about three feet from the 
other. The plan did not answer, because the new birds did not 
claim their offspring. What did happen was that after about the 
second visit our bird saw the egg, and it proved a great attraction 
— half the times she alighted at the new site instead of the old, 
and sat on the egg. One photograph I took shows her sitting 
on the new nest with her wings very much spread out, as she was 
covering four chicks and an egg at the time ; she certainly made 
no difference between the strange chick and her own. 

Although the Lesser Tern, owing to its stupidity or superior 
boldness, should have yielded the best photographic results, we 
in the end only had very poor photographs, because after the 
first few exposures we went on to something more difficult. 
When we came back to them after dealing with the other birds we 
encountered a difficulty we had not met with previously. The local 
barber had amused Mr. Earl by affirming that Terns did not sit 

2f2 



364 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

on their eggs, but let the sun hatch them out. We found there 
was more truth in the theory than was at all pleasant. We had 
a succession of blazing hot days, and however carefully we con- 
cealed the camera, its presence near the nest seemed quite 
enough to decide the bird to let the sun do its work ; this was 
notwithstanding the fact that they had all reached the last stages 
of incubation, when most birds sit closely. 

The two species probably nest in separate colonies because 
they do not agree together. On one occasion I had an instance 
of this whilst trying to photograph the Lesser Tern. A Common 
Tern alighted about ten feet to seaward of the nest, and stood 
there calling. Then it was joined by its mate, which settled 
down as if on eggs. Presently the standing bird waddled up to 
my Lesser Tern's nest which contained a dead and a live chick, 
and, standing over them, shouted to the Terns overhead. Then 
it picked up one of the chicks — I thought it was the dead one — 
and dropped it ; then it picked it up again and walked two or 
three feet away, and dropped it again. This time I could see 
it was the live chick struggling on its back. Then it picked it 
up, and, flying into the air, pitched about fifteen yards to sea- 
ward. I was so enraged at seeing my last chance of photo- 
graphing the Lesser Tern destroyed that, instead of photograph- 
ing this unique incident, I pursued the marauder, and after a 
little search found the chick uninjured, and the spot where the 
Common Tern had been sitting hollowed out as if she had been 
about to lay. The Lesser Terns did not come down to their 
nest, nor did they show any fight during the raid. 

Two years ago I saw a good deal of the Arctic Tern in the 
Hebrides, and, after watching the Common Tern for a fortnight, 
have come to the conclusion that it is possible to distinguish 
them when flying. The Common Tern has a much less jerky 
flight than the Arctic, and hovers in fishing a great deal more 
than does the Arctic ; in fact, it more nearly approaches the 
Kestrel than any other bird I have yet watched in this respect. 
A third distinction which Cringle pointed out but which I 
cannot confirm, owing to not remembering how the Arctic Terns 
carry their tails, is that the Arctic Tern more often carries its 
tail closed than does the Common. This, I presume, accords 
with their different styles of flight, as I have noticed in calm 



Zool. 1« 



Plate III. 




VISIT TO TEBNERY AT WELLS-BY-THE-SEA. 365 

weather that the Swifts near the ground have their tails well 
spread, whereas those flying high with less steering to do carry 
them closed. 

The Terns seemed very sensitive to changes in temperature ; 
one I was working at sat gaping and panting in the morning 
when it was hot and sultry, and shivering in the afternoon when 
it grew overcast and a wind sprang up from the north. 

Since leaving on June 24th I have heard from Cringle that a 
great many of the young birds died during subsequent rough 
weather, and that during some exceptionally high tides so much 
of the Point was flooded that had they occurred during the 
breeding season quite five hundred of the Common Terns' nests 
would have been flooded, and I presume one of the Lesser Tern 
colonies would have been destroyed. He also mentions finding 
a nest of the Common Tern with two eggs in it on Aug. 17th. 

We found the Kinged Plover more intelligent than the Terns, 
making much more fuss about the camera. It certainly is not a 
timid bird — in fact, its boldness made Mr. Earl call it the "cock 
robin of the shore." I found it fairly easy to distinguish the 
male by its ring being a more intense black. They seemed to 
relieve one another, in sitting, every half-hour. We came 
across the feathered skeleton of one bird with the remains of 
the blunt end of the egg fixed in the pelvis, showing the mode of 
death. 

In the case of many birds, e.g. Curlew, Peewit, and Golden 
Plover, the books say that the young leave the nest as soon as 
hatched, while I have found that they remain in the nest upwards 
of sixty hours after hatching ; but as regards the Einged Plover, 
it seems literally true, the chicks wandering off within half an 
hour of being hatched to feed on the sandy shore under the 
paternal eye, leaving their mother to hatch out the remaining 
eggs. They are much more advanced when hatched than the 
Terns. All the nests we saw had four eggs, whilst among the 
Terns this number was exceptional. 

Although we examined a good many clutches of Einged 
Plover's eggs, I could detect no difference in coloration, whereas 
the difference in coloration amongst the Tern's eggs was a 
marked feature. I have noticed this variability amongst other 
birds that lay their eggs in colonies. It would be interesting to 



366 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

know whether this is the rule, as in that case it would lend sup- 
port to the theory that extreme variability is a help to the birds 
in distinguishing their own eggs. 

We found the Kinged Plover very combative. Owing to a 
number of clutches hatching out simultaneously there was a 
large increase one morning in the number of chicks on the sand, 
and there were constant fights going on amongst the old birds 
for " spheres of influence." The chicks in feeding took quick 
little runs just like their parents. The old birds did not seem 
to do any teaching, but just remained in their vicinity. 

In fighting, the old birds lowered their heads and raised the 
feathers of their backs. Occasionally all four would demonstrate 
in this way. One pair actually fighting seemed to have their 
beaks interlocked, and one was banging the other down on 
the sand. 

We left Cringle one day to watch if a Lesser Tern returned to 
her nest, and he reported a fight which ended in one bird return- 
ing, soon after the combat had terminated in the vanquished flying 
away, chasing two of the chicks and killing them one after another, 
shaking them as a terrier shakes a rat. The Ringed Plovers 
frequently simulated disablement to lure us from their nests. 

There were a good many Eedshanks breeding in the marram- 
grass. Cringle drew our attention to the fact, of which we had 
no previous knowledge, that the sitting bird twists the grass 
together overhead as she sits on the eggs. As in the Snipe, the 
eggs are laid in the middle of a clump, so that the stems form a 
hiding screen all round, but by twisting the grass into a tangle 
the eggs are also hidden from above. All the nests we saw con- 
tained four eggs lying point to point, and there were two runs, 
so that the ground plan was like the shape of a hairpin with 
slightly separated legs, and the eggs at the blunt end. The runs 
were each about two feet long, and there was a slight gap 
between the grass-stems both back and front of the eggs. 
Curiously, the two nests we worked at did not show this twisting 
of the grass ; in one case the grass perhaps was not long enough, 
but in the other I think it was due to the bird, when disturbed, 
rising straight into the air instead of stealing away on foot. 

The Redshank was the most wary of all our sitters, cautiously 
approaching, her eggs long after the surrounding Common Terns 



VISIT TO TERNEBY AT WELLS-BY-THE-SEA. 367 

had settled on their eggs, and being the first to leave. The only 
nest we found was due to Mr. Earl flushing the bird, but Cringle 
says he can always find them by looking for tangles in the grass. 
According to Cringle it is almost impossible to make a Eedshank 
desert its eggs, even after having been struck at with a stick, or 
having been caught by a dog and losing some of its feathers it will 
return. With its sylph-like figure, dainty steps, and fluty note, 
it was the prettiest bird we met with at the ternery. 

There were a good many Partridge nests, and Mr. Earl pointed 
out that the eggs were smaller than of those that frequent arable 
land. 

Whilst with Mr. Southgate I saw three Eedshanks perching 
somewhat uncertainly on the branches of a dead bush. Had 
our focal plane shutter been in working order we might have got 
some good photographs of Eedshanks flying. In crossing the 
marsh, if Cringle happened to let his dog wander, it was soon 
followed by an ever-increasing mob of Eedshanks, some of them 
only two or three feet above the ground ; once there were about 
thirty of them, all evidently suspecting his intentions. 

The following notes have been sent me by Pat Cringle, the 
bird-watcher : — 

" The Lesser Tern makes its first appearance here about the 
last week in April, nearly always two or three days before the 
Common. The Lesser Tern is the first to lay, but not until two 
or three days spent in making experiments, each bird making 
two or three nests before deciding on one. I generally find the 
first eggs about May 24th, but this year I saw some on May 18th. 
I find that after laying in the same place for a year or two the 
whole colony will shift to another place. They do not seem to 
like the Common Tern at all, and although they are half as 
small again, they seem to be the masters, as they drive them 
away if they come near their nests. When they have young 
they are not so fierce as the Common Tern, but they will make a 
good deal more row when danger is near. If one is a bit 
suspicious of anybody being about it seems to have a warning 
note, for as soon as it utters it the others all rise off their nests 
at the same instant. As soon as the young can fly they get to 
an open place where they can see a good way round them, and 
are fed there by the old birds until they can fly to the edge of 



368 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the harbour where they are safer. The old birds then teach 
them how to fish, flying beside them, and diving and catching 
fish, which they take to the shore, followed by the young, to 
whom they give the fish when they alight. 

" The Lesser Tern's style of fishing is quite different from 
the Common Tern's. It flies very much quicker, and keeps on 
chirping till it catches a fish, with which it flies up into the air. 
After swallowing the fish the Tern flies a good way very quickly 
before looking for any more. 

" The Common Tern is generally a day or two later in laying, 
but the majority begin laying simultaneously. The eggs vary in 
colour and size. I have seen eggs nearly white and others 
almost all brown, and some no bigger than Thrushes' eggs. 

" When hatching they are very fierce, and allow no birds to 
come near the ternery except those that lay with them. I have 
seen one get off its nest and chase a young Lark that could 
hardly fly, and kill it on the spot. They are also great enemies 
of the Partridges. In one season I have picked up as many as 
eight that had been mobbed and pecked to death. When attacked 
by Terns a Partridge crouches on the ground ; the Terns collect 
from all around and make awful darts at it, diving straight 
down, and then hovering over it like hawks. The Partridge is 
often too frightened to fly away, and then at last one of the 
Terns gets in a fatal blow. They drive holes into the Partridge's 
head as if done with a nail. They take their young away like 
the Lesser and teach them to fish, and when preparing to 
migrate they all collect in a bunch a mile or two away near the 
sea for a day or two before they finally go, in the last week of 
August or first week of September. 

" The Redshanks remain here all the year round, as the 
marshes are full of creeks and mud-flats, from which they can 
get food during the hard weather. If the weather is open pairing 
begins about the first week in March, but the majority of birds 
do not begin to lay until the latter end of April, although I met 
with eggs on the first of the month. When walking through 
the nesting-ground some fly quite close, shrieking, while others 
— the males, I think — soar very high up, like a Meadow-Pipit, 
and sing a peculiar song. The birds make several nests before 
laying, but when one has chosen the place she lays four eggs on 



VISIT TO TEBNERY AT WELLS-BY-THK-SEA. 369 

the bare sand, and then makes the nest of dried grass afterwards. 
The male seems to keep watch at a considerable distance from 
the nest. Their behaviour when sitting varies, some sitting very 
close, whilst others are shy. One bird whose nest I frequently 
passed this year would allow me to touch her back as she sat on 
the eggs, and I have before now accidentally trodden on a Bed- 
shank sitting on her eggs. Sometimes the young leave the nest 
as they are hatched out, but this is not always the case, as I 
have found them in the nest the day after they were hatched. 
As a rule the old birds take them to the little creeks to feed, 
where they find small worms, sand-hoppers, and insects. When 
they are a day or two old they can already run very quickly on 
their long legs and hide, so that it would take hours to find them, 
although you saw within a little where they went into the weeds. 
" The Einged Plover is not nearly so shy as the Eedshank. 
Pairing begins early in April, when the males can be seen fighting 
for the possession of the females. They fight very fiercely, 
rushing at each other with their beaks down and feathers 
bristling up. Sometimes four or five birds will be mixed up in 
one fight. They generally begin to lay in the last week in April. 
The nest is nearly always lined with small stones, but sometimes, 
when under the grass, it is a mere hollow in the sand. They 
often lure you away from the young when recently hatched, 
opening their tails and drawing them along like fans, or tumbling 
and scuffling along with one wing up and the other down, as if 
wounded. They do not forget to go the opposite way to that the 
young are running. Very often you can see hundreds of chicks 
running about on the edge of the sands, waiting for the tide to 
go out. Old and young keep together until August. In winter 
the Einged Plovers form flocks, and frequent one place all the 
time if not shot at." 



370 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



THE PRICES OF ANIMALS. 

By Graham Renshaw, M.B., F.Z.S. 

The following list of prices of living zoological specimens 
may be of service as a supplement to Capt. Flower's most in- 
teresting article on this subject ('Zoologist,' ante, p. 281). Most 
of them have been noted during the last ten years, but a few 
are taken from very much older records, as will appear. 

Class MAMMALIA. 
Order PEIMATES. 
Family Cercopithecid.^. 
Cercopithecus diana, Diana Monkey. — £2 10s. 
Papio mormon, Mandrill. — £30 (Wombwell's auction at Edin- 
burgh, April 9th, 1872). 

Family Cebhxe. 
Mycetes seniculus, Red Howler Monkey, one year old. — £8. 
Nyctipithecus vociferans, Douroucouli. — £1 10s. 

Family Lemurid^;. 
Lemur fulvus, Brown Lemur. — £1. 
L. catta, Ring-tailed Lemur. — £1 10s. 
L. varius, Ruffed Lemur. — £4t. 
Galago gametti, Garnett's Galago. — £2 10s. 
Loris gracilis, Slender Loris. — £1 5s. 
Perodicticus potto, Bosnian's Potto. — £1 10s. 

Order INSECTIVOEA. 
Erinaceus algirus, Algerian Hedgehog. — 10s. 

Order CARNIVOEA. 
Family Felid^e. 
Felis uncia, Snow Leopard. — £200. 
F. nebidosa, Clouded Tiger.— £30. 

F. temmincki, Golden Cat. — £3. The determination of the 
species seems, however, open to doubt. 



THE PBICES OF ANIMALS. 371 

F. serval, Serval Cat. — £5. 

F. caracal, Caracal Lynx. — £8. 

F. concolor, Puma. — £20. 

F. onca, Jaguar. — £40 (an old specimen). 

F. tigrina, Margay. — £1 10s. (six months' kitten). 

Family Viverridje. 
Viverra civetta, African Civet. — £5. 
Genetta senegalensis, Senegal Genet. — £1 10s. 
Poiana poensis, African Linsang. — £3. 
Arctictis binturong, Binturong. — £8. 
Crossarchus obscurus, Kusimanse. — £1 10s. 

Family Hyjenidje. 
Hycena striata, Striped Hyseiia. — £8 (young). 

Family Canimi. 
Canis zerda, Fennec Fox. — £1 10s. 
Lycaon pictus, Cape Hunting Dog. — £20. 

Family Procyonid^e. 
Cercoleptes caudivolvulus, Kinkajou. — £1 10s. to £4. 
Bassaris astuta, Cacomistle. — £45 (pair). 

Family Phoctce. 
Phoca vitulina, Common Seal. — £5. 

Order RODENTIA. 

Family Sciurid^. 
Sciurus maximus, Malabar Squirrel. — £1 10s. to £2. 
S. prevosti, Prevost's Squirrel. — £1 to £1 10s. 
Xerus getulus, Getulian Ground Squirrel. — 12s. Qd. 
Cynomys ludovicianus, Prairie Dog. — £1 5s. 

Family Dipodid;e. 
Dipusjaculus, Egyptian Jerboa. — 5s. to 10s. 
Pedetes caffer, Cape Leaping Hare. — £5. 

Family MuriDjE. 
Platacanthomys lasiurus, Malabar Spiny Mouse, 12s. 6d< 
Hydromys chrysogaster, Australian Water Rat. — £1 5s. 



372 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Family Octodontid.se. 
Myopotamus coypus, Coypu Eat, £2 to £2 10s. 

Family Hystricid^i. 
Atherura africana, West African Brush-tailed Porcupine. — 
£2 10s. 

Family Chinchillhxe. 
Lagostomus trichodactylus, Vizcacha. — £1 10s. 

Family Dasyproctid.e. 
Dasyprocta cristata, Golden Agouti. — £1 5s. 

Order UNGULATA. 
Suborder PERISSODACTYLA. 

Equus burchelli, Burchell's Zebra. — £80 for newly imported 
specimens. I once saw one in a list offered at £10 ! ! 

Suborder ARTIODACTYLA. 
Family Bovidje. 

Ovibos moschatus, Musk Ox.— £50 to £65. All these were 
newly imported calves. 

Damaliscus albifrons, Blesbok. — £25 (in 1871). 

Connochcetes taurinus, Brindled Gnu. — £80 (young). 

Gazella bennetti, Indian Gazelle. — £6. 

G. dorcas, Dorcas Gazelle. — £6. 

Oryx leucoryx, Leucoryx. — £50 (given by Lord Derby in 
1837). 

Addax nasomaculatus. — £114 (given by Lord Derby about 
1840 for a pair of Addax, together with a male Leucoryx). 

Family Giraffid^. 

Giraffa camelopardalis, Northern Giraffe. — £1800 (given by 

Wombwell for his first pair of Giraffes — an enormous price. 

They died before their special exhibition cage could be finished. 

He soon after bought tour more for £2000, but all died in four 

months !) 

Order EDENTATA. 

Family Dasypodid^;. 

Dasypus villosus, Hairy Armadillo.— £1 10s. to £2. 

D. sexcinctus, Six-banded Armadillo. — £2. 



THE PRICES OF ANIMALS. 373 

Cycloturus didactylus, Two -toed Anteater. — £3 (price paid by 
the Zoological Society in 1854). 

Orycteropus capensis, Gape Aard Vark. — £150 (in 1869). 

Order MARSUPIALIA. 
Family Macropodime. 
Macropus robustus, Wallaroo Kangaroo. — £20. 
M. bennetti, Bennett's Wallaby. — £5. 

Family Phalangerid^. 
Petaurns breviceps, Short-headed Phaianger. — £3 (pair). 

Family Dasyurid^. 

Sarcophilus ursinus, Tasmanian Devil. — £3 5s. (Wombwell's 
auction sale). 

Class AVES. 
Order PASSERES. 

Urocissa occipitalis, Himalayan Blue Pie. — £2 10s. 

Paradisea minor, Lesser Bird of Paradise. — £30 (male). 

Sericidus melinus, Kegent Bird. — £6. 

Lamprotornis caudatus, Long-tailed Glossy Starling. — £1 15s. 
to £2. 

Lamprocolius chalybeus, Green Glossy Starling. — £1. 

Oriolus kundoo, Sykes's Oriole. — £1 10s. 

Garrulax sinensis, Chinese Jay Thrush. — £1 10s. 

Order PICARI^. 

Golius striatus, Striated Mouse-bird. — £1 10s. 

Buceros rhinoceros, Rhinoceros Hornbill. — £20. 

Dichoceros bicornis, Concave-casqued Hornbill. — £16 asked 
for a young pair. 

Sphagolobus atratus, Black Hornbill. — £3 to £4. I once 
knew a fine healthy specimen change hands at £1 10s. ! , 

Guira sp. ?, Guira Cuckoo. — £1 10s. 

Eudynamis honorata, Koel Cuckoo. — £1 10s. 

Order PSITTACI. 
Trichoglossus forsteni, Forsten's Lorikeet. — 16s. 



374 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Order STETGES. 
Symium torquatum, Collared Owl. — £3 10s. 
Carine noctua, Little Owl. — 5s. 

Order ACCIPITRES. 

Serpentarius secretarins, Secretary Bird. — £15. 

Sarcorhamphus gryphus, Condor. — £15 (this was a veteran 
forty years old, which changed hands at the sale of Wombwell's 
No. 1 menagerie at Edinburgh in April, 1872). 

Order STEGANOPODES. 

Ibis cethiopica, Sacred Ibis. — £1 10s. 

Tigriosoma lineatum, Tiger Bittern. — £3 5s. (or £3 10s.) for 

an immature pair. 

Order COLUMB.E. 

Mna capensis, Cape Long-tailed Dove. — 12s. 6d. " pair." As 
a rule this means a couple of male birds, the hens being seldom 
imported. 

Goura coronata, Common Crowned Pigeon. — £6 per pair. 

G. victoria, Queen Victoria's Crowned Pigeon. — £30 per 
pair. 

Chalcophaps indica, Green-winged Pigeon. — £1 10s. per 
pair. 

Catenas nicobarica, Nicobar Pigeon. — £1 5s. asked for a 
single (acclimatized) bird. 

Numida vulturina, Vulturine Guinea-fowl. — £8 per pair. 

Order FULICARLE. 
Porphyrio porphyrio, Violet Gallinule. — £1 5s. each. 
Tribonyx mortieri, Mortier's Waterhen. — £1 5s. each. 

Order ALECTORIDES. 
Gariama cristata, Common Seriema. — £2 10s. each (once). 
Gras Virgo, Demoiselle Crane. — £4 10s. per pair. 
G. antigone, Sarus Crane. — £25 per pair. 

Order IMPENNES. 
Spheniscus demersus, Jackass Penguin. — £2 each. 

Order CRYPTUEI. 
Rhynchotus rufescens, Giant Tinamu. — £1 5s. each. 



THE PRICES OF ANIMALS. 375 

Class EEPTILIA. 

Boa constrictor, Common Boa. — £75 was given by Womb- 
well for his first pair of these reptiles. Youngsters can be pur- 
chased at 10s. each ; " good-sized " examples for about £2. 

Vipera arietans, Puff Adder. — £2 10s. 

Crocodilus americanus, Sharp-nosed Crocodile. — £1 (for a 
foot-long specimen). 

Chrysemys concinna, Terrapin. — 6s. (young). 

Cachuga tectum, Black and Yellow Batagur. — 2s. 6d. 

Testudo tabulata, Brazilian Tortoise. — 15s. to £1. 

Class AMPHIBIA. 
Bufo melanostictus, Indian Toad. — 5s. 
B.mauritanicus, Moorish Toad. — 10s. (asked). 
Xenopus Icevis, " Plathander " or Smooth-clawed Frog. — 3s. 
Proteus anguinus, Olm. — 5s. 

Class PISCES. 
Ceratodus forsteri, Australian Lung Fish. — £50. 



376 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



THE VOCAL AND INSTEUMENTAL MUSIC OF 

INSECTS. 

By A. H. Swinton. 

My earliest interest in the music of the Cicadas was awakened 
by the Greek Anthology, whose odes transport the reader to the 
Grecian colonies, and inspire a wish to hear their convivial 
melody ; I have listened to Arab and Spanish workmen rattle off 
such ditties after sipping at the wine-bag, when the sun grew 
hot, regardless of epigram and prosody. Why the autochthons 
of the old territory of Locris made so merry while those of Eeggio 
continued glum remained a mystery until I reverted to the 
hypothesis that the southern shore of the Italian toe received 
the sunlight early when the eastern crags of Eeggio slept in 
gloom. 

One day I left the folios of the British Museum Eeading Eoom 
and looked in on the late obliging Frederick Smith, in order 
to see the objects that so enchanted the Grecian musicians, one 
of whom, it is said, gained the prize for Eunomus when his 
harp-string snapped ; and certainly the designs of the dessicated 
vocalists were curiously interesting, but I felt the cold shudder 
of a frequenter of music-halls who beholds harps, violins, drums, 
and fifes piled up on a music-stand. What I learnt was that 
each Cicada carried two ribbed kettledrums slung away at either 
side, and beneath its body there were two corresponding mem- 
branes like battledores concealed by variously fashioned flaps. 

Summer came, with its rambles, and on the 2nd of June, 
1871, I found myself sitting at a deal table in a New Forest inn, 
where Mr. Capper, of Liverpool, and an invalid gentleman of the 
name of Owen, who had driven through the Forest with an intelli- 
gent lad, were setting a very complete assortment of local butter- 
flies and moths, and among their treasures I espied a specimen 
of the little Cicadetta montana, which they told me they had just 
beaten from a hawthorn-bush. Eichard Weaver, in ' Loudon's 



VOCAL d INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 377 

Magazine of Natural History ' for 1832, where he calls it 
hcematodes, has informed collectors of the ferny groves it 
haunted, and here some enthusiasts have heard a male prac- 
tising a dithyrambic ; but I went out and shook the milk-white 
blossoms in vain. Keturning to my books, I learnt that the late 
Prof. Cams, having a kindred desire to hear a Cicada sing, and 
failing to do so in Germany, decided to travel south to Italy. 
Consequently, in the spring of 1878, I enlisted the sympathies of 
an elderly relative who retained reminiscences of the grand tour, 
and induced her, with reluctance, to revisit the classic fields ; 
indeed, when we went past Avignon and came in sight of the 
grey olives, I heard her exclaim that she "never wished to see 
them again." However, we arrived safe at Verona in the pleasant 
month of May, and having duteously visited the amphitheatre and 
supposed tomb of Juliet, I found myself at liberty to walk in the 
meadows where the field-crickets were chirping and the Adige 
runs swift and deep. Here I discovered the cockchafer-like grub 
of a Cicada that had come out of the ground to enjoy the balmy 
air. I was then hurried south on a circular tour to the island 
of Capri, where the hotel waiter assured me the Cicadas would 
not sing before the middle of June, that they were in full-voiced 
choir in August, and that when the cold breath of autumn came 
the ground was covered with their dead bodies. Then, after a 
prolonged stay at Anacapri, in view of Vesuvius, continually 
smoking or steaming, with no idea of an eruption, my lady 
relative commenced to entertain fears of encountering the summer 
beat, so we returned post-haste to Turin, where she left me to 
my meditations. 

Anxious to hear the Cicada band, I forthwith secured a room 
— they called it a stanza — near the hostelry of Madonna del 
Pilone, which a Piedmontese woman, who spoke a little intelli- 
gible Italian, came daily to sweep out with a laconic greeting of 
" Bon serai." The morning after my arrival I took a stroll 
along the shady avenue that runs beside the smooth flowing 
Paver Po, where Cicada omi was already chirping among the 
bushes ; and on the 16th of June I surprised a coterie collected 
among the poplars and acacias that overhung the smooth flowing 
river, occupied in singing overtures, con amore, to the harsh 
" kroax ! kroax!" of the green frogs, raising their voices in a 
Zool. Mh ser. vol. XII. , October, 1908. 2 g 



378 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

dirl and a whistle that resembled the din of a grinder's wheel or 
of a watch running down — that commenced briskly, and in a 
quarter of a minute subsided. So contentious were they that one 
I captured continued" to vociferate in my hand, raising its abdo- 
men as it did so, and quivering, twitching, and dimpling its 
kettledrums, whose beautiful shell-like structure is exposed to 
view. Soon afterwards I noticed another Cicada whistling an 
air on a young and graceful poplar, and vibrating its wings with 
new delight. " Volete farmi descendere questo insetto," said I 
to a fisherman who was passing by with a rod. "La cicala," 
he replied, aiming a blow with good intentions, and ejaculating, 
as it darted off with a piteous cry, " secure" Proceeding further 
I beheld another, and now I ventured to shake the tree to dis- 
lodge it, but it only clung on the faster and screamed the louder ; 
a third that I caused to take flight was unexpectedly seized by a 
bird as it flew, and disappeared down its throat with a mournful 
cry of "whee-whee!" Searching among the acacias I dis- 
covered what looked like shot-holes in the ground, and near at 
hand were the masks, the skins of the grubs, or nympha, from 
which the Cicadas had emerged, still clinging by their empty 
legs. Later on, in July, the frogs were awake and croaking at 
six, at seven the birds were in song, the Cicadas were screeching 
at half-past nine, and then it was pleasant to sit in the shade 
and listen to the males sing in chorus to the "click- click!" of 
the water-wheel, where their dizzy din of " derde-derde!" inter- 
rupted with a monitory " tip-tip ! " resounded, until the heat of 
noon enforced silence. At five in the afternoon, when the per- 
formance was over and silence had resumed its reign in the 
alcove, I saw a female orni wing swiftly to the vines that draped 
a sunny knoll that had lately been the scene of uproar. When 
placed in a box covered with gauze the Cicadas snarled like dogs, 
clung together as if sparring, and startled the gloom of night 
with snatches of song. " Happy the Cicada lives," says a Greek 
epigram, " for they all have voiceless wives." In July I became 
aware of the presence of the somewhat larger Cicada plebeja, 
whose kettledrums are covered, and sound as in a musical box. 
Hearing a noise resembling the sound of escaping steam among 
the pattering leaves of the aspens, I saw it lift its body for 
twenty seconds, and there came a ghostly refrain of "whee- 



VOCAL & INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 379 

whay ! " that might have been the parting sigh of the Sisters of 
Phaeton. As time went on I captured one of the performers, 
and examined the expanded membranes concealed by the flaps 
beneath its body, on whose surface I found two raised horny 
needles corresponding to the corresponding ones on the similarly 
placed ears of grasshoppers and moths, to which I discovered 
with some difficulty that a ganglion was similarly connected. 
These organs are more conspicuous in the male than in the 
female Cicada, and before leaving Madonna del Pilone I made 
some other careful drawings of their structure in Tettigia orni 
and Tibicina hcematodes, as would appear. Some of the Cicadas 
were cleared off by a small bird which sat on the bushes that grew 
on the sunny side of a hill, and twittered to provoke a response 
and discover their whereabouts ; their choir in July was aug- 
mented by a smaller species that appeared on the scene with a 
scraping note of " chip-chip ! " Plebeja ceased to sing on the 26th 
of July, and then the copper- shaking cries of Cicada orni alone 
resounded from the tall poplars and aspens, until, on the 1st of 
August, a mournful silence had settled on the shady avenue at 
the side of the Po. There is a well-known ride from Madonna 
del Pilone to the summit of the eminence of the Superga, where 
at times a grand panorama of the Alpine peaks can be enjoyed, 
but it should be accomplished before sunrise, for during the day 
they are obscured with haze. The thick-pated shepherd Cory- 
don, with whom the poet Virgil was acquainted, must have lived 
somewhere on those mountains, where the Cicadas were accus- 
tomed to screak among the bay and myrtle scrub. 

While sojourning with my relatives at Guildford, in Surrey, I 
made some drawings of the frescoes in St. Mary's Church, and 
the carvings on the castle wall. I read the local guide-books ; 
the romantic adventures of the Plantagenet Kings captivated 
my imagination, and to satisfy my curiosity I took an anti- 
quarian tour in 1884 down Western Europe, until I arrived at 
the mud-plastered town of Valladolid. On the 27th of June I 
took a walk in the public gardens, which were full of luxuriant 
blossoms, but so solitary it seemed a scene of some story such 
as is told in the \ Arabian Nights.' On arriving at the calm 
sunny waters of the Pisuerga, where there were pleasure boats 
and rafts of timber floating, I again heard Cicada plebeja per- 

2g2 



380 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

forming with harp-like ring, seated aloft on the bordering poplars, 
and a sun-dazed workman beneath was singing ironically in re- 
sponse "hehehe-ha-ha!" In the afternoon of the 7th of July 
I strolled out along a shady avenue where ranks of Lombardy 
poplars rose on either side like church-steeples ; it led out, if I 
recall, from the Convent of San Pablo, and I had not gone far 
when I arrived at a villa residence beset with mushroom-topped 
pines. It seemed the abode of eternal silence ; its inmates 
probably had partaken of a hearty dinner and were asleep. 
They must have had evil dreams, for a deafening racket from 
the mushroom-topped pines of resinous violins — a croaking, 
squealing, cork-drawing, and bagpipe dirl, a cockatoo concert — 
announced that I was present at the nuptial revels of Tettigia 
orni, and I soon found I was at liberty to pick as many of the 
intoxicated bridegrooms off the sticky trees as I pleased, for they 
had drunk the spirit of turpentine, which is a poison to man, 
long and deep. In consequence I again lingered some little time 
to watch the indiarubber rebound of their kettledrums, and it 
then appeared that as these were seen to dimple the air escaped 
convulsively by an open spiracle immediately in front. Eesuming 
my walk and proceeding a little further along the highway, I 
surprised a tiny Cicada seated on a tree about twelve feet from 
the ground, and just out of reach of my umbrella-net, that was 
making a tinkling noise resembling the rattle of a watch-chain. 
On the 12th of July they were cutting the barley on the sandy 
plain of Castile. 

When I returned to Guildford I found some Cicadas that my 
sister had captured at the source of the Sutlej awaiting me. 
There was a brownish one (Pycna repanda), which she had found 
during a September tour in Cashmere in 1881 ; a brace of the 
Pomponia surya, which populates the tea-plantations of the 
Kangra Valley during July ; and some other larger ones that 
came from the leafy slopes of the Himalayas — certain with 
bottle-glass wings and pointed flaps (Platylomia saturata) that 
were performing at Dhramsala ; and the leathery-looking males 
of another kind {Polyneura ducalis), which struck up at Dhram- 
sala and Dalhousie during July and August. Ladies residing 
at Guildford who had passed their lives in India assured me 
that my Cicadas rattled like an alarm-clock when the northward 



VOCAL d INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 381 

sun brought to Murree the sweep of the south-west monsoon and 
the dripping days of July and August ; but I should imagine the 
chaunt of " Taza-bi-Taza ! " is not there so imperative, as many 
of these Oriental Cicadas possess a tyrant beauty in their suits 
of brown bestarred with gold and streaked with sunset hues ; 
nor does it follow that because a Cicada is big and clumsy it is 
necessarily more noisy, for some of those with covered and con- 
cealed kettledrums have them inefficiently developed. 

In the spring of 1896, Miss Swinton, of Warsash, who long 
maintained a village school, and in memory of whom a chapel 
was recently erected, gave me an introduction to a Mr. Joseph, a 
well-known missionary of German extraction, then residing at 
Jerusalem, which I had the common wish to see. I then took 
the train to Brindisi and crossed to Patras. The thick-warbled 
notes of the Nightingale did not resound from the evergreen oaks 
in the gardens at Athens, but I have listened to a splendid concert 
at Toulouse. All I saw of the Ilissus was a gutter in a back 
street, so-called. The towers and row of windmills that lined 
the port of Bhodes carried the imagination back some four or 
five hundred years. At Jaffa there was a talk of Sharks, and I 
was told that packs of Jackals, to whose tails, lashed together, 
Samson tied firebrands, came and howled of a winter night. 
There must have been a fine conflagration, for the fire consumed 
the shocks, standing corn, vineyards, and olives. As I passed 
over the plain of Sharon there was a fine glow of common 
poppies, called "Shaarari," and, coming to Lydda at noon, I 
saw the mirage creep round it like the inflowing tide, until its 
ruined church and ilex-bushes seemed to stand on an island, and 
the camels to come splashing through the water. Jerusalem, 
the waterless, lies on the top of a long line of hillocky limestone 
downs that at first sight resemble those you have left behind 
you at Dorking, in Surrey. No Lion now comes there from the 
swelling of the Jordan, and it would seem the sporting Crusaders 
heard the last one roar at Samaria. Once a large grey animal 
ran ruffling past me on the hills that stand about Jerusalem. I 
believe it was a Hyaena. Anacreon thought the Cicada a king, 
and Meleager, reclining beneath the plane-tree of Gadara, found 
consolation in the notes of one that was making merry on the 
sap, when the sun in summer leaves the Bermuda grass alone 



382 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

green in the herbage, and the flocks of black Goats come over 
the hills browsing on the sticks and straws. It was at Jerusalem 
that Tasso places the enchanted grove of Armida, from which 
streamed red sap, such as exudes from elm or ivy. Mr. Wilson, 
the missionary, offered to ride with me to some such thicket 
when I mentioned I had walked to the supposed site of Kirjath- 
jearim and seen no trees ; around Jerusalem the Arab women 
break them down for firewood. Above the town rise one or two 
date-palms that do not mature their fruit, as the site is too 
elevated, and the scattered foliage around is that of olive and 
mulberries. One day I trudged out to Bethlehem, and when 
passing by an enclosure I was startled by a dirl and a rattle that 
had a resemblance to the castanets. Afterwards, about the 9th 
of June, the small Cicadatra atra commenced to din incessantly 
on the tops of the purple globe thistles in the vineyards at 
Jerusalem ; it varied in colour from black to a reddish ochre 
spotted with black, and, as the soil was a yellowish-red loam, the 
latter form would be protected from the pale- coloured Sparrows. 
Later on in the month the olives, hoary with red -berried mistle- 
toe, which, Canon Tristram told me, was not found nearer than 
the South of Spain, resounded to the croaking of Tettigia omi, 
whose notes rattled on until August. What is singular, one of 
my specimens of Cicadatra atra has an extra veinlet on the 
second ulnar area of the left wing that forms a triangular cell at 
its extremity. Mr. Distant has told me he has noticed similar 
instances in Cicadce from all parts of the world, and I have since 
found a specimen of a gaudily coloured species (Platypleura octo- 
guttata) that has an additional cell in the angle of the third and 
fourth areas, outlined with brown, so as to form a conspicuous 
wing-spot. On my return from the Holy Land, when passing 
the west end of Cyprus, a brisk easterly wind that was blowing 
through the gaps in the hills precipitated cloudlets that stood 
out like marble statues on the rocky shore, and took the 
semblance of the Assyrian Venus drawn by Swans ; it seems 
most probable that deities of old were fashioned in cloudland. 

The Tettigia omi is the Cicada of the pine that inspired the 
meditations of Lord Byron at Bavenna ; the classical Plebeian 
Cicada is heard to strike its lyre in the Morea of Greece, and the 
Blood-red Cicada dwells among the vineyards. A French cousin 



VOCAL & INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 383 

once brought me a Tibicina hcematodes in a wicker-cage from 
Toulouse ; it was a female and voiceless. Where the vine basks 
on the sunny banks at Toulouse, Solier showed experimentally 
that the music of hcematodes was a "tom-toming" of kettle- 
drums. The primary distinction in the singing of Cicada is 
between those which perform with exposed or muffled kettle- 
drums — that of the cryptotympanic ending in an expiration that 
has been compared to the rush of a waterfall. Henry Walter 
Bates says, in the account of his trip up the Eiver Amazon, that 
in the month of September the howling of Monkeys and screech- 
ing of the Parrots was accompanied by the songs of strange 
Cicadas ; one large kind, which was more numerous up the 
river than at its mouth, perched high on the trees, set up a 
piercing chirp, which began with the usual harsh jarring tone 
that became rapidly shriller, and terminated in a long and loud 
note which resembled the steam-whistle of a locomotive. Half 
a dozen of these performers made a considerable item in the 
evening concert. 

Foremost of the Fossorial Hymenoptera come the Solitary 
Ants, clad in prettily banded fur, whose female is apterous. 
These are met with perambulating sandy places, or, with other 
strange mimics, are dislodged from the nests of " Bumbles." 
They pass their lives among sticks and straws, and on the fore 
edge of the second joint of their hind body there is a protuberance 
with a file, with which, when seized, they make a soft sand- 
papery sound, indicating their resentment — a rattlesnake warn- 
ing, sometimes followed by the infliction of a sharp sting. To 
these the little wasp-like species of Crabro, it is said, are 
distantly related ; but what is singular, the fore wings of the 
Solitary Ants are veined like those of the "Bumbles," and those 
of the Crabros are widely different. This for the specialist and 
evolutionist to puzzle over : the male of Crabro cribrarius, 
who shows a kind of gauntlet on his fore legs resembling that of 
the fussy water-beetles in order to roughly seize its female, has 
always had the popularity conceded to the highwayman ; and 
now the female of the large-headed, great-brained C. cephalodes 
is ready to ingratiate herself. I found the little hussy disporting 
on a cowparsnip-head at Totnes towards the end of July, when 
cowparsnips are in bloom, and placed her in a large glass jar 



384 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

covered with gauze, which was daily filled with fresh flowers 
from the garden dusted over with sugar, and then, during the 
term of her brief life, when the sun shone out enjoyably, she 
wandered to and fro, and maintained an almost ceaseless bag- 
pipe dirl, accompanied, and perhaps produced, by the three last 
yentrally shagreened segments of the body, that moved like a 
cornet-a-piston telescopically in and out, while the wings lay 
folded on the back, and, seen with a magnifying-glass, showed 
no indication of movement. Another small Crabro with green 
side bands I found at the same time Mr. Edward Saunders 
determined as lituratus, a species scattered over the central and 
southern counties, and tolerably plentiful at Bury St. Edmunds ; 
it made no sound. Conjointly, I got word from Kew that a 
yellow thistle I picked, as suggested by my memoranda, at 
Sandwich, or failing at Stroud, near Canterbury, in September, 
1870, when the Franco-German war caused excitement, was 
Cathemus lanatus, recorded in Dunn's ' Alien Flora of Britain,' 
p. 107, and said to be at home on waste places in Palestine. On 
the 21st of September of the same year I captured a newly 
disclosed male and female of the scarce Thorn Moth (Eimomos 
alniaria) at evening on a street-lamp post at Deal, which, in the 
days of Frederick Smith, was the happy hunting-ground of the 
entomologist. Strange instruments compose a brass band, but 
to imagine that the Sand Wasps are trumpets on beholding 
their slender forms is difficult. I have a note regarding a 
hymenopteron — I cannot think what —that when picked up by 
the wings near London smelt of garlic and the stew-pan, and 
continued to utter a noise from its spiracles, which became 
louder when the wings were allowed to vibrate ; placed to the 
ear the sound was shrill, and the vibration of the thoracic 
muscles was palpable. Sceliphron spirifex, which looks as if its 
black hind body had been stuck on with a straw, I heard making 
a piping noise in the early autumn at Turin, while it busied 
itself collecting mud in a puddle, much as a cat hums like a 
church-organ when blest with a kitten, and at the same time its 
wings seemed to be in repose. Sometimes two or more were to 
be seen thus occupied. I next met with this lugubrious creature 
on the 23rd of July, 1896, in the town drain or gutter known as the 
Brook Kedron, whose history is that of the Fleet Ditch. Goureau 



VOCAL d INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 385 

says that at the end of the autumn of 1836 he saw Ammophila 
sabulosa busy making a hole in the sand on the banks of the 
Ehone, and at the same time producing a continuous sound 
resembling that made by Syritta pipiens, with its wings in 
seeming repose ; and Solier asserts that Sphex arenaria utters a 
cry each time it deposits its burden. If not spiracular, it is 
possible the piping of these Sand Wasps is made by the friction 
of the shagreened edges of the ventral plates of the abdomen 
which are overlapped by the dorsal. 

Strolling over the cliffs of Sangatte, on the French coast, in 
the summer of 1876, when borings were made there for the con- 
struction of a Channel Tunnel, I used to see the little black 
Dasypoda hirtipes curled up asleep like a chimney sweep in the 
yellow composite flowers, brushes and all. Once I picked one of 
the blossoms and brought it, with the bee cradled inside, indoors, 
and placed it on the table ; the bee, who was enjoying its highest 
sense of delight, never offered to move, and on being dislodged 
by accident coolly crawled back and tucked itself in again. On 
the 14th of July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastile, 
at a quarter to eight in the morning, these somnolent bees 
celebrated their nuptial dance, consisting in a series of short 
aerial darts close to the ground against the briny air that blew, 
and then the females, proving the heavier, they were the first to 
desist and regain their favourite blossom, or fall plump on the 
earth, seeing which the males darted down, and the couples 
rolled over and over in the dust, or sometimes, by some strange 
mistake, three were thus seen engaged in hot contention. When 
coupled they maintained a " pip-piping ! " as if they were com- 
memorating their nuptials with the flute. It must have been 
about this time that the Cure" of the village appeared on the 
scene with a man and wheelbarrow, in order to demonstrate that 
there was a seam of limestone containing fresh-water shells on 
the seaward face of the cliff. He afterwards took me to call on 
the doctor, who had unearthed the bones of a stranded Whale, 
but we found the house shut up and the doctor absent. The 
recent topography of the sandy plain at Calais, where the corn- 
fields are gay with poppies and bluebottles, is historically inte- 
resting. According to geologists the bed of the Channel has 
sunk down, and the beach at Sangatte is strewn with peat-balls 



386 TEE ZOOLOGIST. 

containing bits of reed and the elytra of green Donacia beetles or 
gyrinns that are washed in from submarine peat -beds, which 
may be seen at neap-tides ; and that the shore has receded is 
the local opinion, for buildings stood where the sea has en- 
croached. On the other hand, a charter of Louis VII., dated 
1156, calls St. Omer, as the name might suggest, a town situated 
on the seashore, and maps of more recent date show a river 
flowing down from it that entered an inlet of the sea which crept 
in on the south side of Calais, and made Sangatte a promontory 
of the cliffs. Whether owing to blown sand pounded by the 
waves from the chalk flints or embankment, St. Omer, like 
Sandwich in Kent, no longer hears the wild sea waves. Thomas 
Mouffet relates that in the year 1552 he saw among the stones 
on the top of the Chatmell Hills two wasps that were fighting. I 
have seen Vespa germanica coupled in November. When the 
female hybernates she tucks in her wings. One day I saw a 
wasp flying about a branch where flies were basking in the sun, 
catch one with a snap, and, twirling it round in its jaws, slowly 
devour it. I secured the gourmand, and enclosed it with a 
" bumble," when I noticed that when the two came in contact 
they lifted themselves on their hinder legs and snapped defiance 
with their mandibles, or, fairly exasperated, they rolled over and 
indulged in a tourney, breast to breast, with extended stings. 
All the time the "bumble " maintained an angry vitreous whine; 
sometimes both hummed, and then usually their wings were 
agitated, but at times those of the " bumble" seemed in repose. 
Doctor Landois affirms that the male of Bombus terrestris hums 
in A, and its portly female a whole octave higher. The call of 
the queen bee to swarm is well known to bee-keepers. According 
to the ' Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener ' for 
January, 1876, the first queen that is matured cries in her cell, 
"off -off -off!" and, pushing the coverlid aside, joins the com- 
munity ; the other queens, as they come to maturity, also cry 
" off-off-off ! " on hearing which the reigning queen runs to and 
fro in a temper, and screams " peep-peep ! " which is a summons 
to migrate. 

In Devonshire, where the twitter of a Wren in the hedge 
rarely recalls the clatter of the Cicada in sunnier climes, the 
Hover Flies that sparkle like gems from the casket make siren 



VOCAL d INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 387 

melody that confers a charm to the wood-walk, where the green 
ribbons of the Scolopendra hang from the rocks, and the mossy 
trees are feathered over with polypody. As they here sit and 
sing to themselves they appear to keep their wings at rest, but, 
seen beneath a strong magnifying power, these are observed to 
be in ceaseless vibration, and when this ends the fly-music is no 
longer heard ; yet, as Dr. Landois affirms, the melody is no 
doubt a fluting through the large spiracles of the metathorax, 
whose mouth is sometimes trumpet-shaped, as in Syrphus 
baleatus, or as in the larger Heliophilus pendulus, which I once 
carefully dissected, the two lips are covered within with a 
currycomb of thin membranes, suggestive of a Jew's-harp that 
blown upon returns a sharp sound. The little Syrphus bifasciatus, 
that balances in the air in May under the shade of the trees, and 
whose thorax glitters like a drop of gold as it descends when 
weary and sips at the blue Veronica, is wont to sing in content- 
ment as it basks in sunshine on the nut-leaves ; the yellow-banded 
S. ribesii, whose sluggish larva feeds on the green aphides that 
infest the rose-bushes when in flower at the end of June emerges 
from its cocoon, and afterwards, when the nuts are ripening, its 
enchanting melody is heard to resound like an .ZEolian harp 
where it sits recluse in sun and shade. I have heard its plain- 
tive song in August, and it becomes a solace in the chilly days 
at the close of September, when the " sprink ! sprink ! " of the 
Cinereous Leaf-Cricket resounds in the blackberry-bushes. In 
August and September the larger Sericomya borealis, richly laced 
with gold, makes melody to itself on the moorland, and enclosed 
in a pill-box it continues its song. You may see it sitting and 
singing on the rugged Grampians, on the rocks that crown the 
tors of Devon, or on the Surrey hills, and I have met with it in 
Western France ; but it is most frequently seen near brushwood 
that grows on damp spots. I believe I once saw the female 
ovipositing on a rotten stump. In the ' Proceedings ' of the 
Entomological Society, new series, p. 85, it is stated that Seri- 
comya lapponum or lappona makes a loud hum or buzzing during 
flight, and when at rest a note particularly shrill, loud, and dis- 
tinct, as clear as that of a musician's pitch-key. It must be 
supposed that flies can hear, and that they take a delight in the 
songs they sing ; certainly the Crane-flies have membranes on 



388 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

either side at the base of the halteres, to be found with some 
little trouble, that suggest ear-drums. 

The nuptial ceremonies of the short-lived flies are various. 
Friday, the 23rd of August, 1907, was fine, cloudy, and chilly in 
Devonshire, the wind blowing over the tors from the north, and 
the Swallows were flying high and wildly at noon in the scant 
sunshine of a woodland nook, where a wild clematis hung in 
festoons from a larch tree sixty or seventy feet high, up which it 
had clambered to the very top, a buzz as of bees fell on the ear 
that proceeded from a congregation of Drone Flies (Eristalis 
tenax) that were poising and chasing over the bushes on pairing 
intent ; and in the pine forest of Bagnoles, in Normandy, on the 
28th of July, 1908, I watched a male and female Ciorrhina 
oxycathce chasing round and round among the ferns and whortle- 
berry-bushes until they coupled. In Bingley's ' Animal Bio- 
graphy ' we read that the males of Tabanus bovinus and Chrysops 
coecutiens are fond of flowers, and that towards the close of day 
they are frequently seen to fly round and round in the air for the 
purpose of inviting their females, who prefer to prick animals 
for their juices, sending the cows wild with terror. I once 
encountered a terrible swarm of "clegs" or forest flies in the 
fir-woods at Fribourg, in Switzerland ; I never saw the like in 
England or in Scotland. On the 17th of August, during the 
drought that prevailed at the commencement of the autumn of 
1908, I found myself on a hillside above the ■ Dartmoor Forest 
Inn' amid a noonday swarm of circling Breeze Flies (Gastro- 
philus equi), that the Bev. Mr. Kirby calls "horse-bees" — grey- 
brown, mousy "bumbles" with faded wing-spots they seem to 
be, and yet two-winged flies. Those I captured were males, and 
when confined in pill-boxes they whined with all the impetuosity 
of bees whose brains seem confined in too small a body. Solier 
says : — " On the 9th of July I saw two Chrysotoxum arcuatum 
perched, one on the branch of a fir and the other on the leaf of a 
neighbouring beech, and both were uttering a shrill sound ; 
flying away, they returned and settled nearer one another, and 
recommenced their song. When in the air they seemed to seize 
one another, and sometimes they fell to the ground. When they 
settled again and began to hum I plainly saw a vibration of the 
wings, and the sound intensified as it increased. The species of 



VOCAL & INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF INSECTS. 389 

Merodon also hum when they couple." In these cases it is 
natural to suppose that the flies hold sweet converse, and that 
they possess an attentive ear. The strangest courtship is that 
of Dolichopus nobilitatis, which I witnessed in a wet meadow near 
Maida Hill, in London ; the female sat drinking on a puddle, 
and the male took flying leaps in quick succession around her 
head. I depicted the scene in my 'Insect Variety.' 

The minute Syritta pipiens, with thick hind thighs, that 
nestles in the dandelion-flower at the side of the hedge, when 
seized by a passer-by, intimates its resentment in a cry of " pip- 
peep ! " whence its specific nickname. The bluebottle flies — for 
there are two in the kitchen, one has red cheeks and the other 
a red beard — when caught in a spider's web, throw the wing that 
is free into vibration, and whine piteously. 

On the 15th of June, 1874, the weather, which in Perthshire 
had been bitterly cold, grew milder ; I then arrived with my 
relatives at Comrie, where mice afflicted with a kind of croup 
might be heard squealing on the damp spots, " whit-wee-wee- 
wee-way ! " They were whistling at noon and whistling at ten 
o'clock at night, when the moths were fluttering about in the 
bushes. On the 16th I visited St. Fillans to see certain wych- 
elms mentioned by Sir Walter Scott, which did not grow there, 
but I heard a hover fly whining loud in a sunny hedge, and, pro- 
ceeding to the spot, I found it struggling with a sulphur-belted 
sawfly. I captured both and placed tbem in a box covered with 
gauze, when the fly crouched at the bottom and continued its 
plaintive cry, while the bee walked about on the gauze with 
circumspection ; but a few seconds had elapsed when in an after- 
thought it darted down and decapitated the fly. These notes 
seem to indicate fear or resentment ; it would be curious to know 
how they influenced the actions of the spider or sawfly. 



390 



THE ZOOLOGIST. 



SOME GENERIC NAMES THAT HAVE BEEN OMITTED 
FKOM RECENT ZOOLOGICAL INDICES. 

By Robert T. Leiper, M.B., F.Z.S., 

Helminthologist to the London School of Tropical Medicine. 

The following list of forty-three names comprises the generic 
names of Polychseta that, proposed before 1880, do not appear in 
the ' Nomenclator Zoologicus ' of Scudder, the ' Index Zoologicus,' 
or the more recent Supplements thereto by Waterhouse and 
Bergroth : — 



Amblyosyllis, Grube d Oersted, 1857. 
Amphicorina, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Aphlebina, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Ascosonia, Leuckart, 1838. 
Astoegia, Kinberg, 1868. 
Canephorus, Grube, 1851. 
Cirrobranchia, Elders, 1868. 
Choleia, Savigny, 1820. 
Ohone, Kroger, 1856. 
Cirrineris, Blainville, 1815-28. 
Cirrosyllis, Schmarda, 1861. 
Codonytes, Delle Chiaje, 1841. 
Dasybranchus, Grube, 1851. 
Dentalium, Grube, 1851. 
Doyeria, Quatrefages, 1844. 
Eunereis, Malmgren, 1865. 
Eurysyllis, Ehlers, 1864. 
Flemingia, Johnston, 1845. 
Genetosyllis, Malmgren, 1865. 
Iphinereis, Malmgren, 1865. 
Irma, Grube, 1878. 
Lanessa, Malmgren, 1865. 



Leipoceras, Mopius, 1874. 
Lenora, Grube, 1878. 
Lepiphile, Malmgren, 1867. 
Maldane, Kinberg, 1866. 
Myxicola {Grube), Quatrefages, 1865. 
Neanthes, Kinberg, 1866. 
Opisthosyllis, Langerlians, 1879. 
Orbinia, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Paecilochsetus, Claparede, 1874. 
Paleauotus, Schmarda, 1861. 
Palmyra, Savigny, 1817. 
Platysyllis, Grube, 1878. 
PoJyophthalmus, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Prionosyllis, Malmgren, 1867. 
Bytocephalus, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Thelepus, Leuclcart, 1849. 
Thomora, Baird, 1865. 
Torea, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Trichosyllis, Quatrefages, 1865. 
Turbanella, Schultze, 1853. 
Vandanis. 



( 391 ) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



MAMMALIA. 

Barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellus) in Hertfordshire. — On Sept. 
6th I found a Barbastelle at Frithsden Beeches, near Berkhampstead. 
The Bat (a female) was clinging, suspended by its toes, asleep, to the 
trunk of a beech beneath a piece of loose bark. I was able to keep it 
alive and in good health for a few days, and to make some notes on 
its habits and demeanour in captivity. When I took it from its 
resting-place on the tree, and subsequently, it uttered a querulous 
squeak similar to that of many Bats, and during the first day or two 
of its captivity it occasionally uttered another note, when I handled it 
— a curious subdued buzzing, quite unlike anything I have heard in 
other species. It slept sometimes prone upon the floor of the cage in 
which it was confined, sometimes suspended by its toes. Its gait was 
similar in kind to that of other vespertilionid Bats — the typical quad- 
rupedal walk, a foot being first advanced, then the fore limb on the 
same side, next the other foot, and, lastly, the second fore limb— but 
the legs were carried more wide of the body than they are by, for in- 
stance, a Noctule or Long-eared Bat. The flight was slow and 
fluttering, generally performed in the upper part of the room, but 
occasionally close to the floor among the legs of the chairs and table. 
The tail was extended and only slightly decurved. As the legs were 
held wide apart, the interfemoral membrane looked very large when 
viewed from beneath. The Bat showed the usual ability of its kind 
to avoid collision, and never touched an object unless it intended to 
alight upon it. As a rule, it turned in the air before alighting and 
pitched feet uppermost, facing in the direction opposite to that of its 
course, and obviously in the most convenient posture for taking flight 
again. It often attempted to alight on the ceiling, but failed to 
obtain a foothold on the smooth surface. Its action, however, 
suggested that it would have no difficulty in pitching feet uppermost 
on the rough roof of a cave. This mode of alighting is invariable 
with the Horseshoe Bats, and is occasionally adopted by Natterer's 
Bat. At times, however, though rarely, the Barbastelle would pitch 
head uppermost, or with the head at right angles to the direction of 



392 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

its flight, and immediately shuffle round in order to assume the in- 
verted position, as is the usual custom of our British vespertilionid 
species. The difficulty I at first experienced in getting the Bat to eat 
was overcome by smearing the expressed juices of a mealworm upon 
its nose ; thereafter it ate eight or nine of these insects each evening. 
It persistently refused to eat some cockroaches which I put in the 
cage with it, and indeed seemed to be afraid of them, starting back 
nervously when it encountered one in its rambles on the cage-floor. 
After some coaxing I induced it to seize a cockroach as I held it in 
my hand, and it consumed it entirely, but would not take another. If 
permitted to do so, it always ate on the wing, rising with ease from 
the table on which I fed it. I never saw the Bat use the interfemoral 
membrane as a pouch to assist it in adjusting its grip on its prey ; it 
seemed quite capable of overcoming the struggles of the mealworms, 
and a cockroach is always a spiritless, submissive creature when 
seized by a Bat. On two occasions, it is true, particularly vigorous 
mealworms were thrust for a moment beneath the Bat's belly, 
although not right into the interfemoral, and I have little doubt that 
if occasion required the membrane would function as a pouch, as it 
does in other species. House-flies were adroitly picked off the ceiling 
and consumed as the Bat flew about the room.- — -Charles Oldham 
(Essex House, Watford). 

Notes on the Tuco-Tuco and the Hairy Armadillo. — The congre- 
gations of mounds of sand seen by Mr. L. E. Adams, and the sounds 
which he renders "Touc-Touc" (ante, p. 342), are made by some 
small rodents called Tuco-Tucos (Gtenomys), which live in colonies. 
The collections of mounds and burrows are called "tuco-tuconales," 
and it is necessary to ride carefully and slowly over them, the ground 
often giving way under your horse's feet. They are also very laborious 
to walk over, being sometimes extensive and very soft. Indeed, 
"tuco-tuconales" are among the things which you have to keep a 
sharp look-out for when galloping over the "camp," and soon in- 
stinctively dislike. Few people have seen a Tuco-Tuco alive and above 
ground of its own accord, and they seem rarely to come to the sur- 
face ; perhaps they may do so at night. I obtained the remains of two 
species in Uruguay, viz. G. brasiliensis and C. magellanicus. The com- 
paratively educated man who told Mr. Adams that the "Touc-Touc" 
was the same as the "Peludo" was, it is almost unnecessary to say, 
wrong — very wrong. Peludo is the name always used in the Uruguay 
camp for the Hairy Armadillo (Dasypus sexcinctus) ; it is a slightly 
different species to that found about Buenos Ayres (D. villosus), to 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 393 

which Mr. Adams's note applies, but the two species are not gene- 
rally distinguished, and the name Peludo is applied to both. And 
if Mr. Adams asked the Gaucho at the tuco-tuconale to catch him 
a Peludo, this would account for his getting an Armadillo. It is 
to some extent an omnivorous and carrion-feeder. I have never met 
with the name "Meluta," and do not know what it would mean. 
There is, I believe.no Spanish word like it. The little "Mulita" 
(Tatusia septemcincta), or "little mule," so called from its ears, is the 
small Armadillo which is eaten in the camp, and occasionally used to 
figure on the menu at the hotels in Montevideo. I had one alive, and 
found it exceedingly quiet and gentle in its manners. I do not think 
anyone I ever talked to about it, and who knew its reputation as a 
carrion-feeder, would think of eating the Peludo. — 0. V. Aplin 
(Bloxham, Oxon). 

AVES. 

Sylvia nisoria in Norfolk. — On Sept. 11th, Mr. H. A. V. Maynard, 
who was shooting with me at Cley, in Norfolk, secured an immature 
Barred Warbler. It was the only bird in the bushes, where it 
appeared about twelve o'clock, after a wet morning with north-west 
wind. It was a very conspicuous bird owing to its size and light 
colour. It showed no inclination to skulk, and its flight was buoyant. 
I am almost sure that we saw a Pectoral Sandpiper several times be- 
tween the 1st and the 17th, I could always separate it at a glance 
from a flock of Dunlin, and I watched it once through glasses at about 
twenty yards. — E. C. Arnold (Eastbourne College). 

Nesting of the Wryneck (lynx torquilla). — 

June 3rd. — First egg laid in nesting-box in my garden. 

4th. — 7 p.m. Two eggs. 

5th. — 8.30 p.m. Wryneck inside box, evidently intending to sleep 
therein, and not afterwards disturbed. 

6th. — 7 a.m. Four eggs in nest ; bird not inside, and eggs cold. 

11th. — A clutch of nine eggs now laid. Unfortunately I had 
been absent from home since the previous note, so I was unable to 
record on what day incubation actually commenced. - 

21st. — 6.30 p.m. Pour young and five eggs, one of which is 
addled. 

22nd. — 7 a.m. Five young ; 7 p.m., six young. 

23rd. — 7 a.m. Six young ; 7 p.m., seven young. 

24th. — 7 a.m. Seven young, one of which being dead is, with the 
addled egg, removed ; 7 p.m., the remaining egg hatched. Incuba- 

Zool. Uh ser. vol. XII.. October. 1908. 2 h 



394 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

tion, therefore, takes thirteen or fourteen days. There is naturally a 
striking difference in the size of the young, owing to the continued 
laying after incubation has commenced. 

July 1st. — Another dead young one removed from the nest, leaving 
a brood of six in all. 

12th. — 9 a.m. Four young have left the nest since yesterday 
morning, two now remaining ; 9 p.m., both still in nest. 

13th. — 9 p.m. Only one remains. 

14th. — 7.30 p.m. Nesting-box empty, the young having remained 
within their nesting abode about twenty-one days. — J. Steele- 
Elliott (Dowles Manor, Shropshire). 

Nesting of Alcedo ispida. — I can find no reference to the King- 
fisher utilizing the same nesting-hole year by year, but when the 
nesting-site remains undisturbed it does not appear to be very unusual. 
Several instances have come under my personal notice, more par- 
ticularly a pair that have nested close to my house for the last six 
years (with but one exception) have used the same excavation. Each 
year a spring-cleaning takes place, and the old bones are ejected 
before the nest-cavity is re-lined with fresh pellets. I have never yet 
satisfied myself that this particular pair have reared two broods in 
any one season. — J. Steele-Elliott (Dowles Manor, Shropshire). 

Red-footed Falcon in Norfolk. — While staying in Norfolk, in 
September, I called on Mr. R. Clarke, the birdstuffer, at Snettisham, 
who showed me a female Red-footed Ealcon (Falco vespertinus) , 
which was shot near Sandringham about the middle of June, and 
taken to him for preservation. I ventured to question the accuracy 
of the Sparrow-Hawk eyes which he had put in, but he assured me 
they were right. — Julian G. Tuck (Tostock Rectory, Bury St. Ed- 
munds, Suffolk). 

Glossy Ibises (Plegadis falcinellus) on the Northumberland Coast. 

— A party of five Glossy Ibises visited the coast of Northumberland 
at the end of August this year. They were first seen at Boulmer, a 
small fishing village to the north of Alnmouth, about noon on Sunday, 
Aug. 30th ; they were then flying in single file, and appeared to have 
just come in from the sea. Later in the day some boys were chasing 
them and throwing stones at them close to Alnmouth. - Probably the 
birds were tired out, for subsequently they were very difficult to 
approach. Eventually two were shot (Sept. 1st and 3rd) by Mr. 
Thomas Jefferson, of Alnmouth, and presented by him to the Hancock 
Museum, Newcastle-on-Tyne. A third was pieked up dead, and a 
fourth was caught in a trap the following week (about Sept. 9th), and 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 395 

was kept alive at Warkworth for a few days by Mr. D. Deuchar, for 
whom it has since been preserved. Mr. Jefferson has furnished me 
with an interesting account of the birds ; in it he remarks that they 
frequented the small burns near the coast rather than the coast itself, 
and that when disturbed they always flew inland. From their first 
arrival they remained in the immediate neighbourhood of Alnmouth. 
Of the two Ibises received at the Hancock Museum, one is decidedly 
larger than the other. There is a difference of practically an inch in 
length of bill (5^ in. and 4 T 3 g in.), and other measurements differ in 
the same proportion. Both birds are in immature plumage — back 
dark iridescent ..green, head and neck dusky brown, with spots and 
streaks of white ; but in the larger bird the feathering, especially on 
the breast, is distinctly closer and more mature-looking, and this, 
combined with the difference in size, suggests that this .bird is in its 
second year, whereas the other is in its first. — E. Leonard Gill. 

Glossy Ibis at North Devon.— On Sept. 5th, 1906, 1 noticed, among 
some Gulls on the mud by the river at Barnstaple, Devon, a specimen 
of the Glossy Ibis (Ibis falcinellus), I am afraid I have been very 
remiss in not recording it before. Possibly some other observer has 
done so ; if not, however, this may be of some slight use. — N. P. 
Fenwick, Jun. (The Gables, New Koad, Esher). 

[Mr. Bruce Cummings recorded in these pages (1907, p. 21) that 
about the beginning of September, 1906, a Glossy Ibis was shot on 
the Biver Taw near Fremington, and was placed in the hands of the 
Barnstaple taxidermist for preservation. This is probably the bird 
seen by Mr. Fenwick. — Ed.] 

Incursion of Godwits at Yarmouth. — Not for at least eighteen 
years have so many Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) put in an 
appearance on our Breydon mud-fiats as were observed during the 
earlier days of September. It was usually on the spring migration 
that this species was commonly looked for in the earlier half of the 
last century, when the " 12th of May — Godwit day " was hailed by 
local gunners with considerable excitement. I have recorded (' Nature 
in Eastern Norfolk,' p. 237) where Gibbs, an old punt-gunner, still 
living, saw in the early seventies, during an easterly gale, "hundreds 
of thousands " constantly coming from the south-west (inland direc- 
tion) . I have known many a May pass by without any number, and 
sometimes without an individual being seen. The past May was 
remarkable by their scarcity. The prevalent winds were, I believe, 
southerly or thereabouts, and of no abnormal velocity, and what 



396 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

accounted for the incursion I am at a loss to suggest. I saw a large 
flock on Sept. 7th, amounting to probably three hundred birds, feeding 
leisurely on a mud-flat, in spite of the incessant fusillade in various 
other directions, where smaller flocks were on the move — Knots, 
Curlews, Eedshanks, and Whimbrel — to which at dusk an immense 
flight of Terns were to be added, making Breydon exceptionally lively. 
Every lout who knew one end of a gun from the other obtained his 
quota of the chicken-tame birds, which were mostly young and 
exceptionally fat. On the morning of the 7th I accosted a shoe- 
black who owns one of those " murderous " weapons — a converted 
rifle, whose face was bandaged with hospital wrappings. " What 
have you done?" I asked. "Oh," said he, "the cartridge bust, and 
went off at the wrong ind of the gun ; but Tel got eight gochvicks afore 
I done it." There was no sale for the victims, the taste for shore- 
birds having become practically extinct in Yarmouth, where not even 
a game- stall other than for bona fide game-birds now remains since the 
death of Durrant, of some reputation as a wildfowler himself. Gun- 
ners mostly cooked their own birds. — Arthur H. Pattekson (Ibis 
House, Great Yarmouth). 

Unusual Site for a Great Black-backed Gull's Nest. — This summer 
Mr. E. H. Perry Knox Gore found a nest with three eggs on the low 
gravelly island — The Luck — near Killala. The Luck is a breeding 
haunt of Common, Arctic, and Lesser Terns. The nest was placed 
so low on the shore of the island that an unusually high tide would 
have reached it. The nearest breeding haunt of the Great Black- 
backed Gull is the pillar-like Kock of Dooncrista of Downpatrick 
Head, ten miles west. — Eobert Warren (Moy View). 

Fulmar Petrel in the Firth of Forth. — On July 16th last, while 
on a visit to the Bass Bock, we found a Fulmar Petrel (Fulmarus 
glacialis) dead on the shore at Canty Bay, near North Berwick. On 
the following day one of the lighthouse-keepers, without knowing of 
our find, told us that a pair had nested on the Bass Eock two years 
ago, which he said was the first time the Eulmar had been known to 
breed so far south. However this may be, we thought its occurrence 
in the Firth of Forth this year should be recorded. The bird, which 
was not in a good state for preservation when found, is now in our 
possession. — W. & T. Malloch (Mount Pleasant, Johnstone, Eenfrew- 
shire). 

September Movement of Shearwaters. — An extensive movement 
seems to take place with the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus angloruni) 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 397 

in the latter end of August or early in September, during which a 
certain number get lost and wander inland. There are eleven in- 
stances of the occurrence of this bird in Oxfordshire or just over the 
borders. The month in which three of these occurred is not known. 
Six occurred in September, one at the end of August or early in 
September, and the eighth in August. This year Mr. Fowler sent 
me one which came from Leadenhall Market. It arrived on Sept. 
21st in an advanced state of decomposition, and so was probably 
captured early in the month ; and Mr. Whitaker kindly writes me 
word that one occurred at Mansfield on Sept. 15th. — 0. V. Aplin 
(Bloxham, Oxon). 

Since writing this note I have heard from Mr. Calvert that a 
Manx Shearwater was picked up dead in a field at Aids worth, 
Gloucestershire, between two and three miles over our borders, about 
Sept. 15th.— 0. V. A. 

AMPHIBIA. 

"Vertebrates of Wales and Ireland." — In the interesting notes 
by Mr. H. E. Forrest on the "Vertebrates of Wales and Ireland" 
there is a statement that I beg to correct, viz. that " the Toad is absent 
from Ireland '" [ante, p. 323). This is accurate regarding the Common 
Toad, but in parts of Co. Kerry the Natterjack Toad is met with, 
but whether indigenous or introduced, as is said of the Frogs, I cannot 
say. — ^Eobeet Waeeen (Moy View, Ballina). 

[Mr. Forrest informs us he is sending some brief Corrigenda for 
insertion in the December ' Zoologist.' — Ed.] 



398 THE ZOOLOGIST 



NOTICES OP NEW BOOKS. 



From Ruwenzori to the Congo ; a Naturalist's Journey across 
Africa. By A. F. E. Wollaston. John Murray. 

The " Mountains of the Moon " or Buwenzori, in Equatorial 
Africa, discovered by Stanley in 1888, have greatly interested 
zoologists as well as geographers. To a zoologist, Mr. Ogilvie- 
Grant may be given the credit for the inception of the expedi- 
tion, whose journey is described in this volume, and to which 
Dr. Wollaston acted as medical adviser, and collector in the 
botanical and entomological departments. The considerable 
and valuable material — both zoological and botanical — was in- 
tended from the first for the British Museum, and much more 
will be heard of it during the next few months in a series of 
reports made by the staff of that institution in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Zoological Society of London.' The botanical 
results have already appeared in the ■ Journal of the Linnean 
Society.' 

This volume describes more particularly the country in which 
these collections were made, and by a wealth of photographic 
illustration gives a full introduction to the geographical, bota- 
nical, and anthropological features of the region — in fact, of the 
environment of the many species collected. Those who peruse 
books on African travel cannot neglect it, and to those who 
study the collections it is indispensable. 

We are glad to read, in contradiction to our experience in 
the Transvaal, that despite the current idea that it is only in 
Europe the birds can sing, Dr. Wollaston heard in Uganda and 
in the neighbouring parts of the Congo State " such a morning 
chorus of birds as can only be equalled at a May sunrise at 
home." At Kamimbi the Chef de Poste, Lieutenant de Kossi, 
had a wonderful faculty of taming the birds and beasts with 
which his house was filled. A young half-grown Chimpanzee 
had acquired an extraordinary affection for him, and would 



NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 399 

hardly let him go out of its sight. " It used to sit on a chair at 
the dinner-table and drink its soup with a spoon in the most 
ludicrously grown-up manner." Chimpanzees go far up the 
mountains in search of food, and traces of them were found on 
Euwenzori at a height of nearly ten thousand feet, where they 
had been feeding on the berries of a podocarpus. 

Dr. Wollaston is of opinion that the Okapi is probably more 
plentiful, or less scarce, in the Semliki and Ituri forests than 
elsewhere. The Pygmies, who can climb trees like a Squirrel, 
and can pass through the thickest jungle without disturbing a 
twig, shoot these animals occasionally with spears or arrows, 
and sometimes catch them in traps, " and it is through them 
that most of the Okapis now in Europe have been obtained." 
Lions are not absent from the east side of Euwenzori. " On 
one occasion a party of Lions elected to spend a ' week-end ' 
pig-hunting in the valley. Between Saturday and Monday they 
killed four wild pigs within half a mile of the camp, and, accord- 
ing to those who were there at the time, the shrieking of the 
unhappy victims was most terrible to hear-." In Africa certain 
birds always remind us of home, and at Lake Naivasha Dr. 
Wollaston's party disturbed a pair of Greenshanks, " which 
whistled as they went away, and reminded me of many happy 
days spent searching for their nests in Sutherland." 



How to Attract and Protect Wild Birds. By Martin Hiesemann. 
Translated by Emma S. Buchheim. Witherby & Co. 

This is an excellent brochure on a fascinating subject, and 
one of no inconsiderable importance to the horticulturist and 
forester. The author was commissioned to give a clear account 
of the principles and of the measures which Baron von Berlepsch 
has advocated and successfully carried out on his estate at 
Seebach, in the district of Langensalza, in Thuringia, and no 
reader of his pages will deny that he has ably fulfilled his task. 
It is now a decade since Mr. Masefield gave us his small book 
on " Wild Bird Protection and Nesting-boxes," and those who 
possess it should place Martin Hiesemann's publication by its 
side. 



400 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Some quotations given from Baron von Berlepsch are at the 
very root of the undertaking: "We can only preserve and in- 
crease our birds in the long run by restoring to them the neces- 
sary conditions of life — above all, the opportunities for nesting 
of which we have robbed them." The Baron, after years of 
observation, had established the fact that the nesting-holes 
which the birds preferred were deserted or uninhabited Wood- 
pecker holes. This led him to conceive the idea of continuing 
the work of the Woodpecker by the hand of man — in other 
words, to make close imitations of the Woodpecker holes, and 
which should be exact copies of Nature. These nesting-boxes 
are well described and fully figured. There are also chapters on 
" Provision of Nesting-places for Birds breeding in the Open," 
on the " Feeding of Birds in Winter," and on the " Suppression 
of the Enemies of Birds." In the latter category the Squirrel 
and the Jay are fully convicted. 

The wide circulation of this or similar publications will in 
many cases do as much good as a prohibitive Act of Parlia- 
ment. 



ourth Series, 
ol. XII, No. 143. 



November 16th, 1908. 



No. 809. 




(Tlontbly Journa 1 

OF 

£dite& by W.Ii. Distant. 



IZort&on.: 

West, Newman ^C? 5^ Hat ton Garden. 
Simpkin, Marshall 3 o? Limited. 




PRICE ONE SHILLING. 



CONTENTS. 

Experiences with Eagles and Vultures in the Carpathians (with Plate), B. B. 
Lodge, 401. 

Late Breeding of and Retention of Summer Dress by the Great Crested Grebe, 
0. V. Aplin, F.L.S., 407. 

Notes on Cornish Mammals, James Clark, M.A., D.Sc, A.B.C.S., 409. 

A Few Notes on Myrrnecophilous Spiders, Horace St. John K. Donisthorpe, 
F.Z.8., 419. 

Notks and Queries: — 

Mammalia. — The Badger in Norfolk, Arthur H. Patterson, 426. 
Aves. — Fecundity of the Chaffinch, E. P. Butterfield, 428. Wrynecks in North 
Lancashire, H. W. Bobinson, 428. Honey-Buzzards (Pemis apivorus) in 
Lincolnshire, F. L. Blathwayt, 428. Spotted Crake at Great Yarmouth, 
B. Dye, 429. September Movements of Shearwaters, 429 ; Old Local Bird 
Names, 480; H. B. Booth. Migration of Small Birds in Co. Sligo, Bobert 
Warren, 431. Notes on the Ornithology of Richmond Park, Surrey, H. G. 
Atlee, 432. 
Insecta. — Abundance of Crane-flies at Yarmouth, Arthur H. Patterson, 434. 
Note on the Proboscis or Tongue of Sphinx ligustri (with illustration), 
B. E. Bumbelow, 435. Notices of New Books, 436-440. 



Articles and Communications intended for publication, and Books 
and Pamphlets for review, should be addressed " The Editor of 
' The Zoologist,' c/o West, Newman & Co., 54, Hatton Garden, 
London"; or direct to the Editor, W. L. Distant, Shannon Lodge, 
Selhurst Road, South Norwood. 

PEARLS AND PARASITES. 

ESSAYS ON SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS. 

By A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., Hon. D.Sc. (Princeton), F.K.S 

With Illustrations. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

" Few men are more competent than Mr. Shipley to pronounce an opinion on 
such subjects as our sea-fisheries, malaria, parasitic diseases due to flies, pearl 
fisheries, and the financial needs of Cambridge University, and all who are inte- 
rested, even in the slightest degree, in these subjects, will read this work with both 
pleasure and profit. . . . There is the same graceful charm and lucidity, full of 
freshness and keen interest." — Journal of Economic Biology. 



FROM RUWENZ0RI TO THE CONGO. 

A Naturalist's Journey Across Africa. 

By A. F. K. WOLLASTON. 

With Maps and Numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo, 15s. net. 

The Spectator says : — " An excellent specimen of how works of travel should 

be written Mr. Wollaston is full of the delight and romance of strange 

sights. He never bores the reader because he is never bored himself. Lightly and 
humorously he discourses of his hardships; joyfully and copiously he expounds 
the delights." 



London: JOHN MUBBiiY, Albemarle Street, W. 



Zool. 1! 



Plate IV. 




^5 



H 



d3 



THE ZOOLOGIST 



No. 809.— November. 1908. 



EXPERIENCES WITH EAGLES AND VULTURES 
IN THE CARPATHIANS. 

By R. B. Lodge. 
(Plate IV.) 

A most enjoyable visit to the Carpathians in September, 
1908, has enabled me to obtain some fine photographs of 
Golden Eagles, Griffons, and Ravens, and an account of my 
experiences with these birds may perhaps be of interest to 
readers of ' The Zoologist.' 

On Sept. 1st we rode up one of the highest peaks with a long 
string of pack-horses carrying tents and provisions for a fort- 
night's stay, and after a day's Trout-fishing in the beautiful 
lake, on the shores of which our tents were pitched, we looked 
about for a convenient spot where we could put into execution 
our plans, long contemplated, of making an attempt to photo- 
graph the Eagles and Vultures of these regions. We had even 
a faint hope, unfortunately not fulfilled, of attracting within the 
range of the camera the great Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), 
which not so many years ago was to be found there. 

After some search we found, on the ridge very near the 
summit, a convenient crack or fissure in a big rock, which 
looked as if it could be converted into a good hiding-place with a 
little labour. Accordingly, a wall of rough stones was built up 
at one side and in the front, while a sloping roof of pine-boughs 
Zool. ith ser. vol. XII.. November, J 90S. 2 i 



402 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

resting against the large rock was carefully covered over with 
turf. In this ambush I spent nine days watching the carcase of 
a horse which we drove up and shot about eight or nine yards in 
front of the camera. 

I had not taken up my position very long on the first day 
before the " swish, swish " of many powerful wings beating the 
air and the sound of their guttural croakings on all sides told me 
plainly enough that the Eavens were beginning to assemble for 
the feast, and I soon had proof that, hidden away in my rocky 
chamber, I was perfectly invisible even to their keen sight. One 
of them even settled on the turf roof just above me, loosening 
some of the soil which fell on to my head. Directly afterwards 
I had the pleasure of seeing first one and then another hop into 
the field of the camera, until there were eight or nine of the 
sable marauders congregated on the body, one sitting on the 
stiffly upstretched hind leg, another on the head, one on the 
belly, and the rest looking for some place of vantage from which 
to begin operations. But, after picking out the eyes, the tough 
skin resisted all their efforts, and for some days they could do 
but little, and after clustering round the body in black clouds 
would leave the spot as soon as I appeared in the morning. 
Sometimes they would not appear again all day at the carcase, 
but their croaks could generally be heard in the neighbour- 
hood. 

It was bitterly cold work waiting so many hours — generally 
nine each day when the light was fairly good — at such an elevated 
post, 7000 ft. above sea-level. Sometimes there was a heavy 
cold mist and snow, and always a piercing wind which penetrated 
freely through all the numerous cracks and fissures in the rocky 
chamber in which I was hidden, and for eight days I did little 
but sit and shiver in spite of the thick garments and rugs I 
took up with me. Putrefaction in consequence was not very 
rapid, and, as the birds appeared unable to make an entry, 
we found it necessary to assist the operations of nature with 
an axe. 

The first Eagle to appear was an Imperial (Aquiia imperialis). 
Looking through the camera I saw a large bird flying towards the 
bait, which presently settled, or appeared to do so, on a rock a 
little beyond where I could see it. I saw no more for some time 



EAGLES & VULTURES IN THE CARPATHIANS. 403 

but probably, after the nature of Eagles, it was cautiously scan- 
ning the whole neighbourhood before venturing any further. 
Presently its head appeared above the edge of the rocks close to 
the bait, and then the bird very slowly and with great caution 
perched on the head of the horse, where I photographed it. The 
light, however, was very dull, and, as I expected, the photograph 
is not a very successful one. Whether it heard the click of the 
shutter or not I cannot say, but it disappeared as silently as it 
had come. For some days after this I saw no more visitors 
except the Kavens, and had plenty of time and opportunity to 
watch their antics, which are sometimes amusing. The humour 
of a Raven, however, is of a somewhat quaint and grim character. 
For instance, after they have picked out the eyes and devoured 
a great part of the inside of a dead animal, they appear to be 
seized with misgivings that perhaps it is only asleep after all, or 
only pretending to be dead ; so to make sure one of them will 
solemnly walk up and give it a dig with its great horny beak in 
the ribs or on the face, and then jump up three or four feet into 
the air, as if afraid of it suddenly coming to life again. 

One day I had a visit from a Golden Eagle, which appeared 
silently and suddenly in much the same way as the Imperial 
had done ; it even settled on the highest portion of the bait, but 
just as I was in the act of releasing the shutter it departed sud- 
denly before I could do so, leaving me much disappointed at my 
failure to seize such an opportunity. Then came a day of 
expectation and hope, which resulted in nothing. My friend 
and host had told me that while fishing in the lake below he had 
seen several Vultures, both Gyps fulvus and Vultur monachus, 
flying about as if anxious to go to the bait, but that they were 
pursued and driven off by an Eagle. 

I had in the meantime arrived at the conclusion that some- 
thing of the kind was going on from the noises I had heard all 
one afternoon. For hours I had heard the beatings of heavy 
wings, evidently, from the sound, much more powerful than any 
Eaven's wings, and it had seemed to me that some aerial combat 
was raging round me. Buried alive in my rock-tomb, and unable 
to see anything except through the camera, I could only guess at 
the truth ; but I felt nearly sure that an Eagle of some sort was 

2i2 



404 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

endeavouring to drive away a Vulture or Vultures. The noise 
they made was terrific. It really sounded as if two express 
trains, or perhaps two airships, were rushing through the air in 
deadly combat. Mingled with the flapping of immense wings I 
could hear cries of rage and once or twice actual blows struck. 
All this seemed to be quite close, as if the duel was being fought 
round and round the rocky pile in which I was concealed. But 
I could see nothing ; momentarily I expected something to alight 
on or near the dead horse, but all I could actually see was their 
great shadows gliding past me at lightning speed. This went on 
for quite two hours, until by degrees the noise became more and 
more distant, as though the Eagle had succeeded in driving his 
antagonists away from the scene. 

On returning to our camp my suspicions were verified as 
before stated. This is the second experience I myself have of 
the antagonism existing between the Eagles and the more ignoble 
Vultures so graphically described by the late Crown Prince 
Eudolph, the first being in Spain, where I had seen a Bonelli's 
Eagle strike down a Griffon Vulture which had presumed to 
approach it too closely. 

The next day the Eagle again appeared quite close to the 
carcase, and was in the act of attacking it when it suddenly 
flew off, and again I heard the same conflict going on, but on 
neither occasion did the Eagle return after driving away the 
Griffons, or whatever they might have been. I had now spent 
eight days without much result, and I made up my mind that if 
I could only succeed in photographing that Eagle I would shoot 
it as the only chance of being able to do the Vultures ; for as 
matters stood it did not come itself at all freely, and would not 
allow anything else to come. 

I only had one more day as we had arranged to return, but 
on this last day my luck changed. To begin with, the light was 
good ; the sun shone splendidly and brightly, and I began by 
making sure of the Bavens in various good positions. Then the 
Eagle appeared, at first near the horse, only half showing above 
the rocks ; but it soon advanced, and sat on the highest part in 
a splendid attitude clearly defined against the sky, and, after 
looking round defiantly, began to tear at the meat. Needless to 
say I lost no time, but exposed plate after plate as fast as I could 



EAGLES & VULTURES IN THE CARPATHIANS. 405 

get them into the camera ; and I felt sure that the light was 
sufficient, and all the conditions most favourable. After thus 
exposing seven or eight plates I carefully moved on one side the 
camera after loading my rifle, which rested against the rock 
behind me, and, taking as good an aim as I could in my cramped 
and awkward position, I fired, and the Eagle disappeared into 
space behind the horse down the side of the mountain. 

One reason for shooting this bird was, as I have said, because 
it was the only chance of photographing the Vultures which I 
knew were anxious to come, and the other was that I wished to 
be sure in my identification of it as a Golden Eagle (Aquila 
chrysaetus). In my own mind I was sure it was so, from the 
whiteness of the basal half of the tail, as well as from the build 
and general characteristics of the bird, but I could not be sure 
that the photographs would show these distinguishing features 
plainly enough to make it certain. 

Of course, I dare not show myself in any attempt to find the 
Eagle — that must be left until the Jager should come up as usual 
to let me out of my prison in the evening. In the meantime the 
camera was replaced and re-focussed in the hope of further 
visitors. Sure enough, before twenty minutes had elapsed the 
wished for and expected Vultures put in their appearance. But 
their manner of doing so was very curious, and nearly led to 
their detecting my presence. Though I quite hoped and ex- 
pected they would come, I did not think that they would return 
so quickly, and when I heard just outside a dreadful sighing and 
moaning, as if something was dying in the greatest agony, 
I never thought about Vultures, but made sure it was the Eagle 
I had shot. The sounds were so painful to hear that I moved 
away the camera and loaded the rifle again in order to put it 
out of its pain, but on looking out of the small hole left for the 
lens I perceived, not the dying Eagle, as I had expected, but an 
immense Griffon Vulture advancing to the carcase. I was afraid 
that it must have seen me, but at once drew back, and, putting 
down the rifle, replaced the camera in position, and, as it still 
remained, photographed it as quickly as I could. 

It was the extraordinary noises made by these birds — for 
there were three of them — which had deceived me. For some 
time the one first seen succeeded in keeping the rest of the party 



406 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

away ; when they advanced to the feast it drove them back with 
the same hissing and snoring which I had heard, but in a short 
time they were all tearing away at the horse while I was photo- 
graphing unseen and unsuspected the curious scene. 

Side by side with the Griffons several Havens were also 
feeding, not at all alarmed at the propinquity of their colossal 
neighbours. 

On my return to the camp that evening I had time for an 
hour's fly-fishing before dark, and caught the best Trout taken 
during our stay — a beauty of four pounds — which made a gallant 
struggle before being led into the landing-net. 

The 9th of September, 1908, will long be accounted a lucky 
day to be marked in the calendar of my memory with a white 
stone. 



407 ) 



LATE BREEDING OF AND RETENTION OF SUMMER 
DRESS BY THE GREAT CRESTED GREBE. 

By 0. V. Aplin, F.L.S. 

When fishing in a reservoir in Northamptonshire on Oct. 10th 
I saw an old Crested Grebe — presumably a female — still in practi- 
cally full summer plumage (but possibly slightly duller than in 
spring), followed by two young ones barely half-grown, which 
uttered from time to time their usual shrill piping cry, and 
exhibited the stripe -markings and the disproportionately long 
beaks and faces so remarkable in the young of this species. 
There were three or four other Crested Grebes on the water 
which, as might be expected at that date, had assumed the winter 
dress, or almost so. 

The curious point about this observation is not so much the 
lateness of the young (for, as will be remarked upon presently, 
this Grebe is inclined to breed late in the season), but the fact 
that the parent bird was still in summer dress at a time of the year 
when it should have been in winter plumage, or almost so. And 
it seems probable that the fact of the bird breeding late and 
attending late young, had actually retarded the usual change of 
plumage. And further, this looks as if it were of some advantage 
to a bird when rearing young to wear the breeding-dress. I could 
see no other Grebes in breeding-dress on the water ; only one 
bird was in attendance on the young. So, presumably, the other 
parent (unless something had happened to it, which is unlikely, 
as there is no shooting on the reservoir and the boats were 
ashore for repairs) was one of those which had changed into 
winter dress. The condition of these latter birds precludes the 
idea that the unprecedented summer-like weather which prevailed 
at that season had anything to do with the retarded change. 

The Grebes on this water are nearly always later in breeding 
than they are in some other parts of the country. There is little 
or no cover until the rushes and the beds of Ranunculus, Poly- 
gonum, &c, are up. The rushes are very late in coming up, and 



408 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the birds like to breed inside the tall rush-beds as a protection 
from the Carrion-Crows, which are very numerous round the 
reservoir, and take a great many eggs of the Coots, as well as 
those of the Grebes whenever they get the chance. Eggs have 
been known on this pool in May, but probably these early eggs 
are destroyed either by Crows or occasionally by a sudden rise in 
the water, the level of which sometimes rises very rapidly after 
heavy rains in spring. But breeding is more usual in the latter 
part of June and early in July. I have known fresh eggs (two 
nests) on July 6th in one year, and on the 2nd in another, and 
" sat upon" eggs (two nests) on the 15th in a third. 

The late nesting of the Great Crested Grebe is alluded to in 
the 'Field" newspaper for Oct. 29th, 1898; some eggs were 
taken in Ireland towards the end ol July, and the bird laid four 
more, which on Sept. 1st were " fairly advanced towards incuba- 
tion." Nilsson, indeed (quoted by Lloyd in his ' Scandinavian 
Adventures '), speaks as if late summer was the normal breeding- 
time in Sweden. Describing its breeding haunts he writes : 
" And here one finds, in July or the beginning of August, four 
eggs." On the other hand, I have heard of full clutches of eggs 
found in Nottinghamshire on May 6th, and an egg laid in Oxford- 
shire as early as April 24th. 



( 409 ) 



NOTES ON CORNISH MAMMALS. 
By James Clark, M.A., D.Sc., A.R.C.S. 

The first local naturalist to pay much attention to the Mam- 
mals of Cornwall was Jonathan Couch. In the first volume of 
his ' Cornish Fauna,' published in 1838, he gives an annotated 
list of county species, and from that time up till his death con- 
tributed occasional notes on the subject, chiefly to ' The Zoolo- 
gist.' In 1849, Dr. W. P. Cocks, of Falmouth, included a list of 
mammals in his ' Fauna of Falmouth,' and in 1861 Dr. W. K. 
Bullmore, in his ' Vertebrate Fauna of Falmouth,' greatly in- 
creased our knowledge of their local distribution. From that 
time onwards the subject was unaccountably neglected for nearly 
forty years. The only indication of interest during that long 
period was the revision of Couch's ' Mammals ' by J. Brooking 
Bowe in 1878 for publication by the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall, and the appearance of one or two notes in ' The Zoologist ' 
by T. Cornish, of Penzance, chiefly on the occurrence of the 
Black Rat in the county. 

The following notes are based on the observations of the 
writer and his pupils during the last nine years. Those made 
prior to November, 1905, have been incorporated in the article 
on Mammals in the 'Victoria History of Cornwall,' but a con- 
siderable amount of systematic observation has been carried out 
since that time. 

The Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrum equiniim, 
Schreb.) was first mentioned by Cocks as having been found in 
a cave between Swanpool and Pennance Head, Falmouth, and 
the record is quoted by Bullmore. There is apparently no refer- 
ence to any other county occurrence till 1899, when the writer 
discovered a dilapidated specimen in the Museum of the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, Truro, marked " Looe, 11th September, 
1862." Though the history of this specimen could not be traced, 
the handwriting on the label was identified by Canon Moor, of 



410 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

St. Clement's, as that of Stephen Clogg, the well-known bird 
lover of Looe. Unfortunately it was literally dropping to pieces, 
and had to be destroyed. In May, 1901, one of the students in 
the Agricultural class at Liskeard killed an adult female in that 
neighbourhood ; its head and body measured 2*25 in. in length, 
the tail T35 in., and the wings from tip to tip about 11 in. In 
December, 1906, J. Chiene Shepherd, of Newquay, found a male 
in one of the caves of Porth Island, which he nearly burned with 
his candle under the impression that it was a fungus. He kept it 
alive for several weeks, but it died during sleep, and was brought 
to the writer in an advanced stage of decomposition. Its head 
and body measured a little over 2 in. in length, and its tail 
1'3 in. On June 4th, 1907, a larger specimen with a tail 1*5 in. 
long was killed and mangled by some boys at Wheal Golden, a 
deserted mine on the top of the sea cliff near Penhale Point, to the 
west of Newquay. 

The Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposiderus, Bechst.) 
is much commoner and apparently much more widely dis- 
tributed. During the last nine years it has been fairly plentiful 
in several of the deserted mine-shafts about Baldhu and St. 
Agnes, and in one of the less frequented caves at Porth, near 
Newquay. Occasional specimens have been discovered in the 
Cathedral Cavern there, and also in the Tea Caverns near the 
Headland, and in two of the caves in East Pentire. The Cam- 
borne mining students reported it from the North Cliffs, and in 
January of this year brought in a living voucher specimen. One 
of the clerks in the employment of the Eastern Telegraph Com- 
pany captured one at Guethenbras, near Tol-pedn-penwith, in 
November, 1906, and the late W. E. Baily reported it from 
Mousehole, near Penzance, in 1902. In 1905 it was plentiful 
round the old Manor House at Godolphin. It is not uncommon 
to the west of Swanpool, Falmouth, and has been found several 
times in the neighbourhood of Truro. In October, 1903, a male 
was captured at Turbot Point, to the south of Mevagissey, and 
that same autumn the species was recorded by E. V. Tellam 
from Bodmin. It has been reported several times from Laun- 
ceston, and an example in the Museum there is marked " local." 
In 1901 C. Upton Tripp obtained a specimen for the writer from 
Altarnun. 



NOTES ON CORNISH MAMMALS. 411 

The Long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus, L.) is common and 
generally distributed throughout the county, except among the 
higher-lying villages towards the north coast and around the 
Bodmin Moors. It is apparently absent, for example, from 
Cardynham, Camelford, and St. Cleer. In the summer and 
early autumn of 1905 it was the commonest Bat at Millook, 
and was evidently plentiful at Crackington Haven and at Bos- 
castle. A young female was captured by B. T. Price at Hugh 
Town, St. Mary's, in April, 1904, the only record up to the 
present for the Isles of Scilly. The Barbastelle {Barbastella 
barbastellas, Schreb.) was obtained by Cocks from a cave to 
the west of Maenporth, near Falmouth, over sixty years ago, 
and in Baily's collection there was a specimen captured by a 
fisherman between Black Head and the Lizard in September, 
1895. An example was reported to have been obtained at New- 
quay about 1886, and to have been sent subsequently to the 
Museum at Launceston. The writer, however, has not been 
able to obtain any trace of it there, and the occurrence of this 
species on the north coast seems unlikely. Dobson, in his 
' British Museum Catalogue,' records an example of the Serotine 
(Vespertilio serotinus, Schreb.) from Tintagel. In August, 1902, 
W. Thomas sent in a female obtained between Mawgan and 
St. Columb. The specimen was exceptionally rich in its colour- 
ing — a deep warm chestnut above and a smoky yellow below. In 
May, 1906, B. V. Tellam obtained an undersized, probably im- 
mature, male near Lostwithiel. The Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus 
pipistrellus, Schreb.) is very common and generally distributed. 
It has been seen on the wing at Truro in every month of the 
year, and on Jan. 9th, 1904, several were flying about at noon 
in the gardens at Tresco Abbey, in the Isles of Scilly. Two 
specimens of Natterer's Bat (Myotis nattereri, Kuhl) were ob- 
tained by Couch from Looe in 1852. It does not seem to have 
been noted in the county again till the autumn of 1900, when a 
Bat "quite white below" was reported from the Lizard, and in 
September, 1902, a female was sent in from that district. 
Daubenton's Bat (M. daubentoni, Leisl.) was recorded by Couch 
from Looe, and by Cocks and Bullmore from Falmouth. In 
1900 M. H. Williams, of Pencalenick, Truro, sent in a specimen 
for identification that had been killed quite close to the house, 



412 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

and Bats, probably of this species, have been occasionally 
watched flying persistently backwards and forwards over the 
ponds there. In August of the present year a female was killed 
by a farm labourer near Polperro, and sent in the flesh to the 
writer. An example of the Whiskered Bat (M. mystacinus, Leisl.) 
was obtained by K. 0. Waters, of Truro, near Fowey on Aug. 
24th, 1901. In captivity it was restlessly active, and curiously 
agile and dexterous in its movements when not aware that it was 
under observation. It was extremely timid, and for several days 
refused all food. Gradually, however, it took to eating finely 
chopped raw meat in the dark, but refused freshly killed insects. 
It was highly sensitive to sudden illumination, and when the 
corner of the cloth that usually covered the cage was lifted, even 
in a room with a north light, it would dash excitedly from side 
to side for a minute or more, and would take no further food for 
a day or two. In a north room it was not at all affected by the 
dawn. At the end of a month it was as wild and unapproach- 
able as when first captured, and was consequently taken back to 
Fowey one evening and liberated. 

Among the Insectivora, the Hedgehog {Erinaceus europceus, 
L.), the Mole (Talpa europcea, L.), the Common Shrew (Sorex 
araneus, L.), and the Water Shrew (Neomysfodiens, Pall.) are 
plentiful and generally distributed. The Pigmy Shrew {Sorex 
minutus, Pall ), though widely distributed, is probably scarce, 
and has been overlooked by previous naturalists. The first 
specimen seen by the writer was captured alive at Launceston 
Castle in June, 1900. Photographs of this and of the other 
Shrews were shown to the members of the Agricultural class at 
Liskeard, and as the result an example of the Pigmy Shrew was 
brought in the following year from near St. Keyne. In 1903 
F. J. Polkinghorne trapped two at Bodmin, and one was identi- 
fied in the early autumn near Truro. Several have been obtained 
since in the Truro-Falmouth district, and in the spring of 1907 
one was brought in from Lostwithiel. It has been reported from 
Helston and Trevaylor, near Penzance, but the writer has seen 
no specimens from further west than Maenporth. 

The Fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.) is generally distributed in suitable 
localities throughout the county, but has its strongholds in the 
rough broken cliff-land of the coast, where it is locally plentiful. 



NOTES ON CORNISH MAMMALS. 413 

In a big patch of dense oak-scrub between Millook and Dizzard 
Head, Foxes and Badgers live side by side, the latter in astonish- 
ing numbers. The association is on the whole an amicable 
one, but occasionally there is violent nocturnal commotion in 
the colony. The Pine Marten (Mustela martes, L.) was un- 
doubtedly common in the eighteenth century, but rapidly 
diminished in number towards its close, chiefly, in Couch's 
opinion, because the numerous pollard trees that were permitted 
in olden times to grow about the homesteads for the sake of fuel 
were cut down as coal came into use among the farmers, and so 
the safe and congenial shelter afforded by the hollow trunks for 
these and other members of the Weasel family was destroyed. 
In ' The Zoologist' for 1878 (p. 127) E. H. Eodd mentions the 
occurrence of a Pine Marten in the Glynn Valley, near Bodmin, 
about the year 1843, and records the capture of a full-grown 
specimen in the neighbourhood of Delabole quarries in March, 
1878. Somewhere about 1885 it seems another example was 
killed in the East Looe Valley, a few miles from Liskeard. The 
animal was stuffed by John Ough of that town, and was seen at 
the time by several local naturalists who are still living. Un- 
fortunately John Ough's private memorandum book has been 
mislaid, and may have been destroyed, and up to the present 
there is no information as to the Marten's captor, or as to the 
destination of the stuffed specimen. This last reported occur- 
rence of the Pine Marten in Cornwall was brought to the writer's 
notice by J. C. Tregarthen. There is an example in the Museum 
of the Boyal Institution of Cornwall, Truro, but its history is not 
known. 

The Polecat (Putorkis putorius, L.) is now very scarce, but 
can hardly be called rare, as it still breeds sparingly in the 
rough, wild cliff-land of the north coast, and occasionally at 
least on the south. Though the majority of reputed Polecats 
killed in the county are domestic cats run wild, the writer has 
during the past nine years seen six genuine Cornish examples of 
the species — three from between Tintagel and Widemouth Bay, 
one from near Launceston, one from Chacewater, and one from 
the Land's End district. In addition to these, Tellam has 
reported one from Bodmin, H. Harris of Knighton's Kieve two 
from between Bossiney and Boscastle, and Sandercock one from 



414 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Penryn, all of which may be accepted without hesitation. The 
Stoat (P. ermineus, L.) is common and generally distributed. 
White and pied examples are occasionally met with, but indi- 
viduals in true winter pelage are rare. One beautiful specimen, 
white all over except for a triangular speckled patch of brown 
and white between the ears and nose and the customary black 
tip to the tail, was caught at Killiow, near Truro, during the 
blizzard of 1891. Another with the brown colour somewhat 
more pronounced on the head was taken between Mawgan and 
St. Columb in February, 1907. Canon Thynne examined a 
similar specimen that had been trapped near Kilkhampton in the 
early spring of 1895. Pied and white Stoats are well repre- 
sented in the Museum of the Koyal Institution of Cornwall, 
Truro. The Weasel (P. nivalis, L.) is widely distributed, and on 
the whole fairly common. Pied and white examples are more 
rarely met with than in the case of the Stoat, but the Truro 
Museum collection contains several, none, however, of recent 
date. The Badger (Meles meles, L.) is remarkably common 
locally in the woodlands, on the broken cliff-land, and among old 
mine-shafts and deserted workings, and it is so generally distri- 
buted that there are few, if any, parishes in the county in which 
it is not resident. It is abundant in the Land's End district, 
where, as J. C. Tregarthen says in a letter to the writer, there is 
hardly a croft it does not traverse in its beats, or in which it has 
not an earth. It is very common around Camborne, Kedruth, 
and St. Agnes, in the Fourburrow county, and in suitable locali- 
ties throughout the Truro-Falmouth district. It is obviously 
plentiful, too, around Bodmin, St. Austell, Liskeard, Looe, and 
Launceston, but the maximum density of population is reached in 
sundry large patches of scrub on the irregular cliff-face of the 
north coast between Tintagel and Widemouth Bay. 

The Otter (Lutra lutra, L.) is plentiful and generously dis- 
tributed throughout the streams of the county. It is of frequent 
occurrence in the open sea and in caves along the south coast, 
and occasionally ventures into the estuaries of the Looe Eiver, 
the Fowey, and the Fal. On the north coast it is rarely seen in 
the open or even in the estuaries, though its traffic is usually 
conspicuous along the banks, not only of the larger streams but 
also of many of the insignificant brooks that empty into the 



NOTES ON CORNISH MAMMALS. 415 

Bristol Channel. Its favourite haunt during the greater part of 
the year is the rocky bed of the streams that tumble down the 
steep sides of the Bodmin Moor plateau, though it is always well 
represented in the middle and lower reaches of the rivers as well, 
and there is probably not an unprotected watercourse or pond in 
the county that is not visited by this predacious animal. The 
Common Seal (Phoca vitulina, L.) occurs locally along the north 
coast from Marsland Mouth to Pendean. A few frequent the 
rocks at Cape Cornwall, and groups are occasionally noticed on 
the Brisons. It is often reported from the Land's End round to 
the Logan Rock, and for the last three years Seals have been 
frequently observed a little to the west of Lamorna. Further 
east it is rarely seen on the south coast, and most of those 
reported from the English Channel are Otters. One, however, 
was seen at Black Head and two at Coverack in the autumn of 
last year ; the late Matthias Dunn saw them occasionally on the 
rocks near Gorran, where they reappeared for several weeks in 
the autumn of 1906 ; stragglers are at long intervals recorded 
from the neighbourhood of Polperro, and in 1861 one was killed 
in Whitsand Bay east. It evidently breeds in small numbers on 
the lonely shores of the Bristol Channel. Baby Seals have also 
been taken or seen on the beaches at Porth Chapel and Porth- 
curnow, and have been reported from Porthgwarra, and from the 
northern extremity of Whitsand Bay west. This species is com- 
pletely replaced at Scilly by the Grey Seal, as Dorrien-Smith 
knows of only one specimen being with certainty identified there 
during the last forty years. The Grey Seal (Halichcsrus gryphus, 
Fab.) has its headquarters on the Isles of Scilly, where it is 
remarkably common, especially among the western islands, 
Roseveare, Rosevean, and Gorregan. On the writer's first visit 
to these rocky islets one fine day in May he was able, with the aid 
of a glass, to count seventeen at one time on Rosevean and Gorre- 
gan alone. The heaviest killed by Dorrien-Smith weighed 672 lb. 
Adult specimens have been seen on the mainland coast at Bos- 
castle, at Padstow, at Porth Island, Newquay, the last in September, 
1907, at Zennor and near Pendean. It has also been reported 
from the Brisons, from Tol-pedn-penwith, and from near St. Loy. 
White pups of the Grey Seal have been taken several times on 
the mainland, but Millais thinks it improbable they breed there. 



416 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

The Squirrel (Sciurus leucurus, Kerr) appears to be extend- 
ing its range in Cornwall. It is at present abundant throughout 
the Truro-Falmouth district, but seems to be absent from the 
west and south-west, while in many parts of the east and north 
of the county it is scarce or altogether wanting. The Dormouse 
(Muscardinus avellanarius, L.) is widespread but local. Though 
apparently scarce in the Hayle, Camelford, and Callington 
districts, it is common in places about Helston, Falmouth, 
Truro, Lostwithiel, and Liskeard. Up till three years ago it was 
fairly common about Newquay, but lately has become scarce. 
The Brown Eat {Mils decumanus, Pall.) is generally distributed 
and much too common. Pied varieties are not uncommon, and 
an albino was killed by Mr. Henry Harris near Stratton in 1901. 
The Black Bat (M. rattus, L.) was several times recorded from 
the county by T. Cornish between 1878 and 1889, and especially 
from the Penzance district. In August, 1891, one was killed 
near Falmouth by a farm lad, and seen by the writer in the 
flesh. There seems to be no further county record till 1902, 
when one was caught in a trap and another seen at Heamoor, 
about two miles north-west of Penzance. In June, 1907, a very 
old male was captured at Paul, three miles to the south-west of 
the same town. A fine female of Mus alexandrinus was killed in 
the Falmouth Docks on June 30th, 1900. The House Mouse 
(M. musculus, L.) is abundant, and so, too, is the Long-tailed 
Mouse (M. sylvaticus, L.). The diminutive size and unobtrusive 
habits of the Harvest Mouse (M. minutus, L.) have caused it to 
be generally overlooked, and consequently its county distribution 
has not been worked out. It is locally fairly common about 
Penzance, and two examples have been captured at Hayle and 
one at Helston. Several young specimens were brought in from 
Pendarves by mining students at Camborne. About Falmouth 
and Truro it is local, but in places very common. About a 
dozen were obtained one day in a stackyard at St. Breward, and 
it is known to occur at Bodmin, Egloshayle, and Lostwithiel, 
so that it is evidently well represented in the middle of the 
county. Specimens have been obtained at St. Neot and at 
Launceston, but on the north coast it is either scarce or very 
local, as the only examples seen were from Mawgan and East 
Pentire, Newquay. 



NOTES ON CORNISH MAMMALS. 417 

The Water Vole (Microtus amphibius, L.) is common in suit- 
able habitats throughout the county. The Field Vole, too 
(M. agrestis, L.), is abundant, especially in low-lying, damp 
grass-land. The Bank Vole (Evotomys glareolus, Schreb.) was 
apparently overlooked by the older naturalists. Though probably 
nowhere common, it is widely distributed. The first local speci- 
men seen by the writer was killed in Eestormel Valley in May, 
1901. The following month two were captured as the result of 
a systematic search in an ivy-covered hedgebank at Budock, Fal- 
mouth. Single specimens have been obtained at Constantine 
after much hunting, at Pencalenick, at Trerice, near Newquay, 
and in the neighbourhood of Luxulyan. On Whit-Monday, 
1906, one was picked up running across the road at the entrance 
to Carnanton Woods at Mawgan. In spite of frequent and 
repeated search none have been found around Padstow or in the 
neighbourhood of Poundstock and Millook. In a miscellaneous 
collection formed by B. 0. Waters, of Truro, was the skin of a 
Bank Vole that had been killed in the spring of 1900, about 
fifty yards beyond the Truro Viaduct in the direction of Idless. 
The Hare (Lepus europ&us, Pall.), though formerly common 
over the greater part of Cornwall, is now local and somewhat 
scarce. The Babbit (L. cuniculus, L.) is abundant almost 
everywhere. 

The geographical position of Cornwall and the long extent of 
seaboard raise great expectations as to the occurrence of Cetacea, 
but in the past their identification has been too often a matter of 
assumption rather than of systematic diagnosis. During the 
past nine years, though Whales have several times been reported, 
none have been identified. 

The Grampus (Orca gladiator, Lacepede) appeared in Mount's 
Bay in 1902, and again in 1905. In 1902 it was identified off 
Mevagissey and at Fowey. In the autumn of 1904 a young 
specimen about fourteen feet long was caught in a drift-net near 
the Wolf Bock. Bisso's Grampus (Grampus griseus, Cuv.) has 
not been recorded since 1870, or the Pilot or Ca'ing Whale 
(Globicephalus melas, Traill) since 1874. The Porpoise or 
Sniffer of the Cornish fisherman {Plioccena communis, Less.) is 
common along the south coast, and is frequently observed on the 

Zool. 4th ser. vol. XII. , November, 1908. 2 k 



418 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

north. It occasionally passes up tidal rivers to a considerable 
distance. One six feet long and 122 lb. in weight was found 
dead in the mud at Newham Cove, just below Lostwithiel Moors, 
in February, 1903, and a still larger one was reported from near 
the head of Kestronguet Creek in the autumn of 1906. The 
Dolphin (Delphinus delphis, L.) is not uncommon along the 
south coast, and has been recorded from St. Ives, Newquay, 
and Port Isaac on the north. A large shoal visited Mount's 
Bay in July, 1901, and another in May, 1905. A shoal of about 
twenty were seen for some days in Falmouth Bay during the 
month of August, 1907, and it is of frequent occurrence inside 
the harbour. Shoals have also been reported from Mevagissey, 
Looe, and Portwrinlde. 



( 419 ) 



A FEW NOTES ON MYEMECOPHILOUS SPIDERS. 
By Horace St. John K. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S. 

My friend Mr. 0. Pickard-Cambridge, in some notes on new 
and rare British Arachnida in 1907, writes of Thyreosthenius 
biovatus, Cambr., as follows : — " Adult females were found by 
myself several years ago among debris and grass-stems in woods 
at Bloxworth, but have been overlooked until recently. Its most 
usual habitat appears to be in nests of Formica rufa ; but besides 
the above I have specimens from other localities quite away 
from these nests. It does not seem to have been observed yet 
what the terms are on which it inhabits the ants' nests, or 
whether these are used as breeding-places for the spiders or not, 
or whether they serve as shelter principally during the winter. 
The ant is large and protected by its coriaceous epidermis, while 
the spider is very minute and delicate, so that it seems difficult 
to imagine the latter making a prey of its hosts in any way, 
either in the egg or larva state ; but of course there may be 
very minute insects in the ants' nests which in the larva or 
perfect state would furnish food for the spiders. The subject of 
insects and, besides the spiders mentioned, various other species 
of Arachnids dwelling in ants' nests is a very interesting one. 
It has been closety worked out by Mr. H. Donisthorpe, to whom 
I am indebted for many species of spiders he has found in nests 
of several species of ants. The greater majority of the spiders, 
however, found in ants' nests are certainly, I think, simply there 
for purposes of warmth and shelter during the winter, and are 
mostly immature." 

These remarks led me to collect together and write the 
following notes on such spiders as we know to occur, or to have 
occurred, with ants in Britain. I also take the opportunity to 
express some views I have formed on the origin of myrme- 
cophilous species. 

Now, between the true guests of ants, the indifferently tole- 
rated lodgers, the hostile persecuted lodgers, the true parasites, 



420 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

down to the most casual intruder, there are many steps and 
divisions which connect them with, or separate them from, each 
other. Some of these steps teach us, I believe, how the more 
perfect types in each group have been evolved in nature. For 
example, a beetle which is often found with ants, but more 
generally elsewhere, may show us how the first steps were taken 
to become more fully or exclusively myrmecophilous. It may be 
regarded to represent an ancestral form, not of any particular 
species, but of the commencement of the habit of being a myrme- 
cophilous insect, as it is quite certain that the inhabitants of 
ants' nests must have been evolved long after the ants them- 
selves. If, therefore, a species is often found with ants, and 
often with the same species of ant, although more generally 
found away from them, it is quite clear that it is not there by 
chance. I think it is wrong to say it has nothing to do with 
them, but rather to regard it as a case in point of the question I 
have just raised. We should try and find out what it is doing in 
such situations, a situation, moreover, of considerable danger to 
a perfectly non-myrmecophilous species. The above remarks 
apply to spiders as well as to all other creatures found with 
ants. I would divide the myrmecophilous spiders into three 
groups : — 

I. Those species which are always found with ants. They 
belong to the indifferently tolerated lodgers. 

II. Those species which hunt and prey on ants. They are 
generally found outside and in the neighbourhood of the nests. 

III. Those species which closely resemble ants in appearance. 
They hunt their prey in the neighbourhood of ants' nests, and 
are protected from outside enemies by their resemblance to ants. 

It is very difficult to classify exactly species into these diffe- 
rent groups without further evidence on their habits. Finally, 
there are a number of spiders which I have found singly in ants' 
nests, whose occurrence there may be accidental. They may in 
some cases have been carried into the nests by the ants and not 
devoured, or have sought the nests for the reasons given by 
Mr. Cambridge. But even in this latter case they may be the 
first steps towards a myrmecophilous habit. I may here quote 
with advantage a passage from one of Prof. Wheeler's publica- 
tions : — " In the lives of the social insects the threptic or philo- 



NOTES ON MYRMECOPHILOUS SPIDERS. 421 

progenitive instincts are of such transcendent importance that 
all the other instincts of the species, including, of course, those 
of alimentation and nest-building, become merely tributary or 
ancillary. In ants, especially, the instincts relating to the 
nurture of the young bear the aspect of a dominating obsession. 
The very strength and scope of such instincts, however, render 
the insects more susceptible to the inroads of hosts of guests, 
commensals and parasites." 

I now propose to try and classify our ants' nests' spiders 
into these three groups. 

Group I. 

Thyreosthenms biovatus, Cambr. — This little spider is found 
in the hillocks of Formica rufa, and anyone who cares to spread 
a few handfuls of the nest materials on to a sheet or paper will 
be sure to find it. In April, 1900, I took an adult female in a 
nest of F. rufa in Guestling Wood, near Hastings. This was its 
first British record ! Messrs. Butterfield and Bennett tell us that 
it is not uncommon in nests of this ant in the Hastings district, 
but that the adult males are rarely found. I have found it with 
its hosts at Weybridge, Oxshott, Woking, Pyrford, Enfield, Blean 
Woods, Knowle, and Nethy Bridge. I have taken both sexes, 
and I may say I have found it in rufa nests in every month in 
the year. Jackson has found it in nests in the Tyne Valley, and 
Bagnall at Corbridge, Winlaton, and Chopwell. I believe it is 
to be found wherever F. rufa occurs. Father Wasmann records 
that F. rufa and F. pratensis are its normal hosts. Mr. Bagnall 
took a male and female in the Derwent Valley away from ants, 
but it is only natural to suppose that it sometimes leaves the 
nests and strays about in search of fresh ones. 

On its habits I have the following notes : — On April 26th, 
1901, I brought up from Oxshott six specimens of this spider 
from a nest of F. rufa, and introduced them into my "observa- 
tion nest " of the same ant. They at once entered the galleries, 
the ants paying no attention to them. I did not see any of 
them again till June 23rd, when a female came up, accompanied 
by a number of young ones, so they must have bred in my nest. 
After this specimens were observed on June 25th, 27th, 30th ; 
July 18th, 21st, and 27th. On Sept. 19th quite a number were 
walking about in my nest. The last specimen observed was on 



422 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

Nov. 26th. When they meet an ant they spring with great 
quickness to one side. On March 14th, 1902, when I was turn- 
ing out my F. rufa observation nest, I found in a cleft in a bit of 
wood the nest and eggs of this spider. 

This year I put specimens into small plaster nests, with ants, 
beetles, and small Diptera, &c, all taken or bred out of my rufa 
observation nest. The ants never molested the spiders. On one 
or two occasions I saw the Thyreosthenius feeding on one of the 
little flies (Phyllomyza formica and Sciara sp. ?), though I never 
actually saw the flies caught. I should say they certainly prey 
on small flies and other very small insects, &c, in the nests. 

Evansia merens, Cambr. — This species was described from a 
male taken by Mr. Evans at Glenfarg, Perthshire, in 1899. Its 
connection with ants was not then mentioned, but Mr. Evans 
tells me he took it with ants. In 1901 Mr. Eandell Jackson 
took both sexes (the female, of course, being new to science) with 
Lasius niger in Glamorgan. In June, 1903, I took a specimen 
in a nest of Formica fusca at Hayton Moss, in Cumberland, and 
in June, 1905, five specimens in a nest of the same ant at Bar- 
mouth. Mr. Jackson also found it with the same ant in the 
Tyne Valley. He writes : — " The spiders are found either in the 
galleries or on the under side of the sheltering stone. They are 
amongst the ants, and not merely hiding under the edges of the 
stone as so many other spiders do. They are not enclosed in 
cocoons, but the ants do not molest them. Adults may occa- 
sionally be found throughout the year, but most of the males are 
mature in September and October. The species ascends about 
1000 ft. in Glamorganshire." Mr. Bagnall has taken it with 
F. fusca at Winlaton, and I found it with the same ant in 
September this year at Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire. 

Tetrilus arietinus, Thor. — This spider was described from 
ants' nests in Sweden. In 1900 I took an adult and an imma- 
ture male in nests of Formica rufa ' and Lasius fuliginosus at 
Oxshott, its first record for Britain. In September, 1901, Bandell 
Jackson took a female with brood under a stone, but not with 
ants, on Craig-yr-Eglwys. He mentions there were numerous 
colonies of L. niger about, but did not notice any connection with 
the ants. Father Wasmann gives F. rufa and L. fuliginosus as 
its hosts. 



NOTES ON MYRMECOPHILOUS SPIDERS. 423 

Gryphceca diversa, Cambr. — I took a male of this species in 
1900, and a female in June, 1901, both in a nest of Lasius fuli- 
ginosus, at Oxshott. The only other specimen then known was 
a female, the type, taken on an old railway near Carlisle. In 
1906 I took five females on one occasion, and several more at 
other times with the same ants at Wellington College. 

Group II. 

Micarisoma festiva, C. K. — I have taken this species with 
Formica rufa and Lasius fuliginosus at Oxshott, with F. san- 
guined and L. niger at Woking, and this May with F. fusca in 
the New Forest. Father Wasmann records it with L. niger, 
brunneus, and fuliginosus. 

Hahnia helvola, E. S. — This spider has occurred to me on 
various occasions with Lasius fuliginosus at Wellington College. 
Wasmann records it from ants' nests. 

Harpactes hombergi, Sep. — I have frequently taken this spider 
in all its stages, and both sexes, with Lasius fuliginosus at Ox- 
shott ; also at Wellington and Pyrford. This May I took it with 
F. fusca in the New Forest. Wasmann gives L. fuliginosus. 

Theridium riparium, Blkw. — I have several times captured 
this spider with Formica sanguinea at Woking. Blackwell re- 
marked that the food of this spider consisted chiefly of ants. 
Van Hasselt found their nests often full of remains of Lasius 
niger. Henking states that they most commonly hunt Myrmica 
Icevinodis. (Wasmann gives a very circumstantial account of the 
capture of ants, F. rufa, rufibarbis, and sanguinea, by the very 
small Theridium triste, Hahn.) 

Microneta innotabilis, Cambr. — I have taken specimens with 
Lasius fuliginosus at Oxshott and Wellington College, and with 
F. rufa in the former locality. 

Microneta viaria, Bl. — I have taken this spider many times 
with Lasius fuliginosus, and also with F. rufa, at Oxshott. With 
the former species at Wellington College. 

Leptyphantes patens, Cambr. — This species has been recently 
described from males and females taken by me with Lasius fuli- 
ginosus at Wellington College in the spring of 1906. As these 
are the first specimens known, and were taken in ants' nests, 
we can consider them myrmecophilous till the contrary is proved, 



424 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

but it is impossible at present to know with certainty whether to 
place them in either Group I. or Group II. 

Group III. 

Micaria scintillas, Cambr. — "The grassy slopes where this 
spider occurs (at Portland) are also numerously frequented by a 
large blackish ant, to which the spider bears so close a resem- 
blance that, even after much practice, it requires a close exami- 
nation to distinguish (before capture) between the ant and the 
spider ; both have also a similar habit of running hurriedly now 
and then up a grass-stem, as if to get a larger range of view — 
or it may be that both are in search of the same prey ; both, 
again, on the first inkling of danger, betake themselves to the 
shelter of the tangled grass, and to the stems and roots of other 
low herbage " (Cambridge). It will be observed that this spider 
exhibits both active mimicry (similarity of movements) and 
passive mimicry (similarity of form). I have seen it running 
about with F. rufibarbis var. fusco-rufibarbis at "Whitsand Bay. 

Micaria pulicaria, Saund. — I took a specimen of this little 
spider in the runs of Lasius niger at Mickleham. It also very 
closely resembled the ants in colour and appearance. I have 
since taken it with the same ant at Woking, as well as with 
F. sanguined. 

Salticus formicarius, Deg. — In August last I took a male and 
two females of this very ant-like spider at Sandown, Isle of 
Wight. They were all running about in company with speci- 
mens of Myrmica scabrinodis at the roots of some Lotus major at 
the foot of the cliffs. In life they bore the closest resemblance 
to the ants. Father Wasmann generally found this species in 
the neighbourhood of Formica rufa, F. rvfibarbis, and Myrmica 
lavinodis in Holland. 

Diblemma donisthorpei, Cambr. — This new genus and species 
has been described by Mr. Cambridge from specimens taken by 
me in Kew Gardens, where I found it in some numbers last 
February and March. I discovered it in company with the little 
introduced ant, Wasmajinia auro -punctata, to which, on account 
of its colour, size, and shape, it bears a strong superficial 
resemblance. The ant is abundant in the propagating pits, and 
nests in and under flower-pots, &c. The flower pots rest on beds 



NOTES ON MYBMECOPHILOUS SPIDERS. 425 

of shingle and cinders, and the spider is to be found among the 
ants under the flower-pots. I believe the spider preys on small 
Thysanura, &c, and I have seen it carrying what looked like 
small scale insects. 



Papers referred to in above Notes. 

Butterfield & Bennett : " On some Spiders collected in the 
District around Hastings," South Eastern Nat. 1908, p. 42. 

Cambridge, 0. Pickard- : " The Spiders of Dorset." " On New 
and Eare British Spiders." Proc. Dorset. Nat. Hist. & A. F. Club, 
vols. xxi. 1900 ; xxiii. 1902 ; xxviii. 1907 ; and xxix. 1908. 

Donisthorpe : " Notes on the British Myrmecophilous Fauna 
(excluding Coleoptera)," Ent. Eecord, 1902, pp. 67, 68. "Further 
Experiments with Myrmecophilous Coleoptera, &c," Ent. Becord, 
1903, *p. 12. " Myrmecophilous Notes for 1906," Ent. Becord, 1906, 
p. 318. 

Jackson, H. Bendell : " The Spiders of Tynedale," Trans. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Northumb. Durh. and Newc. vol. ii. 1906. " A Contribu- 
tion to the Spider Fauna of the County of Glamorgan," Trans. Cardiff 
Nat. Soc. vol. xxxix. 1907. " On some Bare Arachnids captured during 
1907," Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumb. Durh. and Newc. vol. hi. 
1907. 

Wasmann : " Kritisches Verzeichniss der Myrmekophilen und 
Termitophilen Arthropoden," 1894. " Ameisenfang von Theridium 
triste, Hahn," Zoologischer Anzeiger, No. 555, 1898, p. 230. 

Wheeler : " The Polymorphism of Ants," Bull. American Mus. 
Nat. Hist. vol. xxiii. 1907. 



426 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



MAMMALIA. 

The Badger in Norfolk. — An interesting discussion has been run- 
ning in the columns of a county newspaper with regard to the local 
status of the Badger in Norfolk, and several recent dates of " occur- 
rences " have been cited in the course of correspondence which certainly 
suggest that its numbers at the present time have been considerably 
underrated. Cromer, Bylaugh (near East Dereham), Eorncett, and 
Eakenham (near where, one writer declares, " four or five have been 
taken this year") were given as localities, and Mr. A. H. Upcher, 
referring to an instance at Sheringham, writes : "I know of one or 
two [that] have been trapped there of late, and others trapped* in the 
neighbourhood." Lubbock (' Fauna of Norfolk,' 1848) mentioned the 
Badger as " all but extinct with us," citing one example as being taken 
" about three years back near Holt," further stating that " at Honing, 
in the neighbourhood of North Walsham, the Badger was frequent at 
the beginning of this [nineteenth] century." In 1871 Mr. T. South- 
well, writing in the ' Transactions ' of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Naturalists' Society, states : " It is probable that the aboriginal race 
is now extinct, and that those occasionally met with are either 
stragglers or descended from a stock introduced in consequence of 
their usefulness in forming earths for the foxes." To Mr. Southwell's 
theory I am much inclined, in disagreement with statements made 
by Mr. Walter Eye, the antiquarian, and some others, who incline to 
believe that the primordial race has never been extirpated. Mr. South- 
well gives in the 'Transactions' (1871) records of seven "occur- 
rences " (mostly kills) between 1857 and 1870, the only one in East 
Norfolk being obtained in 1868, at Somerton, in the Broad district. 
In 1884 two others are recorded in the same journal. 

It occurs to me that it was partly due to the spurt given to the 
reclamation and culture of waste lands at the time of the Napoleonic 
wars that great efforts seem to have been made towards the extermi- 
nation of this animal, which, but for its nocturnal and secretive 
habits and its marvellous powers of digging, would have been much 
more easily cleared out — at least, as far as East Anglia is concerned. 
The Pagets, writing in 1834 (' Sketch of the Natural History of Yar- 
mouth'), stated that " thirty years ago these were common, especi- 
ally about Bradwell and Browston [villages within five miles of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 427 

Yarmouth] , but they are entirely extirpated." A Suffolk gentleman of 
considerable experience as a sportsman wrote me a few days since as 
follows : " In my youthful days I often heard old men talking about 
the large Badger-earth existing in Barnby [near Lowestoft] , and the 
beasts became such a nuisance that they made an extermination raid 
on them, which would be about one hundred years ago." He makes 
reference to one taken near that spot about twenty-five years ago, 
which " was shown on a handbarrow about the streets by one 'Dozy ' 
Goffin," and cites an example killed ten years after, which I think 
more than probably was an escape, for at that particular time (in 
1893) I was negotiating for an adult Badger with a publican at 
Bungay, when he wrote " his regrets that the night before my letter 
arrived it broke from its cage and was lost." Bungay and Lowestoft 
are not much above twelve miles apart. 

Private communications reached me during the correspondence 
from one gentleman who has been trying to preserve the Badger in 
his neighbourhood (which he wishes not to be divulged), and with 
apparent success. He speaks of "the main earth ... [in which] has 
been a litter for the last eight years. ... It now resembles a fortifi- 
cation, and it is almost incredible the amount of sand they have 
worked out. Four have been taken out this year alive ; last year the 
one . . . got took nearly twenty-four hours, after a previous ten hours' 
work in vain. The year previously three were unfortunately trapped." 
He further wrote that the captured animals were released, and that on 
another estate there is "at present a well- worked earth. ... I cannot 
find any trace of Badgers being at any time imported ; certainly it 
has not been done by the West Norfolk Foxhounds in the last thirty 
or forty years. ... It is no far distance [a locality in South-west 
Norfolk] to Lincolnshire and Huntingdonshire, where they have 
always existed for certain." I share with that gentleman his wish 
that " whatever the past may have been, they will never be extinct in 
the future." Whether aboriginals or not, I hope that the Badgers 
still to be found in West Norfolk will be given a better chance than 
had those unfortunate Bustards which were reintroduced into Norfolk 
a few years since ; these all too easily fell victims to unscrupulous 
and ignorant gunners (one cannot call them sportsmen) who would as 
lief, but for the law, slaughter cattle and sheep that may stray into 
their preserves from a neighbouring estate as look at them. It is 
fortunate for them (the Badgers) that they possess traits and instincts 
far more likely to protect themselves than had the luckless Bustards. 
Arthur H. Patterson (Great Yarmouth). 



428 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

AVES. 

Fecundity of the Chaffinch. — In a recent number of the 'Irish 
Naturalist ' a statement was made by Mr. Moffat, on the authority of 
the Eev. Allan Ellison, from which it would appear that the Chaffinch 
is less prolific in Ireland than Hertfordshire. According to Mr. 
Ellison — and we have every reason to believe his statement — clutches 
of six are by no means uncommon in Hertfordshire, and clutches of 
five are quite unusual. It would be interesting to have observations 
of other readers in other parts of Britain relative to the fecundity of 
the Chaffinch, accompanied by a few short notes of its status. In this 
district I should think the average number of eggs is about 4 - 75. It 
is one of the commonest breeding birds in all our woods, and its 
status may be regarded as almost identical with what it was twenty 
or thirty years ago, or if it has varied at all it is within narrow limits. 
Nearly all the birds met with here in the winter are cock birds, but 
whether immigrants or not it would be difficult to say, but my own 
opinion would be in the affirmative. — E. P. Butteefield (Bank 
House, Wilsden). 

Wrynecks in North Lancashire. — On Sept. 3rd a Wryneck (lynx 
torquilla) was captured alive in the back yard of a cottage at Higher 
Heysham, on the shores of Morecambe Bay, near Lancaster, which 
died soon after its capture. A second was captured, also alive, at 
Overton, about three miles away, on Oct. 2nd, which, being placed 
inside a boat-builder's shed, escaped through a hole in the roof, and 
was not seen again. Howard Saunders, in his ' Manual,' says that 
Lancashire has seldom been visited by the species of late years. 
Yarrell says that northward it is scarce and rare in Yorkshire, and 
Selby that a few only appear every year in Northumberland. Mitchell, 
in his first edition of the ' Birds of Lancashire,' says that, " once a com- 
mon summer visitor, it is now almost extinct." Formerly it was known 
as the " Long-tongue " on Cartmell Fell, and in the twenties used to 
nest on the Frenchwood estate, Preston. In Winmarleigh, not far 
from Preston, as recently as the second week of June, 1883, Mr. 
Arthur Breadell found a nest containing seven fresh eggs, this being, 
I think, the last occurrence of the bird — at least, in North Lancashire 
— presuming that the eggs were authentic. — H. W. Kobinson (Lans- 
downe House, Lancaster). 

Honey-Buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in Lincolnshire.- — I have lately 
seen three specimens of the Honey-Buzzard, all obtained between 
Sept. 24th and Oct. 5th last. Two were shot near Grantham, and the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 429 

third was secured near the city of Lincoln. It would be interesting 
to know whether other observers have noticed this species lately in 
our eastern counties, as possibly there has been a larger immigration 
from the Continent this year than usual. In autumn these birds 
leave their nesting haunts in Europe, and Gatke has observed enor- 
mous nights passing over Heligoland, travelling westward, and the 
late Lord Lilford also noticed these migrating flocks in Spain, journey- 
ing to the south. In his work on the ' Birds of Heligoland,' Gatke 
states that this species somehow always manages to avoid rough 
weather during the autumn migration, so perhaps it was the glori- 
ously fine late September this year which tempted these birds to visit 
our inhospitable shores. I think all three specimens were immature 
birds, one being of an almost uniform dark brown colour. — F. L. 
Blathwayt (Lincoln). 

Spotted Crake at Great Yarmouth. — On Sept. 26th I received a 
Spotted Crake (Porzana maruetta) in the flesh, which was shot from 
one of the dykes on the Breydon marshes. The gunner tells me that 
his dog had great difficulty in getting the bird to rise. The squatting 
habits of the Rail family are well known to all naturalists. These 
birds at times will allow themselves almost to be trodden on, or 
even taken by the hand, rather than take to wing. — B. Dye (Great 
Yarmouth) . 

September Movements of Shearwaters. — Anent the notes and 
remarks of Mr. 0. V. Aplin (ante, pp. 396-7) respecting a very exten- 
sive movement of Manx Shearwaters (Puffinus anglorum) taking place 
"in the latter end of August or early in September," the following 
note may be of interest : — On August 31st of last year (1907) I 
crossed in the steamer from Heysham to Douglas, Isle of Man. When 
nearly half-way across, and at about four p.m., the vessel passed 
through a large number of Manx Shearwaters, which were evidently 
undertaking a migratory movement of some magnitude. The birds 
were not in flocks, but usually from one hundred to two hundred 
yards apart, and all were heading in exactly the same direction. They 
were crossing our track diagonally, and, assuming that the boat was 
going almost due west, they were making a south-south-westerly 
course. And so intent were they individually in keeping this direc- 
tion that those birds making towards the vessel scarcely deviated 
from their course ; consequently a number passed quite close in front 
of the bows during the time that we were amongst them. The flight 
must have been fully five or six miles in width, as we were quite 
twenty minutes passing through them, and the boat was making at 



430 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

the least fifteen knots an hour. To what distance this movement 
extended to the south-south-west or from the north-north-east can- 
not even be conjectured. The day was dull, and the birds varied in 
height from near the surface to about twenty feet above the water. 
The concluding sentence in my diary runs :■ — •" There being very little 
wind, the birds used their wings more than I have seen Shearwaters 
do before, but still from time to time they would make use of the side 
or 'shear' motion, showing alternately the dark upper and white 
under sides of their bodies." — H. B. Booth (Ben Rhydding, York- 
shire). 

Old Local Bird Names. — In a well-used copy of Montagu's ' Orni- 
thological Dictionary' of 1802 I found (in manuscript notes) the 
following local names for birds, some of which may interest readers of 
' The Zoologist.' This copy had been for many years the one treasured 
book of an old Bradford worthy, now dead some twenty years. In his 
time he had walked many thousands of miles with his gun for the 
purpose of obtaining birds to set up as " specimens." Although the 
"specimens" were dispersed, his descendants kept this work in 
memory of their forbear, and, thinking that it might contain some 
local notes, I borrowed the book. The only notes it contained, how- 
ever, were made by a former owner, and were written in a clear 
scholarly style. They are at the least fifty years old, and are probably 
nearer one hundred years old, and, as they give various localities, no 
doubt the author of them had travelled about. It should be borne in 
mind, however, that the object of the annotator appears to have been 
entirely to include additional local names of species to those given by 
Montagu, as not another manuscript note of any kind is in the 
book. The notes are given exactly as they appear after the following 
species :— 

Mistle-Thrush = Greybird (Nth. Pembrokeshire), Sprite, Thrice- 
cock, Storm-cock, Ter-cock (provincial). 

Wheatear = Cooper (Sth. Pembrokeshire). 

Wren = Crackie (Nth. Devon), Cutty Wren (Sth. Pembroke- 
shire). 

Blue Titmouse = Bliispicker (North Devon). 

Long-tailed Titmouse (vide Lesser Pettychaps) = Featherpoke 
(Notts, and neighbourhood). 

Chiffchaff= Lesser Pettychaps (provincial), Feather-poke (Cambs.). 

Yellowhammer = Gladdie (Nth. Devon). 

Common Bunting = Gladdie (provincial). 

Chaffinch — Daffinch. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 431 

Bullfinch = Hoops from Hupps (Nth. Devon). 

Titlark = Meadow Pipit, provincial " Ground-lark." 

Common Heron = hougie-crane (South Pembrokeshire). 

Corncrake = Bean-cracker (Sth. Pembrokeshire). 

Guillemot = Eligney (Sth. Pembrokeshire). 

" Fulmar, Molly-mawk, or Mollemoke is the term applied by 
Bewick to the Fulmar Petrel ; may also be called ' Whalebirds,' from 
their constant attendance on the Whale." — H. B. Booth (Ben Ehyd- 
ding, Yorkshire). 

Migration of Small Birds in Co. Sligo. — Our home-bred small 
birds, as usual, disappeared this autumn. By Aug. 31st very few 
were about, and by the middle of September not a Chaffinch, Green- 
finch, or Yellowhammer was to be seen in their usual haunts, and 
neither Blackbirds or Thrushes were to be seen anywhere in this 
locality by that date. However, on Oct. 8th and 9th, I was fortunate 
in witnessing several flights of small birds, probably Chaffinches 
because several exhibited white on their wings, and their mode of 
flight was quite similar to that of those birds. About eight o'clock 
on the morning of the 8th a flock of fifty birds passed over the lawn 
close by the house here. They kept low, almost teaching the tree- 
tops as they flew steadily inland to the south-east, none remaining to 
rest. On the morning of the 9th, as I was walking across one of 
my fields near the estuary, between eight and nine o'clock, a flock of 
about fifty birds flew past me, and, as the wind was blowing freshly 
from the S.S.E., they kept low over the trees, flying steadily inland 
to the south-east. A short time afterwards another flock of twenty 
or twenty-five birds passed, and in less than a quarter of an hour 
two more of about the same number passed over, none pausing to rest 
on trees or fields, but all pursuing their course steadily to the south- 
east. Only once before have I seen a similar movement of small 
birds, also in October. I was looking at the turnips in one of my 
fields when I was surprised at seeing a large flock of probably a 
hundred birds flying low against a strong head- wind to the south- 
east ; they flew so low that I thought they were going to pitch on 
the field, but as far as I could see them they never paused in their 
course. About half an hour afterwards I saw another flock, but not 
so large, passing also in the same direction. From these occurrences 
I think we may safely infer that on the autumn migration these foreign- 
bred birds have a regular line of flight across this district of country, 
and are only seen when strong head-winds cause them to fly low. 
Notwithstanding the passage of these large numbers, they do not 



4 32 THE ZOOLOGIST. 

appear to have left many stragglers behind them, for I observed only 
a few Chaffinches (six or seven birds) in my stackyard, but as yet 
none in the fields. It is only within the past three or four days that 
I observed a few Blackbirds, two or three about this place and a few 
scattered along the roadside hedges. — Eobert Warren (Moy View, 
Ballina). 

P.S. — I beg to correct a printer's error in my notes in last month's 
' Zoologist ' (p. 396), on Great Black-backed Gull breeding near Killala 
on the Inch, a gravelly island. He has printed " Luck " instead of 
"Inch." — Eobert Warren. 

Notes on the Ornithology of Richmond Park, Surrey. — On Good 
Friday afternoon (April 17th) of this year I saw on the larger of the 
Penn Ponds, Eichmond Park, a party of four Shovelers (two pairs), 
and had the rare pleasure of watching these beautiful ducks for some 
time. As they kept well out in the middle of the water I was not 
sure of their species till, through the kind loan of a pair of field- 
glasses, I had a splendid view of them. For the most part they were 
merely resting with their heads under wing, only now and then 
rousing up sufficiently to paddle forward a few yards, and then 
resume their nap. On the Sunday they had gone. On Feb. 2nd 
there were some twenty Pochards, nearly all males, on the pond, and 
these had increased, on March 1st, to nearly fifty (all but six of that 
sex). All appeared to have left by the 22nd, but, singularly enough, 
a week later I found a solitary drake swimming about close to the 
plantation ; in a few days this, too, had left. On March 22nd I was 
pleased to see no fewer than three pairs of the Great Crested Grebe 
on the large pond ; they were very restless and pugnacious, and 
appeared now at one end and now in a remarkably short time quite 
at the other end, though keeping mostly in couples. On the same 
day there was a Dabchick there, perhaps the same which I had 
previously seen (Feb. 9th). This is the first year I have seen this 
latter species in the Park, though I think it has been seen (a solitary 
bird) by a keeper about this time in previous years. By March 29th 
there was only the one pair of Grebes, showing off to each other, and 
I saw the one once or twice bring up some weed in its diving, and 
carry it to its mate, though I did not observe that this was taken to 
the nest. On Good Friday the birds were busy building, and the 
nest was quite noticeable. I suppose that it must have been robbed, 
as soon afterwards both birds and nest had disappeared. I am glad 
to see that the Eeed-Bunting seems to have established itself now 
about the east end of the ponds, where I had a good view of the male 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 433 

on several occasions this spring. Even in February I once or twice 
came across one, I think a female, in some rushy ground ; I have not 
before this year found it in the Park, though it is often plentiful on 
Wimbledon Common in winter. There is also a nice little colony of 
Tree- Sparrows here now ; I often saw four or five together, and there 
are no doubt more. They seemed very fond of the young osiers, &c, 
at the east end, as did other birds ; one Sunday afternoon in par- 
ticular, at the beginning of June, this spot seemed alive with small 
birds of nearly a dozen species. The Wryneck was constantly heard 
here, and the Nuthatch several times. This last seemed to me more 
numerous last summer in the Park, being constantly seen and heard 
all over it in different places. The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is 
almost always to be heard here, especially near the west end of the 
ponds, but I have not often noted the Greater species. This year I 
saw it or heard it several times ; I suppose it probably breeds, as it is 
a very shy species, and not easily seen. I did not know till this year 
that the Whinchat was a mimic, but on May 31st one by Penn Ponds 
was performing wonderfully in this way ; it reproduced the song of 
a Garden -Warbler and previously some notes of a Nightingale in a 
way which quite deceived me for the moment, though it was perched 
at the time in a young tree close by, and some distance from any 
plantation. Afterwards it reverted to its usual strain, which it 
always seems capable of varying a good deal. Another (or possibly 
the same bird), on the other side of the ponds, had shortly before re- 
produced the ordinary call of the Eedshank so exactly that, though 
there were people walking about all round the ponds at that time, 
and it seemed very unlikely there could be one of the latter species 
about, it was some time before I could feel sure the note came from the 
Whinchat. This last bird was singing incessantly, and every now 
and then fluttering up from the bracken and off to some little dis- 
tance, singing the while, rather after the style of the Whitethroat. A 
week later (June 7th) I found its nest under a slight tuft of grass, 
with five or six young a day or two old. This seemed quick work, as 
I saw no Whinchats at all till April 29th, and not till some few days 
later here. A nest of young Wheatears was found down a rabbit- 
burrow near by on May 31st. On May 10th two Wrynecks were seen 
pairing, but the nest was not found. — H. G. Atleb (Caversham, 
Oxon). 

[Mr. Mouritz recorded the presence of the Dabchick on the larger 
pond (Zool. 1905, p. 350), and also the probability of the Reed- 
Bunting breeding near the east corner of the smaller pond (loc. cit. 
p. 349).— Ed.] 

Zool 4th ser. vol. XII., November, I90S. 2 l 



434 THE ZOOLOGIST. 



INSECTA. 



Abundance of Crane-flies at Yarmouth. — To me the most interesting 
phenomenon obtaining in this neighbourhood in September (irrespective 
of the invasion of Godwits, ante, p. 395) was the appearance of immense 
numbers of the Common Crane-fly (Tipula oleracea), or "Daddy-Long- 
legs," a harmless enough insect in itself, but whose larva, known as 
the notorious " Leather-jacket," is a most destructive creature. For 
two or three weeks their numbers were legion — they must have 
mustered in millions ; they swarmed the rank marsh-grasses like 
locusts, and hung in bunches on the taller grasses topping Breydon 
walls for miles, until they looked like over-ripe reed-tufts in late 
autumn bursting with ripening seeds ; they flew up in clouds as one 
brushed through the rank grasses. They were courting in the earlier 
part of the month, and were utterly oblivious to everything around 
them, and later on the females were depositing their eggs by the 
thousand in among the root-grasses, when those remaining upon the 
elevated grasses were mostly males. I was much interested in 
watching the seemingly much- weakened females which had deposited 
their eggs — some one hundred and fifty to two hundred in number, I 
roughly calculated in individuals — which were black and bean-shaped. 
They flew, or rather were wafted along listles